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1.
J Physiol ; 598(3): 489-502, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31828802

RESUMO

KEY POINTS: The World Health Organization recommends exclusive breastfeeding until 6 months of age as an important strategy to reduce child morbidity and mortality. Studies have associated early weaning with the development of obesity and type 2 diabetes in adulthood. In our model, we demonstrated that early weaning leads to increased insulin secretion in adolescent males and reduced insulin secretion in adult offspring. Early weaned males exhibit insulin resistance in skeletal muscle. Early weaning did not change insulin signalling in the muscle of female offspring. Taking into account that insulin resistance is one of the primary factors for the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus, this work demonstrates the importance of breastfeeding in the fight against this disease. ABSTRACT: Early weaning (EW) leads to short- and long-term obesity and diabetes. This phenotype is also observed in experimental models, in which early-weaned males exhibit abnormal insulinaemia in adulthood. However, studies regarding the effect of EW on pancreatic islets are rare. We investigated the mechanisms by which glycaemic homeostasis is altered in EW models through evaluations of insulin secretion and its signalling pathway in offspring. Lactating Wistar rats and their pups were divided into the following groups: non-pharmacological EW (NPEW): mothers were wrapped with an adhesive bandage on the last 3 days of lactation; pharmacological EW (PEW): mothers received bromocriptine to inhibit prolactin (1 mg/kg body mass/day) on the last 3 days of lactation; and control (C): pups underwent standard weaning at PN21. Offspring of both sexes were euthanized at PN45 and PN180. At PN45, EW males showed higher insulin secretion (vs. C). At PN170, PEW males exhibited hyperglycaemia in an oral glucose tolerance test (vs. C and NPEW). At PN180, EW male offspring were heavier; however, both sexes showed higher visceral fat. Insulin secretion was lower in EW offspring of both sexes. Males from both EW groups had lower glucokinase in islets, but unexpectedly, PEW males showed higher GLUT2, than did C. EW males exhibited lower insulin signalling in muscle. EW females exhibited no changes in these parameters compared with C. We demonstrated distinct alterations in the insulin secretion of EW rats at different ages. Despite the sex dimorphism in insulin secretion in adolescence, both sexes showed impaired insulin secretion in adulthood due to EW.

2.
Environ Pollut ; 258: 113781, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31864076

RESUMO

Maternal nicotine exposure during lactation induces liver damage in adult male rats. However, the mechanism in males is unknown and females have not been tested. Here, we determined the liver lipid composition and lipogenic enzymes in male and female offspring at two ages in a model of postnatal nicotine exposure. Osmotic minipumps were implanted in lactating Wistar rat dams at postnatal day (PND) 2 to release 6 mg/kg/day of nicotine (NIC group) or saline (CON group) for 14 days. Offspring received a standard diet from weaning until euthanasia at PND120 (1 pup/litter/sex) or PND180 (2 pups/litter/sex). At PND120, NIC males showed lower plasma triglycerides (TG), steatosis degree 1, higher hepatic cholesterol (CHOL) ester, free fatty acids, monoacylglycerol content as well as acetyl-coa carboxylase-1 (ACC-1) and fatty acid synthase (FAS) protein expression in the liver compared to CON males. At this age, NIC females had preserved hepatocytes architecture, higher plasma CHOL, higher CHOL ester and lower total CHOL content in the liver compared to CON females. At PND180, NIC males showed steatosis degrees 1 and 2, higher TG, lower free fatty acids and total CHOL content in the liver and an increase in ACC-1 hepatic protein expression. NIC females had higher plasma TG and CHOL levels, no change in hepatic morphology, lower CHOL ester and free fatty acids in the liver, which also showed higher total ACC-1 and FAS protein expression. Maternal nicotine exposure induces long-term liver dysfunction, with an alteration in hepatic cytoarchitecture that was aggravated with age in males. Concerning females, despite unchanged hepatic cytoarchitecture, lipid metabolism was compromised, which deserves further attention.

3.
J Dev Orig Health Dis ; : 1-8, 2019 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31309914

RESUMO

One of the most consumed pesticides in the world is glyphosate, the active ingredient in the herbicide ROUNDUP®. Studies demonstrate that glyphosate can act as an endocrine disruptor and that exposure to this substance at critical periods in the developmental period may program the fetus to induce reproductive damage in adulthood. Our hypothesis is that maternal exposure to glyphosate during pregnancy and lactation in mice will affect the development of male reproductive organs, impairing male fertility during adult life. Female mice consumed 0.5% glyphosate-ROUNDUP® in their drinking water [glyphosate-based herbicide (GBH) group] or filtered water [control (CTRL) group] from the fourth day of pregnancy until the end of the lactation period. Male F1 offspring were designated, according to their mother's treatment, as CTRL-F1 and GBH-F1. Female mice that drank glyphosate displayed reduced body weight (BW) gain during gestation, but no alterations in litter size. Although GBH male F1 offspring did not exhibit modifications in BW, they demonstrated delayed testicular descent. Furthermore, at PND150, GBH-F1 mice presented a lower number of spermatozoa in the cauda epididymis and reduced epithelial height of the seminiferous epithelium. Notably, intratesticular testosterone concentrations were enhanced in GBH-F1 mice; we show that it is an effect associated with increased plasma and pituitary concentrations of luteinizing hormone. Therefore, data indicate that maternal exposure to glyphosate-ROUNDUP® during pregnancy and lactation may lead to decreased spermatogenesis and disruptions in hypothalamus-pituitary-testicular axis regulation in F1 offspring.

