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1.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(10): 616, 2019 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31493130

RESUMO

This study is the first meta-regression analysis of the economic value of regulating ecosystem services at the global level. Most of the regulating ecosystem services have not been properly estimated in terms of economic value and are also ignored in the everyday decision-making process. This study has reviewed 100 publications and included 275 economic value estimates. This study includes explanatory variables in the meta-analysis to account for these influences on the estimated economic value of regulating ecosystem services. This study has estimated the economic value of regulating ecosystem services at US$29.085 trillion for 2015. This study also has found that the values of climate and water regulations are the highest contributors to the total value of regulating ecosystem services. This study indicates that the results of meta-analysis might be helpful to decision-making with respect to three aspects: first, planning and management of urban green cover for sustainable cities; second, integration of the economic value of all the regulating ecosystem services; third, budget allocation for conservation and improvement of regulating ecosystem services for the present and future generations.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/economia , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/legislação & jurisprudência , Ecossistema , Planejamento de Cidades/economia , Clima , Custos e Análise de Custo , Tomada de Decisões , Monitoramento Ambiental/economia , Recursos Hídricos
3.
Br Dent J ; 225(2): 119-122, 2018 07 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30050220

RESUMO

As we debate shaping the future oral health workforce within the UK, to meet the needs of current and future populations, it is helpful to take an international perspective on this very important issue. Globally, there is a strong recognition that human resources for health (HRH) are fundamentally important to deliver effective care, accessible to all people. This paper reviews the outcome of the fourth global forum held by the World Health Organisation (WHO) in Dublin which highlighted the urgency for action. The main objectives of the forum were to advance the implementation of (i) the WHO Global Strategy on HRH 2030 and (ii) the United Nations High-Level Commission's Health Employment and Economic Growth recommendations. From an oral health perspective, the global burden of oral disease remains huge with untreated dental caries, periodontal disease and tooth loss ranking among the most prevalent conditions worldwide. Major considerations are how dental education, practice delivery and/or oral health systems as a whole could and should innovate to accommodate the growing needs of the population. As dental professionals, it also becomes necessary for us to engage and play a proactive role in this change process. Due to growing differences between population needs and available services, it is necessary for oral health personnel to work more closely with the broader health workforce so as to identify solutions that are in the best interests of the patients and populations at large.


Assuntos
Odontologia , Mão de Obra em Saúde , Defesa do Paciente , Ativismo Político , Congressos como Assunto , Reino Unido , Organização Mundial da Saúde
4.
Mol Genet Metab Rep ; 15: 69-70, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29744303

RESUMO

We discuss two adult siblings who presented with symptoms of myalgia and rhabdomyolysis following exercise with myoglobinuria; genetic testing confirmed carnitine palmitoyltransferase II deficiency and resulted in institution of appropriate crisis management and dietary advice. We explore the phenotypic variability of this commonest fatty oxidation defect that remains under-diagnosed in the adult population and provide clues for early recognition and diagnosis.

5.
Mol Cell Biochem ; 449(1-2): 27-37, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29479636

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antioxidant and chemopreventive efficiency of diosmin against N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA)-induced hepatocarcinogenesis in adult male rats. Rats were classified into four groups as follows: Group I: Control, Group II: NDEA-induced hepatocellular carcinogenic rats, Group III: Cancer-bearing animals treated with diosmin (200 mg/kg/body weight/day) orally for 28 days, Group IV: Control animals treated with diosmin (200 mg/kg/body weight/day) alone for 28 days. The model of NDEA-induced HCC rats elicited significant increases in alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), lipid peroxidation (LPO) and increase in anti-apoptotic proteins (Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and Mcl-1) with a concomitant significant decline in liver antioxidant enzymes, pro-apoptotic (Bax and Bad) and caspase-3 &-9 proteins. The oral administration of diosmin as a protective agent normalized the altered levels of AFP, LPO, antioxidant enzymes, pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins as well as caspase-3 and -9 proteins. Transmission electron microscopical studies also revealed that treatment of diosmin has a perspective anti-cancer activity by rearranging hepatic cell structure and its integrity. Results of this study suggest that diosmin may be one of a pharmacological and therapeutic representative against hepatocellular carcinoma.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Dietilnitrosamina/toxicidade , Diosmina/farmacologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas Experimentais , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/induzido quimicamente , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias Hepáticas Experimentais/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias Hepáticas Experimentais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas Experimentais/patologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas Experimentais/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Proteínas de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
6.
Aust Dent J ; 63(2): 156-162, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29369369

