Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 55
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; : e912, 2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31568717

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With increased access to genetic testing, variants of uncertain significance (VUS) where pathogenicity is uncertain are being increasingly identified. More than 85% Osteogenesis Imperfecta (OI) patients have pathogenic variants in COL1A1/A2. However, when a VUS is identified, there are no pathways in place for determining significance. OBJECTIVE: Define a diagnostic pathway to confirm pathogenicity, providing patients with definitive genetic diagnosis, accurate recurrence risks, and prenatal testing options. METHODS: Functional studies on collagen secretion from cultured patient fibroblasts combined with detailed phenotyping and segregation family studies. RESULTS: We demonstrate data from a family with a VUS identified in type I collagen. FAMILY-1: Six-year-old boy with failure-to-gain weight, talipes, fractures, on and off treatment with Pamidronate as diagnosis of OI uncertain. Transiliac bone biopsy at 2 years of age demonstrated active new bone formation within periosteum; bone cortices were normal thickness but increased porosity. Trabecular bone showed features of advanced osteoporosis. Genetic testing identified a de novo COL1A1 c.206_208delTGT, p.Leu69del variant. Sibling with similar phenotype but no fractures as yet, tested positive for variant raising concerns regarding her diagnosis, and management. Results from three independent experiments (cell immunofluorescence, collagen secretion assay by Western Blot, and unbiased proteomics) from cultured patient fibroblasts demonstrate COL1A1 c.206_208delTGT, p.Leu69del variant causing a substantial defect to collagen extracellular matrix assembly confirming variant pathogenicity. CONCLUSION: Access to genetic testing in OI is increasing as advances in genetic technologies decreases cost; a clinical diagnostic pathway needs to be implemented for managing variants identified by such testing.

2.
Clin Dysmorphol ; 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31577543

RESUMO

With the increasing availability and clinical use of exome and whole-genome sequencing, reverse phenotyping is now becoming common practice in clinical genetics. Here, we report a patient identified through the Wellcome Trust Deciphering Developmental Disorders study who has homozygous pathogenic variants in CC2D2A and a de-novo heterozygous pathogenic variant in KIDINS220. He presents with developmental delay, intellectual disability, and oculomotor apraxia. Reverse phenotyping has demonstrated that he likely has a composite phenotype with contributions from both variants. The patient is much more mildly affected than those with Joubert Syndrome or Spastic paraplegia, intellectual disability, nystagmus, and obesity, the conditions associated with CC2D2A and KIDINS220 respectively, and therefore, contributes to the phenotypic variability associated with the two conditions.

3.
Brain ; 142(9): 2631-2643, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31334757

RESUMO

Marked by incomplete division of the embryonic forebrain, holoprosencephaly is one of the most common human developmental disorders. Despite decades of phenotype-driven research, 80-90% of aneuploidy-negative holoprosencephaly individuals with a probable genetic aetiology do not have a genetic diagnosis. Here we report holoprosencephaly associated with variants in the two X-linked cohesin complex genes, STAG2 and SMC1A, with loss-of-function variants in 10 individuals and a missense variant in one. Additionally, we report four individuals with variants in the cohesin complex genes that are not X-linked, SMC3 and RAD21. Using whole mount in situ hybridization, we show that STAG2 and SMC1A are expressed in the prosencephalic neural folds during primary neurulation in the mouse, consistent with forebrain morphogenesis and holoprosencephaly pathogenesis. Finally, we found that shRNA knockdown of STAG2 and SMC1A causes aberrant expression of HPE-associated genes ZIC2, GLI2, SMAD3 and FGFR1 in human neural stem cells. These findings show the cohesin complex as an important regulator of median forebrain development and X-linked inheritance patterns in holoprosencephaly.

4.
Hum Mutat ; 40(8): 1013-1029, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31021519

RESUMO

SATB2-associated syndrome (SAS) is an autosomal dominant neurodevelopmental disorder caused by alterations in the SATB2 gene. Here we present a review of published pathogenic variants in the SATB2 gene to date and report 38 novel alterations found in 57 additional previously unreported individuals. Overall, we present a compilation of 120 unique variants identified in 155 unrelated families ranging from single nucleotide coding variants to genomic rearrangements distributed throughout the entire coding region of SATB2. Single nucleotide variants predicted to result in the occurrence of a premature stop codon were the most commonly seen (51/120 = 42.5%) followed by missense variants (31/120 = 25.8%). We review the rather limited functional characterization of pathogenic variants and discuss current understanding of the consequences of the different molecular alterations. We present an expansive phenotypic review along with novel genotype-phenotype correlations. Lastly, we discuss current knowledge of animal models and present future prospects. This review should help provide better guidance for the care of individuals diagnosed with SAS.