4.
Front Physiol ; 10: 561, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31156453

RESUMO

Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is characterized by impairment in beta-cell mass and insulin levels, resulting in hyperglycemia and diabetic complications. Since diagnosis, appropriate control of glycaemia in T1D requires insulin administration, which can result in side effects, such as hypoglycemia. In this sense, some bile acids have emerged as new therapeutic targets to treat T1D and T2D, as well as metabolic diseases. The taurine conjugated bile acid, tauroursodeoxycholic (TUDCA) reduces the incidence of T1D development and improves glucose homeostasis in obese and T2D mice. However, its effects in early-stage of T1D have not been well explored. Therefore, we have assessed the effects of TUDCA on the glycemic control of mice with early-stage T1D. To achieve this, C57BL/6 mice received intraperitoneal administration of streptozotocin (STZ, 40 mg/kg) for 5 days. Once diabetes was confirmed in the STZ mice, they received TUDCA treatment (300 mg/kg) or phosphate buffered saline (PBS) for 24 days. After 15 days of treatment, the STZ+TUDCA mice showed a 43% reduction in blood glucose, compared with the STZ group. This reduction was likely due to an increase in insulinemia. This increase in insulinemia may be explained, at least in part, by a reduction in hepatic IDE activity and, consequently, reduction on insulin clearance, as well as an increase in beta-cell mass and a higher beta-cell number per islet. Also, the groups did not present any alterations in insulin sensitivity. All together, these effects contributed to the improvement of glucose metabolism in T1D mice, pointing TUDCA as a potential therapeutic agent for the glycemic control in early-stage of T1D.

5.
Eur J Nutr ; 2019 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30982179

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Obesity is predominant in women of reproductive age. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is the most common bariatric procedure that is performed in obese women for weight loss and metabolic improvement. However, some studies suggest that this procedure negatively affects offspring. Herein, using Western diet (WD)-obese female rats, we investigated the effects of maternal RYGB on postnatal body development, glucose tolerance, insulin secretion and action in their adult male F1 offspring. METHODS: Female Wistar rats consumed a Western diet (WD) for 18 weeks, before being submitted to RYGB (WD-RYGB) or SHAM (WD-SHAM) operations. After 5 weeks, WD-RYGB and WD-SHAM females were mated with control male breeders, and the F1 offspring were identified as: WD-RYGB-F1 and WD-SHAM-F1. RESULTS: The male F1 offspring of WD-RYGB dams exhibited decreased BW, but enhanced total nasoanal length gain. At 120 days of age, WD-RYGB-F1 rats displayed normal fasting glycemia and glucose tolerance but demonstrated reduced insulinemia and higher glucose disappearance after insulin stimulus. In addition, these rodents presented insulin resistance in the gastrocnemius muscle and retroperitoneal fat, as judged by lower Akt phosphorylation after insulin administration, but an increase in this protein in the liver. Finally, the islets from WD-RYGB-F1 rats secreted less insulin in response to glucose and displayed increased ß-cell area and mass. CONCLUSIONS: RYGB in WD dams negatively affected their F1 offspring, leading to catch-up growth, insulin resistance in skeletal muscle and white fat, and ß-cell dysfunction. Therefore, our data are the first to demonstrate that the RYGB in female rats may aggravate the metabolic imprinting induced by maternal WD consumption, in their male F1 descendants. However, since we only used male F1 rats, further studies are necessary to demonstrate if such effect may also occur in female F1 offspring from dams that underwent RYGB operation.

6.
Endocrine ; 60(3): 407-414, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29556948

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Duodeno-jejunal bypass (DJB) operation improves glucose homeostasis in morbid obesity, independently of weight loss or reductions in adiposity, through mechanisms not yet fully elucidated. Herein, we evaluated the effects of DJB upon glucose homeostasis, endocrine pancreatic morphology, and ß-cell responsiveness to potentiating agents of cholinergic and cAMP pathways, in western diet (WD) obese rats, at 2 months after operation. METHODS: From 8 to 18 weeks of age male Wistar rats fed on a WD. After this period, a sham (WD Sham group) or DJB (WD DJB) operations were performed. At 2 months after operation glucose homeostasis was verified. RESULTS: Body weight was similar between WD DJB and WD Sham rats, but WD DJB rats showed a decrease in Lee index, retroperitoneal and perigonadal fat pads. Also, WD DJB rats displayed reduced fasting glycemia and insulinemia, and increased insulin-induced Akt activation in the gastrocnemius. Islets from WD DJB rats secreted less amounts of insulin, in response to activators of the cholinergic (carbachol and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate) and cAMP (forskolin and 3-isobutyl-1-methyl-xantine) pathways. Islets of WD DJB rats had higher sintaxin-1 protein content than WD Sham, but without modification in muscarinic-3 receptor, protein kinase (PK)-Cα, and (PK)-Aα protein amounts. In addition, islets of WD DJB animals showed reduction in islets and ß-cell masses. CONCLUSION: DJB surgery improves fasting glycemia and insulin action in skeletal muscle. Better endocrine pancreatic morphofunction was associated, at least in part, with the regulation of the cholinergic and cAMP pathways, and improvements in syntaxin-1 islet protein content induced by DJB.