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study evaluated the associations between oral and general health behaviours, self-reported health and quality of life of adults aged 75 years or older living independently in South Australia. METHODS: A cross sectional study based on a self-report mailed questionnaire was conducted in 590 independently living adults aged 75 years or older. Self-ratings of oral health and general health were assessed using single-item global ratings. Quality of life was measured using the Oral Health Impact Profile and the EuroQol instrument for health utility. RESULTS: The overall response rate was 78%. The current analyses were restricted to 354 dentate older adults. Increasing age and being female were negatively associated with EuroQol scores. Good self-rated oral and general health were more prevalent in participants with higher social status who also had lower oral health impact and higher EuroQol scores. Good self-rated oral and general health were less prevalent while oral health impact was greater in participants who ate few fruits, vegetables or dairy products. CONCLUSIONS: Self-rated health and quality of life were poor in older adults with inadequate fruit/vegetables/dairy intake and lower social status. These findings suggest that nutrition and socioeconomic factors may be important to the oral and general health of adults aged 75 years or older.


Assuntos
Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Nível de Saúde , Qualidade de Vida , Autorrelato , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Envelhecimento , Austrália , Estudos Transversais , Laticínios , Feminino , Frutas , Humanos , Vida Independente , Masculino , Saúde Bucal , Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Austrália do Sul/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Verduras
7.
J Dent Res ; 96(8): 864-874, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28581891

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to verify whether oral conditions (tooth loss, periodontal disease, dental caries) are negatively associated with health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in adults. A search was carried out on PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, Scopus, SciELO, and LILACS databases until the end of July 2016 with no date restrictions. Quantitative observational studies written in English were included and data extraction was performed independently by 2 reviewers. HRQoL was investigated as the outcome, and tooth loss, periodontal diseases, and dental caries were exposures. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines were used and the quality of the selected studies was assessed by using the Joanna Briggs Institute Meta-Analysis of Statistics assessment and review instrument (JBI-MAStARI). Twenty-one studies were included. The sample sizes ranged from 88 to 15,501 subjects; 20 studies were cross-sectional designs, while 1 was a case-control study. Case definitions of the exposures were different across the studies, mainly for tooth loss, which was defined according to 11 different criteria. Fifteen studies were of "high" and 6 of "medium" quality. Eight HRQoL instruments were identified, and the most frequent was the EuroQol ( n = 8). Ten of 16 studies reported a negative impact of tooth loss on HRQoL. Four of 7 studies reported that periodontal disease impairs HRQoL, and 1 study showed that periodontal disease is positively associated with HRQoL. All studies that assessed dental caries reported a negative association between this condition and HRQoL. Despite the different definitions and measures of tooth loss and dental caries, the majority of the available evidence reported a negative impact of these conditions on HRQoL. Mixed and inconclusive findings were observed for the association between periodontal disease and HRQoL. Longitudinal prospective studies are suggested to improve the strength of the findings.


Assuntos
Doenças da Boca/complicações , Qualidade de Vida , Humanos
8.
J Med Genet ; 54(8): 537-543, 2017 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28100473