6.
Bone ; 121: 191-195, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30684648

RESUMO

Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is the commonest form of heritable bone fragility. It is mainly characterized by fractures, hearing loss and dentinogenesis imperfecta. OI patients are at increased risk of cardiovascular disease of variable severity. Aortic aneurysm/dissection is one of the rarer but potentially serious cardiovascular complications of OI. So far, only six patients with aortic dissection and OI have been reported. As such, present OI diagnostic guidelines do not recommend systematic screening of patients for aortopathy. Here, we report on the clinical and molecular characteristics of three new OI patients and one additional patient with a first degree relative who presented with aortic dissection and/or aneurysm surgery. This observation further opens up the discussion on the need for and extent of cardiovascular screening in adult patients with OI.

7.
Clin Genet ; 95(4): 496-506, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30666632

RESUMO

Whole-exome sequencing has established IQSEC2 as a neurodevelopmental disability gene. The IQSEC2 variant phenotype includes developmental delay, intellectual disability, epilepsy, hypotonia, autism, developmental regression, microcephaly and stereotypies but is yet to be fully described. Presented here are 14 new patients with IQSEC2 variants. In addition to the established features, we observed: gait ataxia in 7 of 9 (77.8%), drooling in 9 of 14 (64.2%), early feeding difficulties in 7 of 14 (50%), structural brain abnormalities in 6 of 13 (46.2%), brachycephaly in 5 of 14 (35.7%), and scoliosis and paroxysms of laughter each in 4 of 14 (28.6%). We suggest that these are features of the IQSEC2-related disorder. Gastrostomy requirement, plagiocephaly, strabismus and cortical blindness, each seen in 2 of 14 (14.3%), may also be associated. Shared facial features were noted in 8 of 14 patients, and shared hair patterning was identified in 5 of 14 patients. This study further delineates the IQSEC2 phenotypic spectrum and supports the notion of an emerging IQSEC2 syndrome. We draw parallels between the IQSEC2-related disorder and the Angelman-/Rett-/Pitt-Hopkins syndrome group of conditions and recommend the addition of IQSEC2 to epilepsy and developmental delay gene panels. We observed discordant phenotypes in monozygotic twins and apparent gonadal mosaicism, which has implications for recurrence risk counselling in the IQSEC2-related disorder.

9.
Gene ; 685: 50-54, 2018 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30393191

RESUMO

The SRPX2 gene (Sushi-repeat-containing protein, X-linked, 2, OMIM*300642), located on Xq22.1, encodes a secreted protein that is highly expressed in neurons of cerebral cortex. SRPX2 was first implicated in neurodevelopment, learning and rolandic seizure when two patients with potentially pathogenic variants, c.980A>G (p.Asn327Ser) and c.215A>C (p.Tyr72Ser), in SRPX2 gene were identified. Subsequent experimental studies demonstrated that SRPX2 is needed for vocalization and synapse formation in mice, and that both silencing SRPX2 and injecting (p.Asn327Ser) in mouse models results in alteration in neuronal migration in cerebral cortex and epilepsy. A number of studies demonstrated that SRPX2 interacts with FOXP2 (Foxhead box protein P2), a gene responsible for speech and language disorder, and that FoxP2 controls timing and level of expression of SRPX2. Despite the supportive evidence for the role of SRPX2 in speech and language development and disorders, there are questions over its definitive association with neurodevelopmental disorders and epilepsy. In this paper, the role of SRPX2 as one in a network of many genes involved in speech and language is discussed. The goal of this paper is to examine the role of SRPX2 variants through describing two patients with potentially pathogenic variants in SRPX2, c.751G>C (p.Ala251Pro) and c.762G>T (p.Lys254Asn) presenting with language and motor delay, intellectual disability as well as congenital anomalies. We explore the contribution of SRPX2 variants to clinical phenotype in our patients and conclude that these variants at least partially explain the phenotype. Further studies are necessary to establish and confirm the association between SRPX2 and neurodevelopment particularly speech and language development.