Assuntos
Derivação Gástrica/métodos , Células Secretoras de Insulina/metabolismo , Obesidade/cirurgia , Animais , Glicemia/metabolismo , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Dieta Ocidental , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Resistência à Insulina , Ilhotas Pancreáticas/metabolismo , Masculino , Obesidade/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
7.
Rev. bras. crescimento desenvolv. hum ; 28(1): 18-26, Jan.-Mar. 2018. graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-958503

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Due to advances in recent decades in maternal-foetal and neonatal medicine, a greater survival of preterm infants with progressively smaller birth weight and gestational age is observed, increasing the risk of future morbidities on those infants. Among these morbidities, alterations in growth and metabolism are found. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the evolution of the growth and the metabolic profile of preterm infants' cohort from birth at six months of corrected age (CA) METHODS: A descriptive and prospective study with a sample of 107 mothers and 115 preterm infants at birth and 72 preterm infants and 68 mothers at the end of follow-up. Growth (body weight, height, cephalic perimeter) was evaluated at six time points. Plasma concentrations of cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose and insulin of premature infants were assessed during three periods, from birth to 6 months of CA. Comparative analysis of the initial sample and the sample that finished the follow-up was used in chi-square family tests. To Evaluate the growth over the 6-month period by using repeated measurements. RESULTS: Sociodemographic variables and maternal biochemical profile without statistical differences in the comparison of the mothers of the initial sample with those who completed the follow-up. Linear growth of preterm infants at six months of CA, however without recovery of growth. Plasma concentrations of triglycerides (birth = 48.1, 6 months = 151.1) and cholesterol (birth = 82.7, 6 months = 139.9) increased during the evaluations. Glycaemia remained stable (birth 80.4, 6 months = 83.3) and insulin decreased from 11.0 to 4.2. CONCLUSION: Growth of preterm infants, although linear, was lower than expected for age. Lipid profiles presented an ascending curve from birth onward. Therefore, this group is prone to delayed growth and to developing cardiovascular changes throughout life.


INTRODUÇÃO: Com os avanços nas últimas décadas na medicina materno-fetal e neonatal, observa-se maior sobrevida de crianças prematuras com peso de nascimento e idade gestacional progressivamente menores, elevando riscos de morbidades futuras. Dentre as quais, alterações do crescimento e no metabolismo dessas crianças. OBJETIVO: Analisar a evolução do crescimento e o perfil metabólico de uma coorte de prematuros do nascimento aos seis meses de idade corrigida. MÉTODO: Estudo de descritivo, prospectivo, amostra de 107 mães e 115 recém-nascidos prematuros, ao nascimento e 72 lactentes prematuros e 68 mães ao término do seguimento. Crescimento (peso corporal, estatura, perímetro cefálico) avaliado em seis momentos. Concentrações plasmáticas de colesterol, triglicerídeos, glicose e insulina dos prematuros avaliadas em três períodos, do nascimento aos seis meses de Idade Corrigida (IC). Análise da comparação da amostra inicial com amostra que finalizou o seguimento mediante testes da família qui quadrado. Para a avaliação do crescimento ao longo dos seis meses, a análise ocorreu por meio de delineamento de medidas repetidas. RESULTADOS: Variáveis sociodemográficas e perfil bioquímico materno sem diferenças estatísticas entre mães da amostra inicial e aquelas que finalizaram o seguimento. Crescimento linear dos prema turos da alta aos seis meses de IC, contudo sem recuperação do crescimento. Concentrações plasmáticas de triglicerídeos (nascimento=48,1; 6 meses=151,1) e colesterol (nascimento=82,7; 6 meses=139,9), aumentaram no decorrer das avaliações. Glicemia permaneceu estável (nascimento=80,4; 6 meses=83,3) e insulina reduziu de 11,0, para 4,2). CONCLUSÃO: O crescimento dos recém-nascidos prematuros, apesar de linear, inferior ao esperado para idade. Perfil lipídico apresentou curva ascendente desde o nascimento.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Biomarcadores , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Epidemiologia Descritiva , Crescimento , Metabolismo
8.
Life Sci ; 188: 68-75, 2017 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28866102

RESUMO

AIMS: Hypothalamic obesity is a severe condition without any effective therapy. Bariatric operations appear as an alternative treatment, but the effects of this procedure are controversial. We, herein, investigated the effects of duodeno-jejunal bypass (DJB) surgery upon the lipid profile and expression of genes and proteins, involved in the regulation of hepatic lipid metabolism, in hypothalamic obese (HyO) rats. METHODS: During the first 5days of life, male newborn Wistar rats received subcutaneous injections of monosodium glutamate [4g/kg body weight, HyO group] or saline (control, CTL group). At 90days of life, HyO rats were randomly submitted to DJB (HyO DJB) or Sham-operations (HyO Sham group). Six months after DJB, adiposity, hepatic steatosis and lipid metabolism were verified. KEY FINDINGS: HyO Sham rats were obese, hyperinsulinemic, insulin resistant and dyslipidemic. These rats had higher liver contents of trygliceride (TG) and presented disorganization of the hepatocyte structures, in association with higher hepatic contents of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), fatty acid synthase (FASN), and stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 mRNAs and protein. DJB surgery normalized insulinemia, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia in HyO rats. TG content in the liver and the hepatic microscopic structures were also normalized in HyO DJB rats, while the expressions of ACC and FASN proteins were decreased in the liver of these rodents. SIGNIFICANCE: The DJB-induced amelioration in hepatic steatosis manifested as a late effect in HyO rats, and was partly associated with a downregulation in hepatic de novo lipogenesis processes, indicating that DJB protects against liver steatosis in hypothalamic obesity.


Assuntos
Fígado Gorduroso/metabolismo , Fígado Gorduroso/cirurgia , Derivação Gástrica , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/cirurgia , Acetil-CoA Carboxilase/metabolismo , Animais , Ácido Graxo Sintases/metabolismo , Fígado Gorduroso/patologia , Masculino , Obesidade/induzido quimicamente , Obesidade/patologia , Ratos , Glutamato de Sódio , Estearoil-CoA Dessaturase/metabolismo , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo
9.
Acta Cir Bras ; 32(1): 1-13, 2017 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28225912

RESUMO

Purpose: : To evaluate the effects of duodenal-jejunal bypass (DJB) on the diaphragm muscle of obese rats fed on a western diet (WD) . Methods: : Eighteen male Wistar rats were fed a standard rodent chow diet (CTL group) or WD ad libitum. After 10 weeks, WD rats were submitted to sham (WD SHAM) or duodenal-jejunal bypass (WD DJB). The structure, ultrastructure, collagen content and the morphometry of the neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) were analyzed two months after surgery. Results: : WD SHAM rats displayed an increase in body weight, the Lee index and retroperitoneal and peri-epididymal fat pads compared to the CTL group. DJB did not alter these parameters. The muscle fiber structure and NMJs were similar in the WD SHAM and CTL groups. However, the WD SHAM group showed alterations in the fiber ultrastructure, such as loosely arranged myofibrils and Z line disorganization. In addition, WD SHAM animals presented a considerable amount of lipid droplets and a reduction in the percentage of collagen compared to the CTL group. DJB did not affect the structure or ultrastructure of the muscle fibers or the NMJs in the diaphragm of the WD DJB animals. Conclusion: : Duodenal-jejunal bypass did not improve the alterations observed in the diaphragm of western diet obese-rats.


Assuntos
Diafragma/ultraestrutura , Dieta Ocidental , Duodeno/cirurgia , Jejuno/cirurgia , Junção Neuromuscular/ultraestrutura , Obesidade/cirurgia , Anastomose Cirúrgica , Animais , Masculino , Fibras Musculares Esqueléticas/ultraestrutura , Obesidade/metabolismo , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
10.
Acta cir. bras ; 32(1): 1-13, Jan. 2017. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-837674

RESUMO

Abstract Purpose: To evaluate the effects of duodenal-jejunal bypass (DJB) on the diaphragm muscle of obese rats fed on a western diet (WD) . Methods: Eighteen male Wistar rats were fed a standard rodent chow diet (CTL group) or WD ad libitum. After 10 weeks, WD rats were submitted to sham (WD SHAM) or duodenal-jejunal bypass (WD DJB). The structure, ultrastructure, collagen content and the morphometry of the neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) were analyzed two months after surgery. Results: WD SHAM rats displayed an increase in body weight, the Lee index and retroperitoneal and peri-epididymal fat pads compared to the CTL group. DJB did not alter these parameters. The muscle fiber structure and NMJs were similar in the WD SHAM and CTL groups. However, the WD SHAM group showed alterations in the fiber ultrastructure, such as loosely arranged myofibrils and Z line disorganization. In addition, WD SHAM animals presented a considerable amount of lipid droplets and a reduction in the percentage of collagen compared to the CTL group. DJB did not affect the structure or ultrastructure of the muscle fibers or the NMJs in the diaphragm of the WD DJB animals. Conclusion: Duodenal-jejunal bypass did not improve the alterations observed in the diaphragm of western diet obese-rats.


Assuntos
Animais , Masculino , Ratos , Diafragma/ultraestrutura , Duodeno/cirurgia , Dieta Ocidental , Jejuno/cirurgia , Junção Neuromuscular/ultraestrutura , Obesidade/cirurgia , Anastomose Cirúrgica , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos Wistar , Fibras Musculares Esqueléticas/ultraestrutura , Obesidade/metabolismo
11.
Eur J Nutr ; 56(2): 705-713, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26621632

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Obesity is usually associated with low-grade inflammation, which impairs insulin action. The amino acid, taurine (TAU), regulates glucose homeostasis and lipid metabolism and presents anti-inflammatory actions. Here, we evaluated whether inflammatory markers are altered in the serum and retroperitoneal adipose tissue of monosodium glutamate (MSG) obese rats, supplemented or not with TAU. METHODS: Male Wistar rats received subcutaneous injections of MSG (4 mg/kg body weight/day, MSG group) or hypertonic saline (CTL) during the first 5 days of life. From 21 to 120 days of age, half of each of the MSG and CTL groups received 2.5 % TAU in their drinking water (CTAU and MTAU). RESULTS: At 120 days of age, MSG rats were obese and hyperinsulinemic. TAU supplementation reduced fat deposition without affecting insulinemia in MTAU rats. MSG rats presented increased pIκ-Bα/Iκ-Bα protein expression in the retroperitoneal adipose tissue. TAU supplementation decreased the ratio of pIκ-Bα/Iκ-Bα protein, possibly contributing to the increased Iκ-Bα content in MTAU adipose tissue. Furthermore, MSG obesity or supplementation did not alter TNF-α, IL-1ß or IL-6 content in adipose tissue. In contrast, MSG rats presented lower serum TNF-α, IL-4 and IL-10 concentrations, and these alterations were prevented by TAU treatment. CONCLUSION: MSG obesity in rats was not associated with alterations in pro-inflammatory markers in retroperitoneal fat stores; however, reductions in the serum concentrations of anti-inflammatory cytokines and of TNF-α were observed. TAU treatment decreased adiposity, and this effect was associated with the normalization of circulating TNF-α and IL-4 concentrations in MTAU rats.


