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1.
Braz. J. Psychiatry (São Paulo, 1999, Impr.) ; 41(4): 324-335, July-Aug. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1011506

RESUMO

Objective: To present the essential guidelines for pharmacological management of patients with psychomotor agitation in Brazil. Methods: This is a systematic review of articles retrieved from the MEDLINE (PubMed), Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and SciELO databases published from 1997 to 2017. Other relevant articles in the literature were also used to develop these guidelines. The search strategy used structured questions formulated using the PICO model, as recommended by the Guidelines Project of the Brazilian Medical Association. Recommendations were summarized according to their level of evidence, which was determined using the Oxford Centre for Evidence-based Medicine system and critical appraisal tools. Results: Of 5,362 articles retrieved, 1,731 abstracts were selected for further reading. The final sample included 74 articles that met all inclusion criteria. The evidence shows that pharmacologic treatment is indicated only after non-pharmacologic approaches have failed. The cause of the agitation, side effects of the medications, and contraindications must guide the medication choice. The oral route should be preferred for drug administration; IV administration must be avoided. All subjects must be monitored before and after medication administration. Conclusion: If non-pharmacological strategies fail, medications are needed to control agitation and violent behavior. Once medicated, the patient should be monitored until a tranquil state is possible without excessive sedation. Systematic review registry number: CRD42017054440.

2.
Rev. bras. psiquiatr ; 41(2): 153-167, Mar.-Apr. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-990823

RESUMO

Objective: To present the essential guidelines for non-pharmacological management of patients with psychomotor agitation in Brazil. Methods: These guidelines were developed based on a systematic review of articles published from 1997 to 2017, retrieved from MEDLINE (PubMed), Cochrane Database of Systematic Review, and SciELO. Other relevant articles identified by searching the reference lists of included studies were also used to develop these guidelines. The search strategy used structured questions formulated using the PICO model, as recommended by the Guidelines Project of the Brazilian Medical Association. Recommendations were summarized according to their level of evidence, which was determined using the Oxford Centre for Evidence-based Medicine system and critical appraisal tools. Results: We initially selected 1,731 abstracts among 5,362 articles. The final sample included 104 articles that fulfilled all the inclusion criteria. The management of agitated patients should always start with the least coercive approach. The initial non-pharmacological measures include a verbal strategy and referral of the patient to the appropriate setting, preferably a facility designed for the care of psychiatric patients with controlled noise, lighting, and safety aspects. Verbal de-escalation techniques have been shown to decrease agitation and reduce the potential for associated violence in the emergency setting. The possibility of underlying medical etiologies must be considered first and foremost. Particular attention should be paid to the patient's appearance and behavior, physical signs, and mental state. If agitation is severe, rapid tranquilization with medications is recommended. Finally, if verbal measures fail to contain the patient, physical restraint should be performed as the ultimate measure for patient protection, and always be accompanied by rapid tranquilization. Healthcare teams must be thoroughly trained to use these techniques and overcome difficulties if the verbal approach fails. It is important that healthcare professionals be trained in non-pharmacological management of patients with psychomotor agitation as part of the requirements for a degree and graduate degree. Conclusion: The non-pharmacological management of agitated patients should follow the hierarchy of less invasive to more invasive and coercive measures, starting with referral of the patient to an appropriate environment, management by a trained team, use of verbal techniques, performance of physical and mental assessment, use of medications, and, if unavoidable, use of the mechanical restraint. Systematic review registry number: CRD42017054440.

3.
Braz J Psychiatry ; 41(4): 324-335, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30843960

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To present the essential guidelines for pharmacological management of patients with psychomotor agitation in Brazil. METHODS: This is a systematic review of articles retrieved from the MEDLINE (PubMed), Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and SciELO databases published from 1997 to 2017. Other relevant articles in the literature were also used to develop these guidelines. The search strategy used structured questions formulated using the PICO model, as recommended by the Guidelines Project of the Brazilian Medical Association. Recommendations were summarized according to their level of evidence, which was determined using the Oxford Centre for Evidence-based Medicine system and critical appraisal tools. RESULTS: Of 5,362 articles retrieved, 1,731 abstracts were selected for further reading. The final sample included 74 articles that met all inclusion criteria. The evidence shows that pharmacologic treatment is indicated only after non-pharmacologic approaches have failed. The cause of the agitation, side effects of the medications, and contraindications must guide the medication choice. The oral route should be preferred for drug administration; IV administration must be avoided. All subjects must be monitored before and after medication administration. CONCLUSION: If non-pharmacological strategies fail, medications are needed to control agitation and violent behavior. Once medicated, the patient should be monitored until a tranquil state is possible without excessive sedation. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRY NUMBER: CRD42017054440.