10.
Science ; 362(6419): 1161-1164, 2018 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30409806

RESUMO

We estimated the genome-wide contribution of recessive coding variation in 6040 families from the Deciphering Developmental Disorders study. The proportion of cases attributable to recessive coding variants was 3.6% in patients of European ancestry, compared with 50% explained by de novo coding mutations. It was higher (31%) in patients with Pakistani ancestry, owing to elevated autozygosity. Half of this recessive burden is attributable to known genes. We identified two genes not previously associated with recessive developmental disorders, KDM5B and EIF3F, and functionally validated them with mouse and cellular models. Our results suggest that recessive coding variants account for a small fraction of currently undiagnosed nonconsanguineous individuals, and that the role of noncoding variants, incomplete penetrance, and polygenic mechanisms need further exploration.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30194038

RESUMO

We aim to further delineate the phenotype associated with pathogenic variants in the SLC35A2 gene, and review all published literature to-date. This gene is located on the X chromosome and encodes a UDP-galactose transporter. Pathogenic variants in SLC35A2 cause a congenital disorder of glycosylation. The condition is rare, and less than twenty patients have been reported to-date. The phenotype is complex and has not been fully defined. Here, we present a series of five patients with de novo pathogenic variants in SLC35A2. The patients' phenotype includes developmental and epileptic encephalopathy with hypsarrhythmia, facial dysmorphism, severe intellectual disability, skeletal abnormalities, congenital cardiac disease and cortical visual impairment. Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy with hypsarrhythmia is present in most patients with SLC35A2 variants, and is drug-resistant in the majority of cases. Adrenocorticotropic hormone therapy may achieve partial or complete remission of seizures, but the effect is usually temporary. Isoelectric focusing of transferrins may be normal after infancy, therefore a congenital disorder of glycosylation should still be considered as a diagnosis in the presence of a suggestive phenotype. We also provide evidence that cortical visual impairment is part of the phenotypic spectrum.

13.
Eur J Med Genet ; 2018 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29908352

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG) are a group of rare metabolic diseases due to impaired lipid and protein glycosylation. It comprises a characteristic high frequency of intellectual disability (ID) and a wide range of clinical phenotypes. OBJECTIVE: To identify the underlying diagnosis in two families each with two siblings with variable level of ID through trio whole exome sequencing. METHODS: Both the families were recruited to the Deciphering Developmental Disorders (DDD) study to identify the aetiology for their ID. Further work-up included isoelectric focusing (IEF) of serum transferrin done to add evidence to the molecular diagnosis. RESULTS: These patients were found to have three novel variants in MAN1B1 inherited from their healthy parents. Serum transferrin IEF showed a type 2 pattern. DISCUSSION: MAN1B1 variants were initially described in association with non-syndromic ID; subsequent literature suggested that variants in MAN1B1 resulted in a CDG-type II syndrome. However, there remains a paucity of literature on detailed clinical phenotyping and it still remains a rare form of CDG. The present patients showed the phenotype previously reported in MAN1B1-CDG: a characteristic facial dysmorphism, hypotonia, truncal obesity and in some, behavioural problems. CONCLUSIONS: In unexplained ID, serum transferrin should be included in the first-line screening. With advances in genomic medicine, it is important to diagnose CDG as this has implications for management and recurrence risk counselling.

14.
Bone Rep ; 8: 156-162, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29955634

RESUMO

Objectives: Osteogenesis Imperfecta (OI) is a heterogeneous condition mainly characterised by bone fragility; intelligence is reported to be normal. However, a minority of children seen also show symptomology consistent with an 'Autism Spectrum Disorder'. A joint genetics and psychology research study was undertaken to identify these patients using 'Gold Standard' research tools: Autism Diagnostic Inventory Revised (ADI-R); Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) and undertake genetic analyses in them. Method: A cohort of n = 7 children with autistic traits and severe/complex OI were recruited to the study. The study was set-up to explore whether there was a genetic link between bone fragility and autism in a sub-set of patients with bone fragility identified with autism traits in our complex/severe OI clinic. This was not set-up as a prevalence study but rather an exploration of genetics in association with ADI/ADOS confirmed ASD and bone fragility. ADI& ADOS: Standardised tools were used to confirm autism diagnosis. ADI and ADOS were completed by the Clinical Psychologist; ADI comprises a 93 item semi-structured clinical review with a diagnostic algorithm diagnosing Autism; ADOS is a semi-structured assessment of socialisation, communication and play/imagination which also provides a diagnostic algorithm. Exome sequencing: In patients recruited, those that fulfilled research criteria for diagnosis of autism using above tools were recruited to trio whole exome sequencing (WES). Results: one patient had compound heterozygous variants in NBAS; one patient had a variant in NRX1; one patient had a maternally inherited PLS3 variant; all the other patients in this cohort had pathogenic variants in COL1A1/COL1A2. Conclusions: Although, not set out as an objective, we were able to establish that identifying autism had important clinical and social benefits for patients and their families in ensuring access to services, appropriate schooling, increased understanding of behaviour and support. Lay summary: It is important for clinicians looking after children with brittle bone disease, also referred to as Osteogenesis Imperfecta (OI) to be aware of early features of developmental delay/autistic traits especially with severe forms of OI as the emphasis is on their mobility and bone health. Ensuring appropriate assessment and access to services early-on will enable these patients to achieve their potential. Further investigations of genomics in bone fragility in relation to autism are required and dual diagnosis is essential for high quality clinical and educational provision.