Assuntos
Fármacos Antiobesidade/uso terapêutico , Suplementos Nutricionais , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/metabolismo , Inibidor de NF-kappaB alfa/metabolismo , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Taurina/uso terapêutico , Adiposidade , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores/sangue , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Hiperinsulinismo/dietoterapia , Hiperinsulinismo/etiologia , Hiperinsulinismo/imunologia , Hiperinsulinismo/metabolismo , Proteínas I-kappa B/agonistas , Proteínas I-kappa B/genética , Proteínas I-kappa B/metabolismo , Injeções Subcutâneas , Interleucina-4/antagonistas & inibidores , Interleucina-4/sangue , Interleucina-4/metabolismo , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/imunologia , Masculino , Inibidor de NF-kappaB alfa/agonistas , Inibidor de NF-kappaB alfa/genética , Obesidade/etiologia , Obesidade/imunologia , Obesidade/metabolismo , Fosforilação , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional , Ratos Wistar , Glutamato de Sódio/administração & dosagem , Glutamato de Sódio/efeitos adversos , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/antagonistas & inibidores , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/sangue , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
12.
J Physiol Biochem ; 72(4): 625-633, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27351887

RESUMO

Herein, we investigated whether subdiaphragmatic vagotomy has benefits on obesity, body glucose homeostasis, and insulin secretion in cafeteria (CAF)-obese rats. Wistar rats were fed a standard or CAF diet for 12 weeks. Subsequently, CAF rats were randomly submitted to truncal vagotomy (CAF Vag) or sham operation (CAF Sham). CAF Sham rats were hyperphagic, obese, and presented metabolic disturbances, including hyperinsulinemia, glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, and hypertriglyceridemia. Twelve weeks after vagotomy, CAF Vag rats presented reductions in body weight and perigonadal fat stores. Vagotomy did not modify glucose tolerance but normalized fed glycemia, insulinemia, and insulin sensitivity. Isolated islets from CAF Sham rats secreted more insulin in response to the cholinergic agent, carbachol, and when intracellular cyclic adenine monophosphate (cAMP) is enhanced by forskolin or 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine. Vagotomy decreased glucose-induced insulin release due to a reduction in the cholinergic action on ß-cells. This effect also normalized islet secretion in response to cAMP. Therefore, vagotomy in rats fed on a CAF-style diet effectively decreases adiposity and restores insulin sensitivity. These effects were mainly associated with the lack of cholinergic action on the endocrine pancreas, which decreases insulinemia and may gradually reduce fat storage and improve insulin sensitivity.


Assuntos
Hiperglicemia/cirurgia , Hiperinsulinismo/cirurgia , Hipertrigliceridemia/cirurgia , Obesidade/cirurgia , Vagotomia , Nervo Vago/cirurgia , 1-Metil-3-Isobutilxantina/farmacologia , Tecido Adiposo/efeitos dos fármacos , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Animais , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Carbacol/farmacologia , Colforsina/farmacologia , AMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Glucose/metabolismo , Glucose/farmacologia , Hiperglicemia/etiologia , Hiperglicemia/metabolismo , Hiperglicemia/patologia , Hiperinsulinismo/etiologia , Hiperinsulinismo/metabolismo , Hiperinsulinismo/patologia , Hipertrigliceridemia/etiologia , Hipertrigliceridemia/metabolismo , Hipertrigliceridemia/patologia , Insulina/metabolismo , Resistência à Insulina , Secreção de Insulina , Ilhotas Pancreáticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Ilhotas Pancreáticas/metabolismo , Masculino , Obesidade/etiologia , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/patologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Técnicas de Cultura de Tecidos , Nervo Vago/metabolismo
13.
Rev Bras Ginecol Obstet ; 37(7): 302-7, 2015 Jul.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26247249

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the follicular development of female Wistar rats with obesity induced by the cafeteria diet, submitted to the administration of losartan (LOS), an antagonist of the AT1 receptor of Angiotensin II. METHODS: At weaning (21 days of age), female Wistar rats were randomly divided, into two groups: control (CTL) that received standard chow and cafeteria (CAF) that received a cafeteria diet, a highly palatable and highly caloric diet. At 70 days of age, at the beginning of the reproductive age, animals of the CAF group were subdivided into two groups (n = 15/group): CAF, that received water, and CAF+LOS, that received LOS for 30 days. The CTL group also received water by gavage. At 100 days of age, the animals were euthanized and body weight (BW) as well as the retroperitoneal, perigonadal and subcutaneous fat weights were analyzed. The right ovaries were isolated for counting the number of primary, secondary, antral and mature follicles. Plasma levels of FSH, LH, prolactin and progesterone hormones were analyzed. The results were expressed as mean ± standard error of the mean. Data were analyzed statistically by one-way ANOVA followed by the Newman-Keuls post-test (p < 0.05). RESULTS: BW and fat weight, as well as the number of antral follicles, were higher in the CAF group compared to the CTL group. However, FSH and LH levels were lower in CAF animals compared to CTL animals. LOS administration attenuated the reduction of FSH and LH levels. Progesterone and PRL levels were similar among groups. CONCLUSION: LOS could improve follicular development in obese females and could be used as an adjunctive drug in the treatment of infertility associated with obesity.