Assuntos
Antipsicóticos/administração & dosagem , Benzodiazepinas/administração & dosagem , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Agitação Psicomotora/tratamento farmacológico , Antipsicóticos/classificação , Benzodiazepinas/classificação , Brasil , Gerenciamento Clínico , Humanos , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Agitação Psicomotora/diagnóstico
4.
Braz J Psychiatry ; 41(2): 153-167, 2019 Mar-Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30540028

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To present the essential guidelines for non-pharmacological management of patients with psychomotor agitation in Brazil. METHODS: These guidelines were developed based on a systematic review of articles published from 1997 to 2017, retrieved from MEDLINE (PubMed), Cochrane Database of Systematic Review, and SciELO. Other relevant articles identified by searching the reference lists of included studies were also used to develop these guidelines. The search strategy used structured questions formulated using the PICO model, as recommended by the Guidelines Project of the Brazilian Medical Association. Recommendations were summarized according to their level of evidence, which was determined using the Oxford Centre for Evidence-based Medicine system and critical appraisal tools. RESULTS: We initially selected 1,731 abstracts among 5,362 articles. The final sample included 104 articles that fulfilled all the inclusion criteria. The management of agitated patients should always start with the least coercive approach. The initial non-pharmacological measures include a verbal strategy and referral of the patient to the appropriate setting, preferably a facility designed for the care of psychiatric patients with controlled noise, lighting, and safety aspects. Verbal de-escalation techniques have been shown to decrease agitation and reduce the potential for associated violence in the emergency setting. The possibility of underlying medical etiologies must be considered first and foremost. Particular attention should be paid to the patient's appearance and behavior, physical signs, and mental state. If agitation is severe, rapid tranquilization with medications is recommended. Finally, if verbal measures fail to contain the patient, physical restraint should be performed as the ultimate measure for patient protection, and always be accompanied by rapid tranquilization. Healthcare teams must be thoroughly trained to use these techniques and overcome difficulties if the verbal approach fails. It is important that healthcare professionals be trained in non-pharmacological management of patients with psychomotor agitation as part of the requirements for a degree and graduate degree. CONCLUSION: The non-pharmacological management of agitated patients should follow the hierarchy of less invasive to more invasive and coercive measures, starting with referral of the patient to an appropriate environment, management by a trained team, use of verbal techniques, performance of physical and mental assessment, use of medications, and, if unavoidable, use of the mechanical restraint. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRY NUMBER: CRD42017054440.


Assuntos
Gerenciamento Clínico , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Agitação Psicomotora/diagnóstico , Agitação Psicomotora/terapia , Brasil , Humanos , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica
5.
Sao Paulo Med J ; 136(1): 59-63, 2018 Jan-Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28767990

RESUMO

CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Few studies have assessed the impact of medical residencies on the public healthcare system. The aim here was to assess the number of specialists who remained in the state of Tocantins after finishing the medical residency program during the first two years of the first programs (2013 and 2014). DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional and exploratory study conducted at the Federal University of Tocantins in Brazil. METHODS: All graduates of medical residency programs in Tocantins, of the years 2013 and 2014, were interviewed by telephone and e-mail between May and July 2014. RESULTS: Information was obtained from 37 graduates from medical residency. Seventeen (50.0%) were working in the state public healthcare system and only six (17.6%) in a municipal service in June 2014. Considering only the 24 doctors who had never worked in the state of Tocantins before their residency, it was observed that two who graduated in 2013 (20.0%) and five who graduated in 2014 (35.7%), i.e. seven out of the total number (29.2%), had established their homes in Tocantins. CONCLUSIONS: The number of graduates from medical residency who stayed in the state of Tocantins in 2013 and 2014 was small. However, this was related to the absence of other programs for continuation of the specialization. The state healthcare system was primarily responsible for employment of these doctors within public services. On the other hand, hiring by municipal services was extremely low.