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bainbridge-Ropers syndrome (BRPS) is a recently described developmental disorder caused by de novo truncating mutations in the additional sex combs like 3 (ASXL3) gene. To date, there have been fewer than 10 reported patients. OBJECTIVES: Here, we delineate the BRPS phenotype further by describing a series of 12 previously unreported patients identified by the Deciphering Developmental Disorders study. METHODS: Trio-based exome sequencing was performed on all 12 patients included in this study, which found a de novo truncating mutation in ASXL3. Detailed phenotypic information and patient images were collected and summarised as part of this study. RESULTS: By obtaining genotype:phenotype data, we have been able to demonstrate a second mutation cluster region within ASXL3. This report expands the phenotype of older patients with BRPS; common emerging features include severe intellectual disability (11/12), poor/ absent speech (12/12), autistic traits (9/12), distinct face (arched eyebrows, prominent forehead, high-arched palate, hypertelorism and downslanting palpebral fissures), (9/12), hypotonia (11/12) and significant feeding difficulties (9/12) when young. DISCUSSION: Similarities in the patients reported previously in comparison with this cohort included their distinctive craniofacial features, feeding problems, absent/limited speech and intellectual disability. Shared behavioural phenotypes include autistic traits, hand-flapping, rocking, aggressive behaviour and sleep disturbance. CONCLUSIONS: This series expands the phenotypic spectrum of this severe disorder and highlights its surprisingly high frequency. With the advent of advanced genomic screening, we are likely to identify more variants in this gene presenting with a variable phenotype, which this study will explore.


Assuntos
Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/patologia , Mutação com Perda de Função/genética , Fenótipo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma , Adulto Jovem
9.
J Med Genet ; 54(3): 157-165, 2017 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27738187

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In 1993, Chitayat et al., reported a newborn with hyperphalangism, facial anomalies, and bronchomalacia. We identified three additional families with similar findings. Features include bilateral accessory phalanx resulting in shortened index fingers; hallux valgus; distinctive face; respiratory compromise. OBJECTIVES: To identify the genetic aetiology of Chitayat syndrome and identify a unifying cause for this specific form of hyperphalangism. METHODS: Through ongoing collaboration, we had collected patients with strikingly-similar phenotype. Trio-based exome sequencing was first performed in Patient 2 through Deciphering Developmental Disorders study. Proband-only exome sequencing had previously been independently performed in Patient 4. Following identification of a candidate gene variant in Patient 2, the same variant was subsequently confirmed from exome data in Patient 4. Sanger sequencing was used to validate this variant in Patients 1, 3; confirm paternal inheritance in Patient 5. RESULTS: A recurrent, novel variant NM_006494.2:c.266A>G p.(Tyr89Cys) in ERF was identified in five affected individuals: de novo (patient 1, 2 and 3) and inherited from an affected father (patient 4 and 5). p.Tyr89Cys is an aromatic polar neutral to polar neutral amino acid substitution, at a highly conserved position and lies within the functionally important ETS-domain of the protein. The recurrent ERF c.266A>C p.(Tyr89Cys) variant causes Chitayat syndrome. DISCUSSION: ERF variants have previously been associated with complex craniosynostosis. In contrast, none of the patients with the c.266A>G p.(Tyr89Cys) variant have craniosynostosis. CONCLUSIONS: We report the molecular aetiology of Chitayat syndrome and discuss potential mechanisms for this distinctive phenotype associated with the p.Tyr89Cys substitution in ERF.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Síndrome de Dandy-Walker/genética , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Ossos Faciais/anormalidades , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Anormalidades Múltiplas/fisiopatologia , Broncomalácia/genética , Broncomalácia/fisiopatologia , Síndrome de Dandy-Walker/fisiopatologia , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/fisiopatologia , Exoma/genética , Face/fisiopatologia , Ossos Faciais/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Hallux Valgus/genética , Hallux Valgus/fisiopatologia , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Fenótipo
10.
Bone ; 94: 65-74, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27789416