Assuntos
Bloqueadores do Receptor Tipo 1 de Angiotensina II/farmacologia , Losartan/farmacologia , Obesidade , Folículo Ovariano/efeitos dos fármacos , Angiotensina II , Animais , Dieta , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Serviços de Alimentação , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Folículo Ovariano/fisiologia , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
14.
Acta sci., Health sci ; 37(2): 119-125, jul.-dez. 2015. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-832096

RESUMO

The present study investigated the effects of short-chain fructooligosaccharides (scFOS) feeding on body weight, fat accumulation, glucose homeostasis and lipid profile in cafeteria (CAF) obese rats. Male Wistar rats were divided randomly into two groups: control group (CTL, n = 10), which received a chow diet and water and CAF (n = 20), which received the cafeteria diet, standard chow and soda. After 30 weeks of diet, 10 animals of CAF group received scFOS in the diet (50 g kg-1 of diet) over a period of 50 days, forming the CAF FOS group. Were evaluated the body weight, fat pad as well as, quantity of feces, glucose tolerance, insulin resistance (IR) and serum lipids levels. Animals submitted to the CAF diet displayed obesity, hyperglycemia, glucose intolerance, hyperinsulinemia and IR. The scFOS feeding not altered obesity, glucose intolerance, hyperinsulinemia and IR. CAF rats also presented hypertriglyceridemia and lower levels of HDL-cholesterol. The CAF FOS animals had reduced serum triglycerides (TG) and increased HDL-cholesterol. Thus, the use of scFOS in the diet can be considered as a hypolipidemic agent in the obese state.


O presente estudo investigou os efeitos da adição de frutooligossacarídeos de cadeia curta (scFOS) sobre o peso corporal, acúmulo de gordura, homeostase glicêmica e perfil lipídico em ratos obesos pela dieta de cafeteria (CAF). Ratos Wistar foram divididos em dois grupos: controle (CTL, n = 10), que receberam dieta padrão e água e CAF, que receberam dieta de CAF, ração padrão e refrigerante (n = 20). Após 30 semanas, dez animais do grupo CAF receberam 50 g kg-1 de dieta de scFOS na ração padrão durante 50 dias, formando o grupo CAF FOS. Foram avaliados o peso corporal e o peso das gorduras, bem como, quantidade de fezes, homeostase glicêmica e concentração de lipídios séricos. Animais do grupo CAF apresentaram obesidade, hiperglicemia, intolerância à glicose, hiperinsulinemia e RI. A adição scFOS não alterou a obesidade, intolerância à glicose, hiperinsulinemia e RI no grupo CAF FOS comparado ao grupo CAF. Animais CAF também apresentaram hipertrigliceridemia e redução na concentração de HDL-colesterol. Os animais CAF FOS apresentaram redução na concentração sérica de triglicerídeos (TG) e aumento no HDL-colesterol. Desta forma, a utilização de scFOS na dieta pode ser considerado como um agente hipolipidêmico nos estados de obesidade.


Assuntos
Ratos , HDL-Colesterol , Dieta , Obesidade , Triglicerídeos
15.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 37(7): 302-307, 07/2015. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-753128

RESUMO

OBJETIVO: Avaliar o desenvolvimento folicular em ratas Wistar com obesidade induzida por dieta de cafeteria (DCAF) submetidas à administração de losartan (LOS), um antagonista do receptor AT1 da Angiotensina II. MÉTODOS: Aos 21 dias de vida, as ratas foram separadas aleatoriamente em dois grupos: controle (CTL), que recebeu ração padrão, e cafeteria (CAF), que recebeu a DCAF, altamente palatável e calórica. Aos 70 dias de vida, início da idade reprodutiva, animais do grupo CAF foram subdivididos em dois grupos (n=15/grupo): CAF, que recebeu água, e CAF+LOS, que recebeu 30 mg/kg de peso corporal (PC) de LOS por gavagem durante 30 dias. O grupo CTL também recebeu água por gavagem. Aos 100 dias de vida foi realizada a eutanásia dos animais e o PC e das gorduras retroperitoneal, perigonadal e subcutânea foi avaliado. Os ovários direitos foram retirados para contagem do número dos diferentes tipos de folículos ovarianos. As concentrações plasmáticas dos hormônios folículo-estimulantes (FSH), luteinizante (LH), prolactina (PRL) e progesterona foram avaliadas. Os resultados foram expressos como média±erro padrão da média. Para análise estatística, foi utilizado one-way ANOVA, seguido pelo pós-teste de Newman-Keuls (p<0,05). RESULTADOS: O PC e das gorduras, assim como o número de folículos antrais, foi elevado no grupo CAF em relação ao CTL. Todavia, as concentrações de FSH e LH foram mais baixas entre os animais CAF. A administração de LOS reduziu o PC e das gorduras retroperitoneal e subcutânea, bem como o número de folículos antrais. O tratamento com LOS atenuou a redução das concentrações de FSH e de LH. As concentrações de progesterona e PRL foram semelhantes entre os grupos estudados. CONCLUSÃO: O uso de LOS pode favorecer o desenvolvimento folicular em fêmeas obesas e pode possibilitar sua utilização como fármaco coadjuvante no tratamento da infertilidade associada à obesidade. .


PURPOSE: To evaluate the follicular development of female Wistar rats with obesity induced by the cafeteria diet, submitted to the administration of losartan (LOS), an antagonist of the AT1 receptor of Angiotensin II. METHODS: At weaning (21 days of age), female Wistar rats were randomly divided, into two groups: control (CTL) that received standard chow and cafeteria (CAF) that received a cafeteria diet, a highly palatable and highly caloric diet. At 70 days of age, at the beginning of the reproductive age, animals of the CAF group were subdivided into two groups (n=15/group): CAF, that received water, and CAF+LOS, that received LOS for 30 days. The CTL group also received water by gavage. At 100 days of age, the animals were euthanized and body weight (BW) as well as the retroperitoneal, perigonadal and subcutaneous fat weights were analyzed. The right ovaries were isolated for counting the number of primary, secondary, antral and mature follicles. Plasma levels of FSH, LH, prolactin and progesterone hormones were analyzed. The results were expressed as mean±standard error of the mean. Data were analyzed statistically by one-way ANOVA followed by the Newman-Keuls post-test (p<0.05). RESULTS: BW and fat weight, as well as the number of antral follicles, were higher in the CAF group compared to the CTL group. However, FSH and LH levels were lower in CAF animals compared to CTL animals. LOS administration attenuated the reduction of FSH and LH levels. Progesterone and PRL levels were similar among groups. CONCLUSION: LOS could improve follicular development in obese females and could be used as an adjunctive drug in the treatment of infertility associated with obesity. .


Assuntos
Animais , Feminino , Ratos , Bloqueadores do Receptor Tipo 1 de Angiotensina II/farmacologia , Losartan/farmacologia , Obesidade , Folículo Ovariano/efeitos dos fármacos , Angiotensina II , Dieta , Ingestão de Energia , Serviços de Alimentação , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Folículo Ovariano/fisiologia , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos Wistar
16.
Life Sci ; 135: 15-21, 2015 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26092479

RESUMO

AIMS: Fat deposition in the liver, which leads to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is associated with obesity. Taurine (Tau) regulates lipid metabolism, representing a possible nutraceutical agent against obesity and its comorbidities. Here, we investigated whether Tau supplementation prevents hepatic lipid accumulation by regulation of the main hepatic genes involved in de novo lipogenesis and ß-oxidation. MAIN METHODS: Male rats received subcutaneous injections of monosodium glutamate (MSG; 4 mg/kg body weight/day) or saline (control group, CTL) during the first 5 days of life. From 21 to 120 days of age, half of each of the MSG and CTL groups received 2.5% Tau in drinking water (CTau and MTau). KEY FINDINGS: MSG-treated rats were normoglycemic, hypertriglyceridemic and insulin resistant (IR). MSG rats also exhibited massive obesity and higher hepatic triglyceride (TG) content. This effect was associated with enhanced gene expression of fatty acid synthase (FASN), but reduced carbohydrate response element-binding protein (ChREBP), microsomal TG transfer protein (MTP) and carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT)-1a mRNAs in MSG livers. Tau supplementation decreased whole body fat accumulation and serum TG levels, without altering IR. Tau also normalized hepatic TG content by enhancing ChREBP, MTP, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-α, ACO (acyl-CoA oxidase) and CPT-1a gene expressions. SIGNIFICANCE: Therefore, increased hepatic TG deposition in MSG-obese rats is associated with an enhanced FASN, and reduced MTP and CPT-1a genes. Tau supplementation prevented obesity and hepatic TG deposition by upregulating MTP mRNA, ameliorating hepatic lipid efflux, and consequently enhancing PPAR-α which increases lipid oxidation through ACO and CPT-1a gene expressions.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Taurina/farmacologia , Animais , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/patologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
17.
Einstein (Sao Paulo) ; 13(1): 41-6, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25993067

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of low intensity laser (660nm), on the surae triceps muscle fatigue and power, during vertical jump in sedentary individuals, in addition to delayed onset muscle soreness. METHODS: We included 22 sedentary volunteers in the study, who were divided into three groups: G1 (n=8) without performing low intensity laser (control); G2 (n=7) subjected to 6 days of low intensity laser applications; and G3 (n=7) subjected to 10 days of low intensity laser applications. All subjects were evaluated by means of six evaluations of vertical jumps lasting 60 seconds each. In G2 and G3, laser applications in eight points, uniformly distributed directly to the skin in the region of the triceps surae were performed. Another variable analyzed was the delayed onset muscle soreness using the Visual Analog Scale of Pain. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in fatigue and mechanical power. In the evaluation of delayed onset muscle soreness, there was significant difference, being the first evaluation higher than the others. CONCLUSION: The low intensity laser on the triceps surae, in sedentary individuals, had no significant effects on the variables evaluated.


Assuntos
Terapia com Luz de Baixa Intensidade/métodos , Atividade Motora/efeitos da radiação , Músculo Esquelético/efeitos da radiação , Comportamento Sedentário , Adulto , Análise de Variância , Exercício , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fadiga Muscular/efeitos da radiação , Força Muscular/efeitos da radiação , Mialgia/prevenção & controle , Medição da Dor , Valores de Referência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
18.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 13(1): 41-46, Jan-Mar/2015. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-745890

RESUMO

Objective To investigate the effects of low intensity laser (660nm), on the surae triceps muscle fatigue and power, during vertical jump in sedentary individuals, in addition to delayed onset muscle soreness. Methods We included 22 sedentary volunteers in the study, who were divided into three groups: G1 (n=8) without performing low intensity laser (control); G2 (n=7) subjected to 6 days of low intensity laser applications; and G3 (n=7) subjected to 10 days of low intensity laser applications. All subjects were evaluated by means of six evaluations of vertical jumps lasting 60 seconds each. In G2 and G3, laser applications in eight points, uniformly distributed directly to the skin in the region of the triceps surae were performed. Another variable analyzed was the delayed onset muscle soreness using the Visual Analog Scale of Pain. Results There was no significant difference in fatigue and mechanical power. In the evaluation of delayed onset muscle soreness, there was significant difference, being the first evaluation higher than the others. Conclusion The low intensity laser on the triceps surae, in sedentary individuals, had no significant effects on the variables evaluated. .


Objetivo Verificar os efeitos do laser de baixa potência (660nm) sobre o tríceps sural na fadiga muscular e na potência, durante o salto vertical, em indivíduos sedentários, além da dor muscular de início tardio. Métodos Foram inclusos no estudo 22 voluntários sedentários, divididos em três grupos: G1 (n=8), sem realização de laser de baixa potência (controle); G2 (n=7), submetido a 6 dias de aplicações de laser de baixa potência; e G3 (n=7), submetido a 10 dias de aplicações de laser de baixa potência. Todos os indivíduos foram avaliados por meio de seis avaliações de saltos verticais, com duração de 60 segundos cada. No G2 e G3, foram realizadas aplicações de laser em oito pontos, distribuídos uniformemente e diretamente na pele, na região de do tríceps sural. Outra variável analisada foi a dor muscular de início tardia, utilizando a Escala Visual Analógica de Dor. Resultados Não houve diferença significativa na fadiga e na potência mecânica. Na avaliação da dor muscular tardia, houve diferença significativa, sendo a primeira avaliação maior do que as demais avaliações. Conclusão A aplicação do laser de baixa potência no tríceps sural, em indivíduos sedentários, não apresentou efeitos significativos nas variáveis avaliadas. .


Assuntos
Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem , Terapia com Luz de Baixa Intensidade/métodos , Atividade Motora/efeitos da radiação , Músculo Esquelético/efeitos da radiação , Comportamento Sedentário , Análise de Variância , Exercício , Fadiga Muscular/efeitos da radiação , Força Muscular/efeitos da radiação , Mialgia/prevenção & controle , Medição da Dor , Valores de Referência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores de Tempo
19.
Obes Surg ; 25(4): 656-65, 2015 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25204409

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bariatric operations are frequently used to improve metabolic profile and comorbidities in obese subjects, but the effects of this procedure in hypothalamic-obese (HyO) patients are controversial. Here, using HyO rats, we investigate the effects of duodenal-jejunal bypass (DJB) upon obesity, serum lipid levels, glucose tolerance, and insulin action and secretion. METHODS: Hypothalamic obesity was induced in male rats by the administration of monosodium glutamate [4 g/kg body weight (BW), HyO group] during the first 5 days of life. Control (CTL) group received saline (1.25 g/kg BW). At 90 days of age, HyO rats were submitted to DJB (HyO DJB group) or sham surgery. After 2 months, lipid levels, glucose tolerance, obesity parameters, and insulin sensitivity and secretion were verified. RESULTS: HyO rats displayed obesity, hypertriglyceridemia, hypercholesterolemia, glucose intolerance, and hyperinsulinemia. A higher HOMA-IR and no alteration in the ratio of phospho (p)-Akt related to Akt protein content in the liver, after insulin stimulus, demonstrated that HyO rats were insulin resistant. Islets isolated from HyO rats hypersecreted insulin in response to glucose and carbachol (Cch). At 2 months after DJB, HyO rats still displayed higher fat stores, but showed normal serum lipids and insulin levels. The HyO DJB group displayed better glucose tolerance, associated with a normal hepatic insulin activation of Akt. Normal glucose and Cch-induced insulin secretion was observed in HyO DJB islets. CONCLUSIONS: DJB ameliorated glucose homeostasis, restored hepatic insulin action, and normalized islet function in HyO rats, indicating that this surgery may be useful for the treatment of hypothalamic obesity.


Assuntos
Cirurgia Bariátrica , Doenças Hipotalâmicas/cirurgia , Células Secretoras de Insulina/fisiologia , Insulina/metabolismo , Obesidade/cirurgia , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Glicemia/metabolismo , Duodeno/cirurgia , Doenças Hipotalâmicas/complicações , Doenças Hipotalâmicas/patologia , Resistência à Insulina , Jejuno/cirurgia , Masculino , Obesidade/etiologia , Obesidade/patologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
20.
Acta Cir Bras ; 29(9): 609-14, 2014 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25252208

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of duodenal-jejunal bypass (DJB) on serum and hepatic profiles of obese rats fed on a western diet (WD). METHODS: Twenty eight male Wistar rats were fed a standard rodent chow diet (CTL group) or WD ad libitum. After 10 weeks, WD rats were submitted to sham (WD SHAM) or duodenal-jejunal bypass (WD DJB). Body weight, fat pad depots, glycemia, insulinemia, HOMA-IR, TyG, lipids profile and hepatic analyses were evaluated two months after surgery. RESULTS: The WD SHAM group presented greater obesity, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance, hypertriglyceridemia and hepatic steatosis than the CTL group. WD DJB rats presented decreased serum glucose and insulin resistance, when compared to WD SHAM animals, without changes in insulinemia. In addition, DJB surgery normalized serum TG and attenuated TG accumulation and steatosis in the liver of the WD DJB group. Hepatic ACC and FAS protein expressions were similar in all groups. CONCLUSION: Duodenal-jejunal bypass attenuates hepatic parameters of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in obese rats fed on a western diet.


Assuntos
Dieta Ocidental , Duodeno/cirurgia , Derivação Gástrica/métodos , Jejuno/cirurgia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/cirurgia , Obesidade/cirurgia , Acetil-CoA Carboxilase/análise , Tecido Adiposo , Animais , Glicemia/análise , Peso Corporal , Resistência à Insulina , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/metabolismo , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/patologia , Obesidade/metabolismo , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/análise , Ratos Wistar , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores de Tempo , Triglicerídeos/sangue
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