Assuntos
Escolha da Profissão , Médicos/provisão & distribução , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Internato e Residência , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino
6.
Rev. psiquiatr. clín. (São Paulo) ; 44(4): 94-98, July-Aug. 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-903035

RESUMO

Abstract Background Brain-imaging studies in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have consistently revealed alterations in brain structure and function and this is correlated to symptomatology. However, few studies have investigated the role of biomarkers in PTSD some specific groups, as police officers. Objective To evaluate prefrontal and limbic volumes, and cortical thickness of police officers exposed to trauma during work who developed post-traumatic stress disorder, resilient matched controls (without PTSD), and compared to healthy civilians. Methods Prefrontal and limbic volumes, and cortical thickness of 12 police officers with PTSD, 12 resilient police officers, and 12 healthy civilians who underwent brain MRI were analyzed. Results Differences in limbic structures volume were not significative after Bonferroni correction. A significant reduction in cortical thickness on right rostral cingulate, right and left middle frontal gyrus, left superior frontal, left lingual, calcarine and cuneus were observed in PTSD group in comparison to controls was observed. Discussion Although preliminary, our results suggested not only the association between cortical thickness and PTSD, but also indicated that patients and controls have anatomical differences.

7.
J. vasc. bras ; 15(2): 126-133, tab
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS | ID: lil-787535

RESUMO

CONTEXTO: O consumo de crack é um dos grandes desafios em saúde pública, e o uso dessa droga tem efeitos diretos na saúde de seus usuários. OBJETIVOS: Avaliar o perfil das alterações vasculares em pacientes com dependência de crack em Centro de Atenção Psicossocial para Álcool e Drogas (CAPS-AD) e observar os possíveis efeitos vasculares periféricos. MÉTODOS: Trata-se de um estudo observacional, descritivo, de corte transversal. Os pacientes da amostra foram submetidos a um questionário objetivo para avaliar questões demográficas, padrão de uso da droga, coexistência de diabetes melito, hipertensão arterial ou tabagismo, exame físico e ecográfico. Os dados foram sumarizados e analisados estatisticamente com teste qui-quadrado ou teste exato de Fisher. RESULTADOS: A média de idade da amostra foi de 33,29 (±7,15) anos, e 74% eram do gênero masculino. A média de idade de início de uso da droga foi de 23,4 (±7,78) anos, com tempo médio de uso de 9,58 (±5,64) anos. O consumo médio diário de pedras de crack foi de 21,45 (±8,32) pedras. A alteração de pulsos em membros inferiores foi mais frequente em mulheres. A prevalência do espessamento da parede arterial nos membros inferiores foi de 94,8%. O tempo de uso da droga apresentou associação estatística (p = 0,0096) com alteração do padrão de curva espectral das artérias dos membros inferiores. CONCLUSÕES: Há alterações vasculares periféricas em usuários de crack. O tempo de uso da droga exerceu um maior impacto nesse sistema, o que sugere associação entre o uso do crack e a diminuição de fluxo arterial.


BACKGROUND: Consumption of crack is one of the major challenges in public health and taking this drug has direct effects on the health of those who use it. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the profile of vascular abnormalities in patients receiving treatment for crack dependency at a Psychosocial Care Center for Alcohol and Drugs and to observe possible peripheral vascular effects. METHODS: The study design is observational, descriptive and cross-sectional. An objective questionnaire was administered to the patients in the sample to collect data on demographic details; drug use profile; and concomitant diabetes mellitus, arterial hypertension and/or smoking; and physical and ultrasound examinations were conducted. Data were summarized and analyzed statistically with the chi-square test or Fisher’s exact test. RESULTS: The mean age of the sample was 33.29 (±7.15) years, and 74% were male. Mean age at onset of drug use was 23.4 (±7.78) years and mean time since onset was 9.58 (±5.64) years. Mean consumption of crack rocks was 21.45 (±8.32) per day. The rate of abnormal lower limb pulses was higher among women. The prevalence of artery wall thickening in lower limbs was 94.8%. Time since starting to use crack exhibited a statistically significant association (p = 0.0096) with abnormalities in the spectral curve profiles of lower limb arteries. CONCLUSIONS: Crack users exhibit peripheral vascular disorders. Length of time since starting to use the drug had the greatest impact on this system, suggesting an association between crack use and reduced arterial flow.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Cocaína Crack/efeitos adversos , Cocaína Crack/história , Cocaína Crack/metabolismo , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/complicações , Fatores de Tempo , Comorbidade , Prevalência , Estudos Transversais , Inquéritos e Questionários/classificação , Trombose Venosa/complicações , Extremidade Inferior/fisiopatologia
8.
J Clin Psychiatry ; 77(3): 398-406, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27046312