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI), the commonest inherited bone fragility disorder, affects 1 in 15,000 live births resulting in frequent fractures and reduced mobility, with significant impact on quality of life. Early diagnosis is important, as therapeutic advances can lead to improved clinical outcome and patient benefit. REPORT: Whole exome sequencing in patients with OI identified, in two patients with a multi-system phenotype, compound heterozygous variants in NBAS (neuroblastoma amplified sequence). Patient 1: NBAS c.5741G>A p.(Arg1914His); c.3010C>T p.(Arg1004*) in a 10-year old boy with significant short stature, bone fragility requiring treatment with bisphosphonates, developmental delay and immunodeficiency. Patient 2: NBAS c.5741G>A p.(Arg1914His); c.2032C>T p.(Gln678*) in a 5-year old boy with similar presenting features, bone fragility, mild developmental delay, abnormal liver function tests and immunodeficiency. DISCUSSION: Homozygous missense NBAS variants cause SOPH syndrome (short stature; optic atrophy; Pelger-Huet anomaly), the same missense variant was found in our patients on one allele and a nonsense variant in the other allele. Recent literature suggests a multi-system phenotype. In this study, patient fibroblasts have shown reduced collagen expression, compared to control cells and RNAseq studies, in bone cells show that NBAS is expressed in osteoblasts and osteocytes of rodents and primates. These findings provide proof-of-concept that NBAS mutations have mechanistic effects in bone, and that NBAS variants are a novel cause of bone fragility, which is distinguishable from 'Classical' OI. CONCLUSIONS: Here we report on variants in NBAS, as a cause of bone fragility in humans, and expand the phenotypic spectrum associated with NBAS. We explore the mechanism underlying NBAS and the striking skeletal phenotype in our patients.


Assuntos
Mutação/genética , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Osteogênese Imperfeita/genética , Sequência de Bases , Células Cultivadas , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Fibroblastos/patologia , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Proteínas de Neoplasias/química , Osteogênese Imperfeita/diagnóstico por imagem , Domínios Proteicos , Pele/patologia , Pele/ultraestrutura
11.
Aust Dent J ; 61(3): 298-303, 2016 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27480290

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diagnostic services are the most common area of dental service in Australia. The objective was to investigate differences in services per visit for examinations and radiographs in relation to the characteristics of patients receiving these services in terms of age and gender, aspects of visiting such as dental insurance and reasons for visit, and oral health such as number of teeth and presence of decay. METHODS: A random sample of Australian dentists was surveyed in 2009-2010. Data on diagnostic services and patient characteristics were collected from a service log. RESULTS: A total of 1148 dentists responded (response rate = 67%). Models adjusted for age and gender of patients showed that rates [Rate Ratio, 95% CI] of examinations were higher for insured patients [1.13; 1.06-1.21], while rates of radiographs were higher for emergency visits [1.25; 1.11-1.48]. Patients with 20 or more teeth had higher rates for examinations [1.15; 1.01-1.32] and radiographs [1.28; 1.02-1.60]. Decayed teeth were associated with lower examination rates [0.70; 0.65-0.76] but higher rates of radiographs [1.34; 1.16-1.55]. CONCLUSIONS: The finding that number of teeth was associated with higher rates of examinations and radiographs suggests that retention of teeth could be influencing the increasing rates of diagnostic services in Australia.


Assuntos
Assistência Odontológica/estatística & dados numéricos , Padrões de Prática Odontológica , Odontopatias/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Austrália/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Serviços de Diagnóstico/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Seguro Odontológico/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Radiografia Dentária/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Odontopatias/terapia , Adulto Jovem
12.
Am J Transplant ; 16(10): 2816-2835, 2016 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27273869

RESUMO

The Banff Working Group on Liver Allograft Pathology reviewed and discussed literature evidence regarding antibody-mediated liver allograft rejection at the 11th (Paris, France, June 5-10, 2011), 12th (Comandatuba, Brazil, August 19-23, 2013), and 13th (Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, October 5-10, 2015) meetings of the Banff Conference on Allograft Pathology. Discussion continued online. The primary goal was to introduce guidelines and consensus criteria for the diagnosis of liver allograft antibody-mediated rejection and provide a comprehensive update of all Banff Schema recommendations. Included are new recommendations for complement component 4d tissue staining and interpretation, staging liver allograft fibrosis, and findings related to immunosuppression minimization. In an effort to create a single reference document, previous unchanged criteria are also included.