15.
Clin Dysmorphol ; 27(4): 113-115, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29939863

RESUMO

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) encompasses a spectrum of pervasive neuropsychiatric disorders characterized by deficits in social interaction, communication, unusual and repetitive behaviours. The aetiology of ASD is believed to involve complex interactions between genetic and environmental factors; it can be further classified as syndromic or nonsyndromic, according to whether it is the primary diagnosis or secondary to an existing condition where both common and rare genetic variants contribute to the development of ASD or are clearly causal. The prevalence of ASD in children is increasing with higher rates of diagnosis and an estimated one in 100 affected in the UK. Given that heritability is a major contributing factor, we aim to discuss research findings to-date in the context of a high-risk autism candidate gene, SHANK3 (SH3 and multiple ankyrin repeat domain 3), with its loss resulting in synaptic function disruption. We present a 10-year-old patient with a pathogenic de novo heterozygous c.1231delC, p.Arg411Val frameshift variant in SHANK3. He presented with severe autism, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and pathological demand avoidance, on a background of developmental impairment and language regression. The number of genes associated with autism is ever increasing. It is a heterogeneous group of disorders with no single gene conferring pathogenesis in the majority of cases. Genetic abnormalities can be detected in ~15% of ASD and these range from copy number variants in 16p11.2 and 15q13.2q13.3 to several well-known genetic disorders including tuberous sclerosis and fragile X syndrome. Further, high confidence autism genes include but are not limited to NRXN, NLGN3, NLGN4, SHANK2 and SHANK3.


Assuntos
Transtorno Autístico/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/fisiologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/fisiopatologia , Transtorno Autístico/fisiopatologia , Criança , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA/genética , Variação Genética , Humanos , Masculino
16.
Am J Med Genet A ; 176(7): 1578-1586, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29736964

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Idiopathic Juvenile Osteoporosis (IJO) refers to significantly lower than expected bone mass manifesting in childhood with no identifiable aetiology. IJO classically presents in early pubertal period with multiple fractures including metaphyseal and vertebral crush fractures, and low bone-mass. METHODS: Here we describe two patients and provide information on their clinical phenotype, genotype and bone material analysis in one of the patients. RESULTS: Patient 1: 40-year old adult male diagnosed with IJO in childhood who re-presented with a hip fracture as an adult. Genetic analysis identified a pathogenic PLS3 hemizygous variant, c.1765del in exon 16. Patient 2: 15-year old boy with multiple vertebral fractures and bone biopsy findings suggestive of IJO who also has a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder. Genetic analysis identified a maternally inherited PLS3 pathogenic c.1295T>A variant in exon 12. Analyses of the transiliac bone sample revealed severe reduction of trabecular volume and bone turnover indices and elevated bone matrix mineralisation. DISCUSSION: We propose that genetic testing for PLS3 should be undertaken in patients presenting with a current or previous history of IJO as this has implications for genetic counselling and cascade screening. The extensive evaluation of the transiliac biopsy sample of Patient 2 revealed a novel bone phenotype. CONCLUSION: This report includes a review of IJO and genetic causes of osteoporosis, and suggests that existing cases of IJO should be screened for PLS3. Through analysis of bone material properties in Patient 2, we can conclude that PLS3 does have a role in bone mineralisation.