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We performed a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial to assess the efficacy of topiramate in the treatment of crack cocaine dependence. METHOD: Sixty men who were dependent on cocaine (DSM-IV) (exclusive use of crack cocaine) were selected. The subjects were randomly assigned to either a topiramate group (subjects received 50-200 mg of topiramate per day for 12 weeks) or a control group (subjects received placebo). The initial daily treatment dose was 50 mg, and this dose was increased weekly at increments of 25 to 50 mg, based on the subject's tolerability, to a maximum of 200 mg. All of the subjects also participated in motivational interviews and group therapy. The primary outcome measures were detection of benzoylecgonine in the urine, study retention, frequency of cocaine smoking, amount of cocaine use, and mean amount of money spent on cocaine per week. The study was conducted from February 2013 to February 2014. RESULTS: Twenty-nine subjects in the topiramate group and 29 subjects in the control group completed the study. Longitudinal assessment revealed that retention was not significant (odds ratio [OR] = 1.072, P = .908) between the 2 groups. Negative results from a urine test for benzoylecgonine (a cocaine metabolite), which is a measure of cocaine abstinence, were more frequently obtained from the topiramate group (OR = 8.687, P < .001). Topiramate reduced the quantity of cocaine used (mean reduction = -3.108 g, P < .001), the frequency of cocaine use (mean = -0.784 times per week, P = .005), and the amount of money spent on cocaine (mean [US dollars] = -$25.38, P = .015; this variable did not achieve statistical significance after Bonferroni correction) compared with the placebo during the 12 weeks (or 84 days) of the assessment. However, the differences in reductions between the 2 groups in the quantity of cocaine used, the frequency of cocaine use, and money spent on cocaine over time (time × group interaction) were present only during the first 4 weeks, and none of these variables by 12 weeks. The studied groups did not differ with regard to secondary end points, such as study dropout and the number of subjects who reported side effects. CONCLUSIONS: The present findings indicate that topiramate is effective and safe and thus reinforce previous data suggesting that topiramate is a potentially useful treatment for crack cocaine dependence. However, we found that topiramate is only useful as an adjunctive treatment during the first 4 weeks of the treatment. Future studies with larger samples are needed to confirm these results. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Registro Brasileiro de Ensaios Clínicos (ReBEC) RBR-3vwfjs and UTN: U1111-1131-4443.


Assuntos
Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Cocaína/tratamento farmacológico , Cocaína Crack , Frutose/análogos & derivados , Entrevista Motivacional , Psicoterapia de Grupo , Adulto , Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapêutico , Terapia Combinada , Método Duplo-Cego , Esquema de Medicação , Frutose/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Masculino , Topiramato , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
9.
World J Biol Psychiatry ; 17(2): 86-128, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26912127

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Psychomotor agitation is associated with different psychiatric conditions and represents an important issue in psychiatry. Current recommendations on agitation in psychiatry are not univocal. Actually, an improper assessment and management may result in unnecessary coercive or sedative treatments. A thorough and balanced review plus an expert consensus can guide assessment and treatment decisions. METHODS: An expert task force iteratively developed consensus using the Delphi method. Initial survey items were based on systematic review of the literature. Subsequent surveys included new, re-worded or re-rated items. RESULTS: Out of 2175 papers assessing psychomotor agitation, 124 were included in the review. Each component was assigned a level of evidence. Integrating the evidence and the experience of the task force members, a consensus was reached on 22 statements on this topic. CONCLUSIONS: Recommendations on the assessment of agitation emphasise the importance of identifying any possible medical cause. For its management, experts agreed in considering verbal de-escalation and environmental modification techniques as first choice, considering physical restraint as a last resort strategy. Regarding pharmacological treatment, the "ideal" medication should calm without over-sedate. Generally, oral or inhaled formulations should be preferred over i.m. routes in mildly agitated patients. Intravenous treatments should be avoided.


Assuntos
Antipsicóticos/uso terapêutico , Gerenciamento Clínico , Agitação Psicomotora/diagnóstico , Agitação Psicomotora/tratamento farmacológico , Agitação Psicomotora/etiologia , Benzodiazepinas/uso terapêutico , Consenso , Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Humanos , Metanálise como Assunto , Olanzapina , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Psiquiatria , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Fatores de Risco
11.
Sao Paulo Med J ; 133(5): 435-8, 2015 Sep-Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26648433

RESUMO

CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Teachers are at great risk of physical and mental stress due to material or psychological difficulties associated with their work. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of common psychiatric symptoms measured on the Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20) scale that would suggest a diagnosis of psychiatric disorders among public school teachers in Palmas, Tocantins, Brazil, in 2012. DESIGN AND SETTING: Observational cross-sectional study in Palmas, Tocantins, Brazil. METHOD: We assessed 110 municipal teachers in the city of Palmas, Tocantins, Brazil. They were selected randomly from a list of employees of the Municipal Education Department of Palmas. All of them answered the SRQ-20 questionnaire after giving their consent. RESULTS: Between the years 2008 and 2011, 24 cases of absence from work due to mental disorders were found. We excluded one case and 109 teachers answered the SRQ-20questionnaire. Out of the 109 teachers assessed, 54 had ≥ 7 points on the SRQ-20 scale. This finding suggests that 49.5% of the teachers had symptoms that were sufficient to consider a diagnosis of mental disorder, with the need for treatment. CONCLUSION: Our study found that the prevalence of mental disorders among teachers is as high as seen in the literature. Our results suggest that recognition of mental disorders is low and that the current statistics fail to reach the occupational health sector.


Assuntos
Docentes/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Doenças Profissionais/psicologia , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiologia , Métodos Epidemiológicos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Setor Público , Carga de Trabalho
12.
Rev. bras. saúde ocup ; 40(132): 156-169, jul.-dez. 2015. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | ID: lil-768326

RESUMO

Resumo Objetivo: analisar as características epidemiológicas de afastamentos do trabalho por Transtornos Mentais e de Comportamento (TMC) entre servidores públicos federais do Poder Executivo, no Tocantins, e investigar se variáveis pré-selecionadas influenciaram nos afastamentos. Métodos: foram avaliados dados de 103 servidores com pelo menos um registro de afastamento por transtornos mentais no período de abril de 2011 a dezembro de 2012. Os dados foram obtidos de prontuários eletrônicos e de informações do Portal da Transparência do Governo Federal Resultados: “Episódios depressivos”, “Reações ao stress grave e transtornos de adaptação”, e “Outros transtornos ansiosos” foram os mais frequentes causadores dos afastamentos. Diagnósticos de “Esquizofrenia, transtornos esquizotípicos e delirantes” apresentaram a maior média de afastamentos por servidor; os diagnósticos de “Transtornos devido ao uso de substância psicoativa” apresentaram a maior média de dias de afastamento por servidor. Na análise de correlação parcial, controlado o efeito da idade, os servidores com menos tempo de serviço público e de trabalho em órgão federal passaram mais dias afastados do trabalho do que aqueles que já trabalhavam nesses ambientes há mais tempo. Conclusão: os resultados reforçam a concepção de saúde mental e de trabalho como indissociáveis na conjuntura produtiva atual, incluindo o serviço público.


Abstract Objective: to analyze the epidemiological characteristics of the absence from work due to Mental Behavioral Disorders (MBD) among federal government workers in the state of Tocantins-Brazil and also to investigate whether pre-selected variables have influenced on the absence from work. Methods: we collected data from 103 federal government workers with at least one record of absence from work due to mental disorders from April 2011 to December 2012. Data were obtained from electronic medical records and information from Portal da Transparência of Brazilian Federal Government. Results: “depressive episodes”, “reaction to severe stress, and adjustment disorders” and “other anxiety disorders” were the most frequent causes of absence. Diagnosis of “schizophrenia, schizotypal and delusional disorders” had the highest average of medical leave per person, while “mental and behavioral disorders due to psychoactive substance use” had the highest average of days of absence per person. In the partial correlation analysis, the results indicated that workers with shorter employment time who have taken medical leaves due to mental disorders spent more days off work than those who were already working in these same environments before. Conclusion: the results reinforce the concept of “mental health” and “work” as inseparable in the current production environment, which includes the public sector work environment.

13.
J. bras. psiquiatr ; 63(4): 379-383, Oct-Dec/2014.
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | ID: lil-736006

RESUMO

Antipsicóticos atípicos têm sua ação em doses que podem produzir efeitos colaterais importantes. A risperidona é o antipsicótico atípico de nova geração mais utilizado na atualidade e seu uso está associado a tratamento de esquizofrenia, transtornos psicóticos, episódios de mania e nos distúrbios de comportamento, entre outros. Os efeitos adversos mais importantes estão relacionados ao sistema nervoso central e autônomo, sistema endócrino e sistema cardiovascular. Neste último, pode haver efeitos inotrópicos negativos e alterações no eletrocardiograma, como prolongamento do intervalo QT, podendo causar taquicardia e arritmias. Relatamos um caso de um homem de 48 anos com história de delírio persecutório após ser ameaçado no trabalho, que estava sendo tratado com risperidona e paroxetina. Por não haver melhora, suas doses foram aumentadas e o paciente apresentou alargamento do intervalo QTc, com diminuição da amplitude da onda T e aumento da onda U, e hipocalemia. Além disso, o paciente era hipertenso e estava em uso de hidroclorotiazida. A risperidona tem o potencial de bloquear o componente rápido do canal cardíaco de potássio e isso prolonga o processo de repolarização dos ventrículos, podendo causar torsade de pointes, morte súbita e arritmias. Já a hidroclorotiazida causa hipocalemia, provocando alterações na contração e relaxamento do miocárdio. Houve interação medicamentosa grave entre duas drogas com potencial arritmogênico, o que levou às alterações no eletrocardiograma e produziu sintomas danosos ao paciente. A troca do antipsicótico atípico para um típico e da hidroclorotiazida por um diurético que não causa hipocalemia trouxe melhoras ao paciente.


Atypical antipsychotics have their actions in doses that can cause important side effects. The risperidone is the new generation atypical antipsychotic most widely used these days and it is related to the treatment of schizophrenia, psychotic disorders, manic episodes and behavioral disorder, among others. The most significant side effects are associated with the central and autonomic nervous system, endocrine system and cardiovascular system. Considering the latter, negative inotropic effects and changes on eletrocardiograma can occur, with QT-interval prolongation, which can cause tachycardia and arrhythmias. We reported a case of a 48 years old man with history of persecutory delusion after being threatened at work, treated with risperidone and paroxetine. Since there was no improvement, the doses were increased and the patient showed QTc-interval prolongation, with a T-wave amplitude decrease and an increase on the U-wave, in addition to hypokalemia. Besides, the patient was hypertensive and was using hydrochlorothiazide. Risperidone has the potential to block the fast component of the cardiac potassium channel and it extends the repolarization process of the ventricles, which can lead to torsade de pointes, sudden cardiac death and arrhythmias. Also hydrochlorothiazide can cause hypokalemia, with disturbances on the myocardium depolarization and repolarization. There was a serious drug interaction with two potentially arrhythmogenic drugs, which led to the alterations on the electrocardiogram and generated hurtful symptoms to the patient. The shift of the atypical antipsychotic to one typical and of the hydrochlorothiazide to a diuretic that does not cause hypokalemia brought improvements to the patient.

14.
Pediatr. mod ; 50(9)set. 2014.
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | ID: lil-740838

RESUMO

Introdução: Considerando que o Tocantins está entre os Estados brasileiros com maior número de ocorrência de incêndios florestais, os focos de queimadas nessa região assumem importância como fator causal, no que se refere ao aumento de internações por doenças respiratórias. Objetivo: Determinar a relação entre focos de calor (queimadas), índices pluviométricos, umidade relativa do ar e média de temperatura mensal com o número de internações hospitalares por doenças respiratórias no Hospital Infantil Público de Palmas (HIPP). Método: Foi realizado estudo transversal que comparou o número de focos de calor (queimadas), índices pluviométricos e umidade relativa do ar com o número de internações hospitalares por doenças respiratórias em um hospital infantil de Palmas - TO, no ano de 2012. Resultados: Do total de internações no HIPP por diversas causas, 42,24% foram decorrentes de doenças respiratórias. O índice pluviométrico chegou a 0 mm no terceiro trimestre, 54,9±42,6 mm no segundo, seguido por 194,8±149,9 mm no quarto e, finalmente, 249,2±128,9 mm no primeiro (p<0,04). Com relação à umidade, variou de 41,7±4,7% no terceiro trimestre para 65,6±7,9 % no segundo, 69,0±11,9% no quarto e 81,9±2,7% no primeiro (p<0,04). Aparentemente, a diferença no número de focos de incêndio não foi estatisticamente significativa. Foi observada correlação negativa entre o índice pluviométrico e o número de internações por doenças respiratórias, no total (R=-0,606; p<0,03) e por pneumonia (R=-0,735; p<0,01). Conclusão: Os fatores ambientais têm importância causal com o aumento de internações por doenças respiratórias; portanto, devem ser implementadas ações voltadas à saúde para melhora dos atendimentos dos pacientes nos períodos de seca.

15.
J Affect Disord ; 168: 13-20, 2014 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25033473

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To evaluate differences in limbic structure volume of subjects exposed to urban violence during adulthood, between those who developed posttraumatic stress disorder (with PTSD) and resilient matched controls (without PTSD). METHODS: Limbic volumetric measures of 32 subjects with PTSD and 32 subjects without PTSD who underwent brain MRI were analyzed in an epidemiological study in the city of Sao Paulo. The hippocampus, amygdala, cingulate, and parahipocampal gyri volumes were estimated using FreeSurfer software. We also investigated the association between limbic volumetric measurements, symptom´s severity, and early life stress history (measure by Early Trauma Inventory - ETI). RESULTS: Subjects with PTSD presented reduced volume of the right rostral part of the anterior cingulate, compared to subjects without PTSD, after controlling for intracranial volume, ETI, and depressive symptoms. Subjects with PTSD presented larger bilateral hippocampus and right amygdala, but secondary to the higher ETI. In PTSD group there was a positive correlation between ETI with bilateral hippocampus, bilateral amygdala, and left parahippocampus. LIMITATIONS: First, the cross-sectional study design precludes causal interpretation of limbic structure reduction in PTSD, consequence of PTSD, or other life events. Finally, since the sample size was not sufficiently large, we could not observe whether or not limbic structure volume could be related to the type of trauma. CONCLUSIONS: The present study provides evidence of a reduced anterior cingulate volume in subjects with PTSD than in resilient subjects exposed to urban violence. Enlargement of hippocampus and amygdala volume was observed in subjects with PTSD, however secondary to early trauma experience.


Assuntos
Giro do Cíngulo/patologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/patologia , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Violência/psicologia , Adulto , Tonsila do Cerebelo/patologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Hipocampo/patologia , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão , Giro Para-Hipocampal/patologia , Tamanho da Amostra , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/etiologia
16.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 47(1): 38-46, 2014 Jan-Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24603735

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to describe the main features of visceral leishmaniasis (VL), both related to and independent of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, in patients who were registered in Tocantins, Brazil. METHODS: Data from 1,779 new patients with VL, 33 of whom were also infected with HIV, were reviewed. RESULTS: The incidence of VL/HIV coinfection increased from 0.32/100,000 inhabitants in 2007 to 1.08/100,000 inhabitants in 2010. VL occurred predominantly in children aged 10 years or younger, while VL/HIV was more common in patients aged between 18 and 50 years. There were more male patients in the VL/HIV group than in the VL group. Relapse rates were also considerably higher in the VL/HIV (9.1%) group than in the VL group (1.5%). Despite a similar clinical presentation, VL/HIV patients exhibited a higher proportion (24.2%) of concomitant infectious diseases and jaundice. Pentavalent antimonials were used for the initial treatment of VL and VL/HIV infections. However, amphotericin B deoxycholate and liposomal amphotericin B were also widely used in the treatment of VL/HIV coinfection. The mortality rate was higher in the VL/HIV coinfection group (19.4%) than in the VL group (5.4%). Furthermore, the mortality rate due to other causes was significantly higher in the VL/HIV group (12.9%) than in the VL group (0.7%). CONCLUSIONS: The study showed that the incidence, clinical characteristics and outcomes among the VL and VL/HIV patients in this state are similar to those from other endemic regions, indicating that both infections are emerging with increasing frequency in Brazil.


Assuntos
Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/epidemiologia , Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Leishmaniose Visceral/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva , Adulto Jovem
17.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 47(1): 38-46, Jan-Feb/2014. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-703170

RESUMO

Introduction: This study aimed to describe the main features of visceral leishmaniasis (VL), both related to and independent of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, in patients who were registered in Tocantins, Brazil. Methods: Data from 1,779 new patients with VL, 33 of whom were also infected with HIV, were reviewed. Results: The incidence of VL/HIV coinfection increased from 0.32/100,000 inhabitants in 2007 to 1.08/100,000 inhabitants in 2010. VL occurred predominantly in children aged 10 years or younger, while VL/HIV was more common in patients aged between 18 and 50 years. There were more male patients in the VL/HIV group than in the VL group. Relapse rates were also considerably higher in the VL/HIV (9.1%) group than in the VL group (1.5%). Despite a similar clinical presentation, VL/HIV patients exhibited a higher proportion (24.2%) of concomitant infectious diseases and jaundice. Pentavalent antimonials were used for the initial treatment of VL and VL/HIV infections. However, amphotericin B deoxycholate and liposomal amphotericin B were also widely used in the treatment of VL/HIV coinfection. The mortality rate was higher in the VL/HIV coinfection group (19.4%) than in the VL group (5.4%). Furthermore, the mortality rate due to other causes was significantly higher in the VL/HIV group (12.9%) than in the VL group (0.7%). Conclusions: The study showed that the incidence, clinical characteristics and outcomes among the VL and VL/HIV patients in this state are similar to those from other endemic regions, indicating that both infections are emerging with increasing frequency in Brazil. .


Assuntos
Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem , Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/epidemiologia , Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/tratamento farmacológico , Brasil/epidemiologia , Escolaridade , Incidência , Leishmaniose Visceral/tratamento farmacológico , Recidiva
18.
Sao Paulo Med J ; 131(5): 301-8, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24310798

RESUMO

CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Knowledge of the profile of allergen sensitization among children is important for planning preventive measures. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence and profile of sensitization to inhaled allergens and food among children and adolescents in an outpatient population in the city of Palmas. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study at outpatient clinics in Palmas, Tocantins, Brazil. METHODS: Ninety-four patients aged 1-15 years who were attending two pediatric outpatient clinics were selected between September and November 2008. All of the subjects underwent clinical interviews and skin prick tests. RESULTS: A positive skin prick test was observed in 76.6% of the participants (72.3% for inhalants and 28.9% for food allergens). The most frequent allergens were Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (34%), cat epithelium (28.7%), dog epithelium (21.3%), Dermatophagoides farinae (19.1%), Blomia tropicalis (18.1%), cow's milk (9.6%) and grasses (9.6%). A positive skin prick test correlated with a history of atopic disease (odds ratio, OR = 5.833; P = 0.002), a family history of atopic disease (OR = 8.400; P < 0.001), maternal asthma (OR = 8.077; P = 0.048), pet exposure (OR = 3.600; P = 0.012) and cesarean delivery (OR = 3.367; P = 0.019). CONCLUSION: Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus was the most frequent aeroallergen and cow's milk was the most prevalent food allergen. There was a positive correlation between a positive skin prick test and several factors, such as a family history of atopic disease, maternal asthma, pet exposure and cesarean delivery.


Assuntos
Alérgenos/imunologia , Hipersensibilidade Imediata/epidemiologia , Hipersensibilidade Imediata/imunologia , Adolescente , Brasil/epidemiologia , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/epidemiologia , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/imunologia , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Testes Cutâneos
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