Assuntos
Rejeição de Enxerto/etiologia , Rejeição de Enxerto/patologia , Isoanticorpos/imunologia , Transplante de Fígado/efeitos adversos , Aloenxertos , Humanos , Relatório de Pesquisa
13.
Ultrastruct Pathol ; 40(2): 71-6, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26863094

RESUMO

Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a heterogeneous group of inherited disorders of bone formation, resulting in low bone mass and an increased propensity to fracture. Over 90% of patients with OI have a mutation in COL1A1/COL1A2, which shows an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance. In-depth phenotyping and in particular, studies involving manifestations in the skin connective tissue have not previously been undertaken in OI. The aims of the study were to perform histological and ultrastructural examination of skin biopsies in a cohort of patients with OI; to identify common and distinguishing features in order to inform genotype-phenotype correlation; and to identify common and distinguishing features between the different subtypes of OI. As part of the RUDY (Rare Diseases in Bone, Joints and/or Blood Vessels) study, in collaboration with the NIHR Rare Diseases Translational Research Collaboration, we undertook a national study of skin biopsies in patients with OI. We studied the manifestations in the skin connective tissue and undertook in-depth clinical and molecular phenotyping of 16 patients with OI. We recruited 16 patients: analyses have shown that in type 1 collagen mutation positive patients (COL1A1/ COL1A2) (n-4/16) consistent findings included: variable collagen fibril diameter (CFD) and presence of collagen flowers. Histological examination in these patients showed an increase in elastic fibers that are frequently fragmented and clumped. These observations provide evidence that collagen flowers and CFD variability are consistent features in OI due to type 1 collagen defects and reinforce the need for accurate phenotyping in conjunction with genomic analyses.


Assuntos
Colágeno Tipo I/genética , Mutação , Osteogênese Imperfeita/genética , Osteogênese Imperfeita/patologia , Pele/ultraestrutura , Adolescente , Biópsia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Colágeno Tipo I/ultraestrutura , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Tecido Elástico/ultraestrutura , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo
14.
J Chem Phys ; 144(6): 064503, 2016 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26874493

RESUMO

We report a detailed study of the local composition and structure of a model, bi-phasic nanoglass with nominal stoichiometry Cu55Nb45. Three dimensional atom probe data suggest a nanoscale-phase-separated glassy structure having well defined Cu-rich and Nb-rich regions with a characteristic length scale of ≈ 3 nm. However, extended x-ray absorption fine structure analysis indicates subtle differences in the local environments of Cu and Nb. While the Cu atoms displayed a strong tendency to cluster and negligible structural order beyond the first coordination shell, the Nb atoms had a larger fraction of unlike neighbors (higher chemical order) and a distinctly better-ordered structural environment (higher topological order). This provides the first experimental indication that metallic glass formation may occur due to frustration arising from the competition between chemical ordering and clustering. These observations are complemented by classical as well as ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. Our study indicates that these nanoscale phase-separated glasses are quite distinct from the single phase nanoglasses (studied by Gleiter and others) in the following three respects: (i) they contain at least two structurally and compositionally distinct, nanodispersed, glassy phases, (ii) these phases are separated by comparatively sharp inter-phase boundaries, and (iii) thermally induced crystallization occurs via a complex, multi-step mechanism. Such materials, therefore, appear to constitute a new class of disordered systems that may be called a composite nanoglass.

15.
Aust Dent J ; 61(2): 174-82, 2016 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26296536

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Migrants occupy a significant proportion of the dental workforce in Australia. The objectives of this study were to assess the level of job satisfaction of employed migrant dentists in Australia, and to examine the association between various migrant dentist characteristics and job satisfaction. METHODS: All migrant dentists resident in Australia were surveyed using a five-point Likert scale that measured specific aspects of job, career and satisfaction with area and type of practice. RESULTS: A total of 1022 migrant dentists responded to this study; 974 (95.4%) were employed. Responses for all scales were skewed towards strongly agree (scores ≥4). The overall scale varied by age group, marital status, years since arrival to Australia and specialist qualification (chi-square, p < 0.05). In a multivariate logistic regression model, there was a trend towards greater satisfaction amongst older age groups. Dentists who migrated through the examination pathway (mainly from low- and middle-income countries) had a lower probability of being satisfied with the area and type of practice (OR = 0.71; 0.51-0.98), compared with direct-entry migrant dentists (from high-income countries). CONCLUSIONS: The high level of job satisfaction of migrant dentists reflects well on their work-related experiences in Australia. The study offers policy suggestions towards support for younger dentists and examination pathway migrants, so they have appropriate skills and standards to fit the Australian health care environment.


Assuntos
Odontólogos/psicologia , Satisfação no Emprego , Migrantes , Adulto , Idoso , Austrália , Feminino , Humanos , Renda , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Carga de Trabalho
16.
Aust Dent J ; 61(3): 350-6, 2016 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26589576

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Treatment patterns for caries have been shown to reflect high rates of restorative services. The objective of this study was to investigate types of restorative treatment provided to patients with a main diagnosis of coronal caries in relation to the severity of the caries lesion. METHODS: A random sample of Australian dentists was surveyed by mailed questionnaires in 2009-2010 (response rate 67%). Data on types of restorative treatment, patient characteristics and main diagnosis were collected from a service log. RESULTS: Models of service rates adjusted for age, gender, insurance status and reason for visit showed that compared to the reference category of initial caries lesions, there were lower rates [Rate Ratio, 95% CI] of adhesive anterior restorative services [0.57, 0.34-0.95] and lower rates of adhesive posterior restorations [0.56, 0.40-0.79] for gross lesions. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment of coronal caries was characterized by high rates of adhesive posterior restorative services, but gross lesions had lower rates of both anterior and posterior adhesive restorations. Types of restorative treatment for coronal caries were similar between initial and cavitated lesions. This could indicate scope for the adoption of more minimum intervention approaches to the management of initial carious lesions.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária/terapia , Restauração Dentária Permanente/estatística & dados numéricos , Padrões de Prática Odontológica , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Austrália , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cárie Dentária/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
Community Dent Health ; 33(3): 225-231, 2016 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28509519

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The integration of qualitative and quantitative approaches introduces new avenues to bridge strengths, and address weaknesses of both methods. OBJECTIVE: To develop measure(s) for migrant dentist experiences in Australia through a mixed methods approach. METHODS: The sequential qualitative-quantitative design involved first the harvesting of data items from qualitative study, followed by a national survey of migrant dentists in Australia. Statements representing unique experiences in migrant dentists' life stories were deployed the survey questionnaire, using a five-point Likert scale. Factor analysis was used to examine component factors. RESULTS : Eighty-two statements from 51 participants were harvested from the qualitative analysis. A total of 1,022 of 1,977 migrant dentists (response rate 54.5%) returned completed questionnaires. Factor analysis supported an initial eight-factor solution; further scale development and reliability analysis led to five scales with a final list of 38 life story experience (LSE) items. Three scales were based on home country events: health system and general lifestyle concerns (LSE1; 10 items), society and culture (LSE4; 4 items) and career development (LSE5; 4 items). Two scales included migrant experiences in Australia: appreciation towards Australian way of life (LSE2; 13 items) and settlement concerns (LSE3; 7 items). CONCLUSION : The five life story experience scales provided necessary conceptual clarity and empirical grounding to explore migrant dentist experiences in Australia. Being based on original migrant dentist narrations, these scales have the potential to offer in-depth insights for policy makers and support future research on dentist migration.


Assuntos
Odontólogos/psicologia , Migrantes , Adulto , Austrália , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Satisfação Pessoal , Prática Profissional , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 7(33): 18450-9, 2015 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26252873

RESUMO

We developed a single-step thermal method that enables successful inclusion of ZnO components in the porous boron-carbon-nitrogen (BCN) framework to form a new class of functional hybrid. ZnO-containing BCN hybrids were prepared by treating a mixture of B2O3, glycine, and zinc nitrate at 500 °C. Glycine-nitrate decomposition along with B2O3 acts as a source for ZnO-BCN formation. The incorporation of ZnO onto BCN has extended the photoresponse of ZnO in the visible region, which makes ZnO-BCN a preferable photocatalyst relative to ZnO upon sunlight exposure. It is interesting to note that as-prepared 2D ZnO-BCN sheets dispersed in PDMS form a stable coating over aluminum alloys. The surface exhibited a water contact angle (CA) of 157.6° with 66.6 wt % ZnO-BCN in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and a water droplet (7 µL) roll-off angle of <6° and also demonstrates oil fouling resistant superhydrophobicity. In brief, the present study focuses on the gram scale synthesis of a new class of sunlight-driven photocatalyst and also its application toward the development of superhydrophobic and oleophobic coating.

19.
Br Dent J ; 218(6): 329-31, 2015 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25812880

RESUMO

The international migration of dentists is an issue of pressing significance that poses several complex policy challenges. Policy-making is mainly constrained by the lack of workforce surveillance, research evidence and political advocacy - all three are required to work together, yet with different purposes. We first discuss the inconsistencies in migrant dentist surveillance in major country-level governmental systems (immigration departments, dentist registration authorities and workforce agencies). We argue that the limitations in surveillance collections affect independent research and in turn scholarly contributions to dental workforce policy. Differences in country-level surveillance collections also hinder valid cross-country comparisons on migrant dentist data, impeding global policy efforts. Due to these limitations, advocacy, or the political process to influence health policy, suffers, but is integral to future challenges on dentist migration. Country-level advocacy is best targeted at improving migrant dentist surveillance systems. Research interest can be invigorated through targeted funding allocations for migration research and by improving the availability of dentist surveillance data for research purposes. At the global level, the WHOs global code of practice for international recruitment of health personnel (a crucial advocacy tool) needs to be strengthened. Global organisations such as the FDI World Dental Federation have an important role to play in advocating for improved migrant dentist workforce surveillance and research evidence, especially in low- and middle-income countries.


Assuntos
Pesquisa em Odontologia , Emigração e Imigração , Pessoal Profissional Estrangeiro , Política , Odontólogos/provisão & distribução , Emigração e Imigração/legislação & jurisprudência , Emigração e Imigração/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoal Profissional Estrangeiro/legislação & jurisprudência , Pessoal Profissional Estrangeiro/estatística & dados numéricos , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Vigilância da População
20.
J Dent ; 43(1): 58-65, 2015 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25446734

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To date there is little evidence of minimum intervention in relation to treatment patterns, particularly for initial carious lesions. The objective of this study was to investigate treatment provided to patients with a main diagnosis of coronal caries in relation to the severity of the caries lesion. METHODS: A random sample of Australian dentists was surveyed by mailed questionnaires in 2009-2010 (response rate 67%). Data on services, patient characteristics and main diagnosis were collected from a service log. RESULTS: Models of service rates adjusted for age, sex, insurance status and reason for visit showed that compared to the reference category of gross caries lesions, there were higher rates [rate ratio, 95% CI] of restorative services for initial [1.63, 1.31-2.03] and cavitated [1.69, 1.39-2.05] lesions, higher rates of prophylaxis for initial [3.77, 2.09-6.79] and cavitated [3.88, 2.29-6.58] lesions, lower rates of endodontic services for initial [0.07, 0.02-0.30] and cavitated [0.11, 0.04-0.30] lesions, and lower rates of extraction for initial [0.15, 0.06-0.34] and cavitated [0.15, 0.07-0.31] lesions. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment of coronal caries was characterized by high rates of restorative services, but gross lesions had lower restorative rates and higher rates of endodontic and extraction services. There was little differentiation in treatment of coronal caries between initial and cavitated lesions, suggesting scope for increased management of initial carious lesions by the adoption of more minimum intervention approaches.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Minimamente Invasivos , Dente não Vital/epidemiologia , Dente não Vital/cirurgia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Austrália/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cárie Dentária/patologia , Cárie Dentária/cirurgia , Restauração Dentária Permanente , Odontologia/métodos , Feminino , Odontologia Geral , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Dente não Vital/patologia
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