17.
Am J Med Genet A ; 176(5): 1238-1244, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29681091

RESUMO

Pathogenic variants in Zinc Finger DHHC-Type Containing 9 (ZDHHC9) gene have been identified as the cause of X-linked intellectual disability (XLID) in a small number of families. There are a total of 11 reported pathogenic variants in ZDHHC9 in the literature. The majority of reported variants are familial point mutations. There is one report of XLID associated with a de novo mutation in ZDHHC9, and one family with intragenic deletion within ZDHHC9 detected by array CGH. Although initial reports of families with ZDHHC9 pathogenic variants suggested a nonsyndromic XLID, more recent reports suggest a syndromic phenotype with facial dysmorphism. Here we report four patients with pathogenic variants in ZDHHC9, a family with two siblings and their maternal uncle who presented with XLID due to intragenic deletion of ZDHHC9 detected by array CGH and an 11-year-old boy with a de novo pathogenic missense variant in ZDHHC9, which is the first recurrent ZDHHC9 mutation. Our patients had some distinctive facial features in common, including elongated and down-slanting palpebral fissures and high hairline. Marfanoid habitus and seizures that have been previously reported in association with pathogenic variants in ZDHHC9 were absent in our cohort. Clinical information on patients with ZDHHC9-associated XLID is very scarce. New reports of families with detailed clinical description will add to the existing knowledge and help understand the condition better.

18.
Am J Med Genet A ; 176(5): 1049-1054, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29681108

RESUMO

WDR45 gene-associated neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA), referred to as beta-propeller protein-associated neurodegeneration (BPAN), is a rare disorder that presents with a very nonspecific clinical phenotype in children constituting global developmental delay. This case report illustrates the power of a combination of trio exome sequencing, in silico splicing analysis, and mRNA analysis to provide sufficient evidence for pathogenicity of a relatively intronic variant in WDR45, and in so doing, find a genetic diagnosis for a 6-year-old patient with developmental delay and seizures, a diagnosis which may otherwise have only been found once the characteristic MRI patterns of the disease became more obvious in young adulthood.

19.
Am J Med Genet A ; 176(4): 925-935, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29436146

RESUMO

SATB2-associated syndrome (SAS) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by significant neurodevelopmental disabilities with limited to absent speech, behavioral issues, and craniofacial anomalies. Previous studies have largely been restricted to case reports and small series without in-depth phenotypic characterization or genotype-phenotype correlations. Seventy two study participants were identified as part of the SAS clinical registry. Individuals with a molecularly confirmed diagnosis of SAS were referred after clinical diagnostic testing. In this series we present the most comprehensive phenotypic and genotypic characterization of SAS to date, including prevalence of each clinical feature, neurodevelopmental milestones, and when available, patient management. We confirm that the most distinctive features are neurodevelopmental delay with invariably severely limited speech, abnormalities of the palate (cleft or high-arched), dental anomalies (crowding, macrodontia, abnormal shape), and behavioral issues with or without bone or brain anomalies. This comprehensive clinical characterization will help clinicians with the diagnosis, counseling and management of SAS and help provide families with anticipatory guidance.

20.
Epilepsy Res ; 140: 166-170, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29367179

RESUMO

Bainbridge-Ropers syndrome is a genetic syndrome caused by heterozygous loss-of-function pathogenic variants in ASXL3, which encodes a protein involved in transcriptional regulation. Affected individuals have multiple abnormalities including developmental impairment, hypotonia and characteristic facial features. Seizures are reported in approximately a third of cases; however, the epileptology has not been thoroughly studied. We identified three patients with pathogenic ASXL3 variants and seizures at Austin Health and in the DECIPHER database. These three patients had novel de novo ASXL3 pathogenic variants, two with truncation variants and one with a splice site variant. All three had childhood-onset generalized epilepsy with generalized tonic-clonic seizures, with one also having atypical absence seizures. We also reviewed available clinical data on five published patients with Bainbridge-Ropers syndrome and seizures. Of the five previously published patients, three also had generalized tonic-clonic seizures, one of whom also had possible absence seizures; a fourth patient had absence seizures and possible focal seizures. EEG typically showed features consistent with generalized epilepsy including generalized spike-wave, photoparoxysmal response, and occipital intermittent rhythmic epileptiform activity. Bainbridge-Ropers syndrome is associated with childhood-onset generalized epilepsy with generalized tonic-clonic seizures and/or atypical absence seizures.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA