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1.
Ethn Health ; 6(2): 121-8, 2001 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11480960

RESUMO

AIM: To examine socio-economic differences in mortality of South Asian and West Indian migrants. DESIGN: ONS Longitudinal Study, a 1% sample of the population of England and Wales. PARTICIPANTS: First generation South Asian and West Indian migrants present at the 1971 and 1981 censuses, aged under 65 years in 1981, were classified by occupational class, access to cars, housing, and a deprivation score. OUTCOME MEASURES: Relative risks of mortality, 1981-1997. RESULTS: There was considerable upward social mobility but most people remained socially stable, mainly relatively disadvantaged compared to all other study members. High levels of owner occupied housing among South Asians at both censuses were an exception. Socio-economic differentials in mortality were significant with car access in 1981 (relative risk 1.32, 95% confdence interval 1.03-1.70), and housing (rented vs owner occupied relative risk 1.50, 95% confidence interval 1.08-2.08) among South Asians and, among West Indians with car access in 1981 (relative risk 1.43, 95% confidence interval 1.05-1.94). Mortality was not significantly associated with socioeconomic circumstances in 1971. CONCLUSION: The disparity between those who remained advantaged or who moved up, and those who remained persistently disadvantaged, would have been a factor underlying the stronger differentials by later socio-economic circumstances. As these migrants age an increase in health inequalities could be expected.


Assuntos
Mortalidade/tendências , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Migrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Ásia Sudeste/etnologia , Censos , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vigilância da População , Medição de Risco , País de Gales/epidemiologia , Índias Ocidentais/etnologia
3.
Ethn Health ; 5(1): 41-6, 2000 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-10858938

RESUMO

AIM: To examine limiting long-term illness among ethnic groups born in the UK. DESIGN: Study members in the ONS Longitudinal Study, a representative 1% sample of England and Wales, present at the 1991 Census were examined. Socio-economic position was measured using housing tenure and access to cars. MAIN RESULTS: Black Caribbeans, Black Africans, Indians, Pakistanis and Bangladeshis reported more limiting long-term illness than whites, and the Chinese less. The level was higher among Black Africans than Black Caribbeans, even after adjustment for socio-economic position. Corresponding patterns were seen across the generations for all groups except Black Africans. Black Africans born in the UK reported more limiting long-term illness than did those born in Africa. Adjusting for socio-economic position lowered the risks in every group except Indians. The effect was strongest for Black Caribbeans, among whom adjustment removed the higher risks, and Bangladeshis, among whom the higher risks were no longer significant. CONCLUSION: For South Asians and Black Caribbeans poor health persisted across generations, and for Black Africans health worsened. There are over 1.5 million second- and third-generation migrants in these ethnic groups, but little is known about the consequences of having a multigenerational identity.


Assuntos
Emigração e Imigração , Grupos Étnicos , Nível de Saúde , África/etnologia , Bangladesh/etnologia , Região do Caribe/etnologia , China/etnologia , Humanos , Índia/etnologia , Paquistão/etnologia , Classe Social , Fatores de Tempo , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
4.
Ethn Health ; 4(1-2): 93-9, 1999.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-10887465

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine mortality from cirrhosis of the liver and primary liver cancer among first generation migrants to England and Wales. DESIGN: Comparison of standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) for cirrhosis of the liver and primary liver cancer in men and women aged 20-69, by country of birth for the five year period 1988-1992. SETTING: England and Wales. RESULTS: There was a statistically significant two-fold excess of mortality from cirrhosis of the liver among male migrants from East Africa (SMR 286), India (SMR 261) and Bangladesh (SMR 254) as well as men born in Scotland (SMR 253) and Ireland (SMR252). Among women, only those born in Scotland (SMR 254) and Ireland (SMR 237) showed significant excess mortality. For liver cancer, significant excess mortality occurred among men born in the Caribbean (SMR 312), Bangladesh (910) and the African Commonwealth other than East Africa (1014), with Scottish and Irish born men showing more moderate excesses (136 and 170, respectively). SMRs were elevated also in all groups of foreign-born women but, probably owing to the small numbers of deaths, none of the findings reached statistical significance. CONCLUSIONS: Of public health concern is the excess mortality from cirrhosis in first generation immigrants to England and Wales from Scotland and Ireland (men and women) and in male migrants from India, Bangladesh and East Africa. Of equal concern is increased mortality from liver cancer in all foreign-born groups of both sexes, particularly among Bangladeshis, and African-Caribbeans. As well as promoting sensible drinking among immigrant men, specific preventive measures for those of Bangladeshi, African-Caribbean origin may include selective screening for hepatitis B and C and other tumour markers. Screening for liver cancer using imaging techniques needs further investigation. The benefit/cost ratio should be assessed by the Screening Committees of the UK Departments of Health. At local level, variation in incidence and prevalence of hepatic disease and feasible prevention programmes should be assessed within developing health improvement programmes.


Assuntos
Cirrose Hepática/etnologia , Cirrose Hepática/mortalidade , Neoplasias Hepáticas/etnologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/mortalidade , Migrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/etnologia , Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/mortalidade , Ductos Biliares Intra-Hepáticos , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , País de Gales/epidemiologia
6.
Ethn Health ; 3(1/2): 55-8, 1998. tab
Artigo em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-581

RESUMO

Focuses on trends from deaths attributed to diabetes in England and Wales among those born in the Indian subcontinent and the Caribbean Commonwealth. Increase in deaths from diabetes in 1980; Emphasis on the management of diabetes that has shifted from secondary to primary care.(AU)


Assuntos
Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Diabetes Mellitus/etnologia , Diabetes Mellitus/mortalidade , Ásia Ocidental/etnologia , Região do Caribe/etnologia , Inglaterra/etnologia , Mortalidade/tendências , Prevalência , País de Gales/etnologia
7.
Ethn Health ; 2(1-2): 5-12, 1997.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-9395584

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the patterns of mortality among Bangladeshis living in England and Wales. METHODS: An analysis of national mortality data, classified by country of birth, for the latest period (1988-1992), using the method of indirect standardization for deriving standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) with the age- and sex-specific rates for England and Wales as the standard (= 100). The SMRs were derived for Bangladeshi-born men and women aged 20-69 years for major disease entities. RESULTS: The mortality among Bangladeshi men was significantly higher (SMR 118 and 95% CI 111-126) than the levels prevalent in England and Wales. In contrast, the mortality among Bangladeshi women was significantly lower (SMR 71 and 95% CI 61-82). The cancer mortality overall was lower than expected in both sexes, with the exception of cancer of the liver and gall bladder. The mortality from breast cancer (SMR 16 and 95% CI 6-34) and cervical cancer (SMR 51 and 95% CI 14-131) was lower than expected. Bangladeshi men experienced high mortality from diabetes (SMR 685 and 95% CI 529-874), coronary heart disease (SMR 148 and 95% CI 134-163) and cerebrovascular disease (SMR 267 and 95% CI 222-319); they also experienced excess deaths from cirrhosis of the liver (SMR 254 and 95% CI 175-357). CONCLUSIONS: The findings establish significant variations in the recent health experiences of Bangladeshi men living in England and Wales, posing a major challenge for purchasers of care. If the Health of the Nation strategy is to ensure that equity in health and health care is to apply to all those living in this country, the Bangladeshi population needs special targeting.


Assuntos
Causas de Morte/tendências , Emigração e Imigração , Mortalidade/tendências , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Bangladesh/etnologia , Atestado de Óbito , Emigração e Imigração/estatística & dados numéricos , Emigração e Imigração/tendências , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Feminino , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vigilância da População , Distribuição por Sexo , País de Gales/epidemiologia
8.
BMJ ; 312(7043): 1389-92, 1996 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-8646095

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the mortality of second generation Irish living in England and Wales. DESIGN: Longitudinal study of 1% of the population of England and Wales (longitudinal study by the Office of Population Censuses and Surveys (now the Office for National Statistics)) followed up from 1971 to 1989. SUBJECTS: 3075 men and 3233 women aged 15 and over in 1971. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Age and sex specific standardised mortality ratios for all causes, cancers, coronary heart disease, cerebrovascular diseases, respiratory diseases, and injuries and poisonings. Deaths were also analysed by socioeconomic indicators. RESULTS: 786 deaths were traced to men and 762 to women. At working ages (men, aged 15-64; women, 15-59) the mortality of men (standardised mortality ratio 126) and women (129) was significantly higher than that of all men and all women. At ages 15-44, relative disadvantages were even greater both for men (145) and for women (164). Mortality was raised for most major causes of death. Significant excess mortality from cancers was seen for men of working age (132) and for women aged 60 and over (122). At working ages mortality of the second generation Irish in every social class and in the categories of car access and housing tenure was higher than that of all men and all women in the corresponding categories. Adjusting for these socioeconomic indicators did not explain the excess mortality. CONCLUSION: Mortality of second generation Irish men and women was higher than that of all men and all women and for most major causes of death. While socioeconomic factors remain important, cultural and lifestyle factors are likely to contribute to this adverse mortality.


Assuntos
Mortalidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Causas de Morte , Emigração e Imigração , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Irlanda/etnologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Irlanda do Norte/etnologia , Fatores Sexuais , Classe Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Taxa de Sobrevida , Fatores de Tempo , País de Gales/epidemiologia
10.
Health Trends ; 27(4): 114-9, 1995.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-10162321

RESUMO

The variations in the Health of the Nation (HoN) key areas among ethnic minorities living in England and Wales are examined, based on a national mortality study by country of birth for the latest possible period (1988-1992). It addresses the 10 mortality indicators in the HoN White Paper (covering coronary heart disease [CHD] and stroke, cancers, mental illness and accidents), using age-standardised rates adjusted to the European Standard Population. The findings establish variations in the recent health experience of ethnic minorities born outside England and Wales who are now living in England and Wales. CHD among persons aged under 65 years was highest in those born in the Indian Subcontinent, 55% above the normal rate in England and Wales. Caribbeans, and African groups experienced the lowest rates. Stroke mortality under 65 years-of-age was highest in Bangladeshis, followed by other Commonwealth Africans, and then by Caribbeans. Patterns of cancer deaths also varied, with breast cancer mortality rates being lower in all ethnic groups, and lowest in those born in the Indian Subcontinent. By contrast, lung cancer deaths were higher in Irish men and women; lung cancer mortality among Bangladeshi men was significantly higher than Indians and Pakistanis, being only 15% less than that of the rates in England and Wales. Suicides were lowest in Bangladeshis and Pakistanis and highest among Indians and the Irish. Accidental deaths in children were highest in Pakistanis followed by the Irish, who also experienced higher rates among young persons. It is suggested that the HoN strategy should consider setting appropriate and achievable targets, including ones in new areas of relevance to these groups. The National Health Service purchaser/provider framework should respond to the needs of its populations, including ethnic groups.


Assuntos
Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Mortalidade , Saúde Pública/estatística & dados numéricos , Acidentes/mortalidade , Adolescente , Adulto , África/etnologia , Idoso , Ásia/etnologia , Região do Caribe/etnologia , Causas de Morte , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/etnologia , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/mortalidade , Criança , Doença das Coronárias/etnologia , Doença das Coronárias/mortalidade , Emigração e Imigração/estatística & dados numéricos , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Feminino , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/etnologia , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Suicídio/etnologia , País de Gales/epidemiologia
11.
BMJ ; 309(6950): 287-8, 1994 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-8086865
12.
Br J Psychiatry ; 161: 365-8, 1992 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-1393306

RESUMO

Suicide levels in England and Wales during 1979-83 were low among males from the Indian subcontinent (SMR 73) and significantly high in young Indian women (age-specific ratios 273 and 160 at ages 15-24 and 25-34 respectively). Suicide levels were low in Caribbeans (SMRs 81 and 62 in men and women respectively) and high in East Africans (SMRs 128 and 148 in men and women respectively). The excess in East Africans (most of whom are of Indian origin) was largely confined to younger ages. Immigrant groups had significantly higher rates of suicide by burning, with a ninefold excess among women of Indian origin. The pressures leading to higher suicide levels among young women of Indian origin highlight the need for making appropriate forms of support and counselling available to this community.


Assuntos
Queimaduras/epidemiologia , Emigração e Imigração , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/epidemiologia , Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , África Oriental/etnologia , Fatores Etários , Queimaduras/mortalidade , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Índia/etnologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/mortalidade , Fatores Sexuais , País de Gales/epidemiologia , Índias Ocidentais/etnologia
13.
BMJ ; 304(6826): 529-34, 1992 Feb 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-1510751

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To examine general practitioner consultations by demographic and socioeconomic variables and to derive a method of measuring the impact of relative deprivation on general practitioner workload. DESIGN: The study was based on general practitioner consultations reported in the general household surveys of 1983-7, covering a sample of 129,987 individuals in Great Britain. Odds ratios for general practitioner consultations were obtained for selected variables among children (0-15 years), men (16-64), women (16-64), and elderly people (greater than or equal to 65). These were then used to derive deprivation indices specific to electoral wards for use in general practice. SETTING: Great Britain, with particular findings illustrated by English electoral wards and the conurbations of London, Manchester, Merseyside, and the West Midlands. RESULTS: Council tenure increased the likelihood of consultation significantly in all four groups. Odds ratios were raised in children, men, and women with no access to a car. Birth in the New Commonwealth or Pakistan yielded high odds ratios in men, women, and elderly people but not in children. Marginally increased consultation rates were evident in the manual socioeconomic groups in women, elderly people, and children with a single parent mother. The deprivation indices for general practice derived using these odds ratios varied substantially among English electoral wards with, for example, anticipated general practitioner consultations in the electoral ward of Hulme, Manchester, being 24% higher than the average ward in England as a result of local attributes, and consultations in the Cheam South ward of Sutton, London, 11% lower than average. CONCLUSION: This deprivation index for general practice overcomes several shortcomings expressed about the underprivileged area score, which has been adopted in the 1990 contract as a basis for allocating deprivation supplements to general practitioners. The proposed index can be applied nationwide.


Assuntos
Medicina de Família e Comunidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Carga de Trabalho/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Inglaterra , Feminino , Habitação , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Paquistão/etnologia , Pais Solteiros , Fatores Socioeconômicos
15.
BMJ ; 302(6776): 560-4, 1991 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-2021718

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine mortality from ischaemic heart disease and cerebrovascular disease in England and Wales by country of birth of the deceased. DESIGN: Standardised mortality ratios were computed by country of birth groups for ischaemic heart disease and cerebrovascular disease for 1979-83 and 1970-2 by using the five year age-sex specific rates for England and Wales for 1979-83 as standard. SETTING: England and Wales 1970-2 and 1979-83. RESULTS: In 1979-83 mortality from ischaemic heart disease was highest in men and women born in the Indian subcontinent (standardised mortality ratio 136 and 146 respectively). Young Indian men suffered the greatest excess (313 at ages 20-29). Other groups with raised mortality included Irish, Scottish, and Polish born immigrants. Those born in the Caribbean, the old Commonwealth, west Europe, and the United States had low death rates. In England and Wales mortality from ischaemic heart disease declined by 5% in men and 1% in women between 1970-2 and 1979-83, with greatest percentage declines in immigrants born in the United States, South Africa, the old Commonwealth, the Caribbean, and France. immigrant groups with raised mortality in the earlier period showed little improvement, and mortality from ischaemic heart disease increased among Indians (6% in men and 13% in women). In 1979-83 mortality from cerebrovascular disease was highest in Caribbeans (standardised mortality ratios 176 in men and 210 in women), followed by Africans, Indians, and Irish. Rates were low in west Europeans. Mortality from stroke declined by 28% overall in this period, a rate of decline shared by most groups. Men from the Indian subcontinent showed a decline of only 3%. CONCLUSION: In the 1980s mortality from ischaemic heart disease and cerebrovascular disease differed significantly between ethnic groups in England and Wales. In general, ethnic groups that experienced lower mortality from ischaemic heart disease in the 1970s showed the greatest improvement over the following decade.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/mortalidade , Doença das Coronárias/mortalidade , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/etnologia , Doença das Coronárias/etnologia , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Inglaterra/etnologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Sexuais , País de Gales/epidemiologia , País de Gales/etnologia
16.
Health Trends ; 23(3): 90-3, 1991.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-10119949

RESUMO

This study examined ethnic differences in the levels of inpatient admission and outpatient attendance in Great Britain using the latest national data available from the General Household Surveys of 1983-87. Inpatient admissions in immigrants (Indian, Pakistani and West Indian) did not differ significantly from whites, except for a marked excess in Pakistani women of childbearing ages. The pattern was quite different for outpatient attendance, with immigrant children and young adults having lower attendance rates than whites, and middle-aged immigrant adults showing higher rates. Levels of hospital-based care among immigrant groups may be lower than expected. As monitoring of the health status of ethnic groups, and their use of services, receives increasing recognition, it is important that information on ethnic origin is included in routine health information systems.


Assuntos
Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitais/estatística & dados numéricos , Coleta de Dados , Feminino , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Índia/etnologia , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Ambulatório Hospitalar/estatística & dados numéricos , Paquistão/etnologia , Admissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Análise de Regressão , Medicina Estatal/estatística & dados numéricos , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Índias Ocidentais/etnologia
17.
Indian J Pediatr ; 57(4): 551-62, 1990.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-2286408

RESUMO

Perinatal and postneonatal mortality among immigrants to England and Wales from India, Pakistan and Bangladesh (Asians) for the years 1982-85 showed significant differences not only between the immigrant and indigenous populations, but also among the different groups from the Indian subcontinent. Compared with the perinatal mortality rate of 10.1 per 1000 total births in UK born mothers, rates in infants of mothers born in India, Bangladesh, and Pakistan were 12.5, 14.3 and 18.8 respectively. In contrast, postneonatal mortality in infants of Indian and Bangladeshi origin (3.9 and 2.8 per 1000 live births respectively) was lower than in the indigenous population (4.1), with Pakistani infants experiencing the highest rate (6.4). Excess perinatal mortality in infants of Asian origin was apparent at most maternal ages and parities. Pakistani infants had the highest rates of perinatal and postneonatal mortality in all age, parity and birth weight groups. The Asian groups showed higher mortality from congenital anomalies in both the perinatal and the postneonatal period, the rates in Pakistani infants being almost double those in Indian and Bangladeshi infants. A significant finding was the lower rates of sudden infant death in all the groups of Asian origin.


Assuntos
Morte Fetal , Mortalidade Infantil , Bangladesh/etnologia , Emigração e Imigração , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Humanos , Índia/etnologia , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Paquistão/etnologia , País de Gales/epidemiologia
18.
Public Health ; 104(1): 65-71, 1990 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-2359822

RESUMO

Socioeconomic differences in self-reported chronic and acute illness were investigated in men and women using data from the General Household Surveys (1981-4). Logit models were used to investigate the influence of age, socioeconomic group, tenure, access to cars, area of residence and marital status on these measures of morbidity. For both measures local authority tenants, whether male or female, reported the most morbidity as did those with no access to cars. Both males and females reported increasing levels of illness the lower their socioeconomic group but similar patterns were not observed with acute illness. The significance of these present day inequalities is discussed.


Assuntos
Demografia , Nível de Saúde , Morbidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Automóveis , Feminino , Habitação , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade , Classe Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Reino Unido
19.
Br J Psychiatry ; 156: 46-50, 1990 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-2297619

RESUMO

Suicides in England and Wales among immigrants of Indian ethnic origin were analysed for the period 1970-78. There were excess suicides among young Indian women, these being disproportionately more among the married. Burning was a common method of suicide among Indian women. Suicide rates were low in Indian men and the Indian elderly. A large proportion of the male suicides were among doctors and dentists.


Assuntos
Comparação Transcultural , Emigração e Imigração , Suicídio/tendências , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Causas de Morte , Estudos Transversais , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Feminino , Identidade de Gênero , Humanos , Incidência , Índia/etnologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Suicídio/psicologia , País de Gales/epidemiologia
20.
J Epidemiol Community Health ; 43(4): 385-90, 1989 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-2614331

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to investigate differences in reported health and health service use in single mothers. DESIGN: The study was a survey of data derived from the General Household Surveys conducted by the Office of Population Censuses and Surveys (OPCS). SETTING: The OPCS data are derived from samples of households throughout Great Britain. PARTICIPANTS: OPCS data for 1983 and 1984 were used, comprising approximately 60,000 individuals, of whom 793 were single mothers. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Five different health outcomes were examined, two on perceived morbidity and three on the use of health services. The chief determinants of health and health services use among single mothers were housing tenure, employment status and the age of the youngest child. Single mother status did not consistently contribute to self reported morbidity and uptake of care when adjusted for other social variables, but there was a difference between categories of single mother, with those who were separated/divorced and those who were widowed reporting more acute illness than those who were married. CONCLUSION: The findings suggest that single mothers do not form a homogeneous group and that, if special consideration is to be given to them when planning and allocating health service resources, this needs to be taken into account in the context of other socioeconomic factors.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Nível de Saúde , Mães , Pais Solteiros , Adolescente , Adulto , Emprego , Feminino , Humanos , Casamento , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Morbidade , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Reino Unido
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