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1.
Fish Physiol Biochem ; 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31673997

RESUMO

Thymol is an herbal food additive used to improve animal performance. Thymol acts via its potential to enhance productive and reproductive performance, and by improving bioavailability of nutrients in fish. Nevertheless, the exact mechanisms associated with these phenomena remain poorly understood, although recent evidence has suggested the involvement of the phosphotransfer network and antioxidant status. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine whether the improvement of the antioxidant/oxidant status and the phosphoryl transfer network may be involved in enhanced growth performance in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) fed with various levels of thymol (100, 200, and 300 mg/kg feed). Thymol-supplementation (100 mg/kg feed) produced higher body weight and weight gain for 60-day post-feeding compared to the control group. Specific growth rate was higher; while feed conversion ratio was lower in fish that consumed 100 mg of thymol/kg compared to other groups. Hepatic lactate dehydrogenase activity and lipid peroxidation levels were lower in the thymol-supplemented group (100 mg/kg feed) than in the control group, while reactive oxygen species were lower in all supplemented groups than in the control group. Hepatic superoxide dismutase (300 mg/kg feed) and glutathione peroxidase (100, 200, and 300 mg/kg feed) activities, as well as antioxidant capacity against peroxyl radicals (100 mg/kg feed) were higher in these groups than in the control group. Based on these data, we conclude that 100 mg thymol/kg dietary supplementation increased growth performance of fingerling grass carp. Finally, hepatic adenylate kinase activity was lower in the thymol supplemented group (100 mg/kg feed) than in the control group. Thymol supplementation (100 mg/kg feed) improved hepatic energy metabolism, while practically all tested concentrations of thymol enhanced hepatic antioxidant status, all of which may be pathways involved in increased growth performance in fingerling grass carp.

2.
Exp Parasitol ; : 107790, 2019 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31697939

RESUMO

Neospora caninum is a protozoan that has tropism for the central nervous system. The aim of this study was to determine whether experimental infection of gerbils would interfere with activity of enzymes associated with energy metabolism. We randomized 20 gerbils into two groups (ten animals per group): the control group (healthy animals; uninfected) and the infected group (experimentally infected with dose 7.8 x 102 tachyzoites of N. caninum per gerbil). On day six and twelve post-infection (PI), brain and spleen tissues were collected for biochemical and histopathological analyses. No histopathological lesions were observed in the brains of infected animals; however, inflammatory infiltrates were found in the spleen. Significantly greater levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were observed in the brain and spleen of infected gerbils than in the control group at 12 days PI. Cytosolic creatine kinase (CK-CYT), mitochondrial creatine kinase (CK-MIT), and pyruvate kinase (PK) activities were lower in the brains of infected gerbils than in those of the control group on day 12 PI. There was significantly less CK-CYT activity in the spleens of infected gerbils on day 6 and 12 PI. Finally, there was significantly less sodium-potassium ion pump (Na+/K+ ATPase) activity in the brains and spleens of infected gerbils on day 12 PI. These data suggest that experimental infection with N. caninum interfered with energy metabolism associated with ATP homeostasis in the brain and spleen, directly or indirectly, apparently mediated by ROS overproduction, contributing to inhibition of Na+/K+ ATPase activity.

3.
Microb Pathog ; 138: 103817, 2019 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31672529

RESUMO

Flavobacterium columnare, the causative agent of columnaris disease, is a serious bacterial disease responsible for causing devastating mortality rates in several species of freshwater fish, leading to severe economic losses in the aquaculture industry. Notwithstanding the enormous impacts this disease can have, very little is known regarding the interaction between the host and bacterium in terms of the mortality rate of silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen), as well its linkage to gill energetic homeostasis. Therefore, we conducted independent experiments to evaluate the mortality rates caused by F. columnare in silver catfish, as well as whether columnaris disease impairs the enzymes of the phosphoryl transfer network in gills of silver catfish and the pathways involved in this inhibition. Experiment I revealed that clinical signs started to appear 72 h post-infection (hpi), manifesting as lethargy, skin necrosis, fin erosion and gill discoloration. Silver catfish began to die at 96 hpi, and 100% mortality was observed at 120 hpi. Experiment II revealed that creatine kinase (CK, cytosolic and mitochondrial) and pyruvate kinase (PK) activities were inhibited in silver catfish experimentally infected with F. columnare, while no significant difference was observed between experimental and control groups with respect to adenylate kinase activity. Activity of the branchial sodium-potassium pump (Na+, K+-ATPase) was inhibited while reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lipid peroxidation levels were higher in silver catfish experimentally infected with F. columnare than in the control group at 72 hpi. Based on these data, the impairment of CK activity elicited by F. columnare caused a disruption in branchial energetic balance, possibly reducing ATP availability in the gills and provoking impairment of Na+, K +ATPase activity. The inhibition of CK and PK activities appears to be mediated by ROS overproduction and lipid peroxidation, both of which contribute to disease pathogenesis associated with branchial tissue.

4.
Microb Pathog ; 138: 103786, 2019 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31604154

RESUMO

Energy metabolism is a sensitive indicator of cellular disorders. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate changes in cardiac and hepatic energy metabolism during listeriosis using an experimental model. We divided gerbils into two groups: Control (n = 11) and orally Infected (n = 12) with 5 × 109 CFU/mL of Listeria monocytogenes. Euthanasia and sampling were performed on days 6 and 12 post-infection (PI). Histopathological lesions were not found in the heart; however, the liver showed pyogranuloma. In the hearts of infected animals, cytosolic creatine kinase activity was lower on day 6 and 12 PI; mitochondrial creatine kinase/pyruvate kinase (PK), and sodium potassium pump (Na+/K+-ATPase) activities were lower on day 12 PI. Hepatic PK and Na+/K+-ATPase activities were lower in the infected group on day 12 PI. Lipoperoxidation was higher in the livers and hearts of infected animals on day 12 PI, and antioxidant capacity against peroxyl radicals (ACAP) was also higher in this group. These data suggest that subclinical listeriosis alters hepatic and cardiac energy metabolism, possibly related to decreased activity of phosphotransferases and ATPase. Subsequent antioxidant responses are not sufficient to correct alterations in lipid peroxidation and bioenergetics, possibly leading to important cellular pathological mechanisms.

5.
Microb Pathog ; 137: 103732, 2019 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31505264

RESUMO

Mastitis is a major disease affecting dairy sheep. It is caused by microorganisms that generate inflammation of the mammary gland in response to tissue invasion. This syndrome affects the welfare of ewes, as well as the production and quality of the milk, thereby reducing its productive efficiency. Because mastitis causes inflammation process, it also increases the production of free radicals that cause lesions via lipoperoxidation, causing damage to proteins, cells and tissues. One way to minimize the impact of the disease is antimicrobial treatment. Nevertheless, the continuous use of antimicrobials contributes to microbial resistance, in addition to producing residues in the milk and derivatives if not given during the grace period. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the consequences of subclinical mastitis on ewe health, milk production, milk composition and quality. We also evaluated the susceptibility of the bacteria in vitro using disk diffusion antibiograms. Finally, we performed two-way testing of efficacy of treatment in Lacaune ewes using the same agents. In the first stage of the study, 30 lactating ewes (±90 days) were used, 10 of which were negative on the CMT (California Mastitis Test) used as control group (CG) and 20 sheep with subclinical mastitis diagnosed by CMT (MG). Samples were collected and several analyses were performed on the milk and blood. We found that ewes in the MG had higher lipid peroxidation in serum and milk, as well as lower production, with reduction of the total dry extract in milk. There were 15 isolates of Staphylococcus hyicus, four isolates of each S. epidermidis and S. intermedius, and two isolates of Corynebacterium spp. The primary hematological result was leukocytosis in ewes with mastitis. Based on the antibiogram, we chose ceftiofur for in vivo tests. In this stage, we divided the sheep with subclinical mastitis into two subgroups of 10 ewes each, to receive drug by two routes: intramuscular (IM) and intramammary (IMM). In the IMM group, of the 10 CMT-positive ewes at the beginning of the experiment, seven were already negative by the racket test 120 h after the last application (70% efficacy). In the IM group, of the 10 positive ewes, only four were negative after 120 h of the final application, a low efficacy treatment (40%). We evaluated antimicrobial residues in the milk of treated animals. We found this material within 5 days after treatment in the two forms used; despite the fact that the product's stated withholding period is 3 days. We conclude that ewes with mastitis produce less milk of lower quality. We also conclude that, although ceftiofur is 100% effective in vitro, when used in ewes with mastitis, the efficacy did not exceed 70%, and was more efficient when administered via the intramammary route.

6.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 91(3): e20181330, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31508665

RESUMO

Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is the result of the selective destruction of the pancreatic ß-cells by T cells of the immune system. Although spleen is a secondary lymphoid organ, it is also involved in the T1D pathogenesis. However, the alterations in a variety of cellular processes of this disease need to be further understood. We aimed to analyze the benefits of resveratrol, and its complexed form on diabetic complications in the spleen of rats. To this end, we investigated important enzymes of phosphoryl transfer network, and Na+, K+-ATPase activity. Wistar rats were divided into non-diabetic groups: Control, Ethanol, Resveratrol, Hydroxypropyl-ß-cyclodextrin, Resveratrol-hydroxypropyl-ß-cyclodextrin, and diabetic groups with the same treatments. Diabetes was induced by a single dose of 60 mg/kg of streptozocin intraperitoneally, and treatments by intragastric gavage once daily for 60 days. Hyperglycemia reduced creatine kinase activity, which was reversed by the administration of resveratrol. Na+, K+-ATPase activity was greatly affected, but it was reversed by resveratrol and resveratrol-hydroxypropyl-ß-cyclodextrin. This suggest an energetic imbalance in the spleen of diabetic rats, and in case this also occurs in the diabetic patients, it is possible that resveratrol supplementation could be beneficial to the better functioning of the spleen in diabetic patients.


Assuntos
2-Hidroxipropil-beta-Ciclodextrina/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Resveratrol/farmacologia , ATPase Trocadora de Sódio-Potássio/metabolismo , Baço/metabolismo , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Glicemia/análise , Peso Corporal , Creatina Quinase/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/induzido quimicamente , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Hiperglicemia/metabolismo , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Estreptozocina
7.
Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol ; 227: 108624, 2019 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31521749

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to determine whether purinergic signaling is a pathway associated with fumonisin B1 (FB1)-induced impairment of immune and hemostatic responses. We also determined whether dietary supplementation with diphenyl diselenide (Ph2Se2) prevents or reduces these effects. Splenic nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase (NTPDase) activity for adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and adenosine diphosphate (ADP) as substrates and total blood thrombocytes counts were significant lower in silver catfish fed with FB1-contaminated diets than in fish fed with a basal diet, while splenic adenosine deaminase (ADA) activity and metabolites of nitric oxide (NOx) levels were significant higher. Also, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities were significant lower in silver catfish fed with FB1-contaminated diets than in fish fed with a basal diet. Dietary supplementation with 3 mg Ph2Se2/kg of feed effectively modulated splenic NTPDase (ATP as substrate), ADA, GPx and SOD activities, as well as NOx levels, and was partially effective in the modulation of spleen NTPDase activity (ADP as substrate) and total blood thrombocytes count. These data suggest that splenic purinergic signaling of silver catfish fed with FB1-contaminated diets generates a pro-inflammatory profile that contributes to impairment of immune and inflammatory responses, via reduction of splenic ATP hydrolysis followed possible ATP accumulation in the extracellular environment. Reduction of ADP hydrolysis associated with possible accumulation in the extracellular environment can be a pathophysiological response that restricts the hemorrhagic process elicited by FB1 intoxication. Supplementation with Ph2Se2 effectively modulated splenic enzymes associated with control of extracellular nucleotides (except ADP; that was partially modulated) and nucleosides, thereby limiting inflammatory and hemorrhagic processes.

8.
Microb Pathog ; 136: 103710, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31493503

RESUMO

Some evidence suggests the involvement of phosphotransfer network in the pathogenesis of fish bacterial diseases, catalyzed by creatine kinase (CK), pyruvate kinase (PK) and adenylate kinase (AK); nevertheless, the effects on fish affected by Aeromonas hydrophila remain unknown. Recent evidence suggested a potent protective effect of caffeine on the branchial phosphotransfer network of fish subjected to challenge conditions. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate whether A. hydrophila infection impaired branchial bioenergetics. We also determined whether dietary supplementation with caffeine protected against A. hydrophila-induced gill bioenergetic imbalance. We found that branchial cytosolic CK and AK activities were significant lower in fish experimentally infected with A. hydrophila than in uninfected fish, while mitochondrial CK activity was significant higher. Branchial lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity and lactate levels were significant higher in fish experimentally infected by A. hydrophila than in uninfected fish, while sodium-potassium ion pump (Na+, K+-ATPase) activity and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels were significant lower. No significant difference was observed between groups with respect to branchial PK activity. The dietary supplementation with 8% caffeine improved the branchial CK (cytosolic and mitochondrial), AK, and LDH activities, as well as ATP levels, but did not prevent increases in branchial lactate levels or the inhibition of Na+, K+-ATPase activity elicited by aeromonosis. Based on this evidence, we believe that reduction of CK (cytosolic) and AK activities contributes to impairment of bioenergetic homeostasis, while augmentation of mitochondrial CK activity can be considered an attempt to prevent or reduce the energetic imbalance during aeromonosis caused by A. hydrophila. The use of 8% caffeine dietary supplementation improved the energetic metabolism via protective effects on CK and AK activities, avoiding the necessity of using anaerobic metabolism. In summary, 8% dietary caffeine can be used to improve branchial energetic homeostasis during aeromonosis caused by A. hydrophila.

9.
J Food Biochem ; 43(11): e13022, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31460670

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the supplementation with açaí flour in the feed of laying hens at the end of the production cycle has beneficial effects on the health and performance of the birds and on the quality of the eggs. Groups received basal diets supplemented with 0%, 0.25%, 0.5%, 1.0%, and 2.0% açaí lump flour. We observed better productivity linked to oviposition and egg mass in a dose-dependent manner. We also observed higher shell resistance in stored eggs and higher % albumen and peel in fresh eggs. Lower levels of lipoperoxidation were observed in fresh eggs (2.0%). In stored eggs, lipoperoxidation levels were lower in all supplemented groups. The antioxidant capacity levels in fresh or stored eggs was higher (2.0%). We also observed a higher content of monounsaturated fatty acids in the supplemented groups, whereas saturated fatty acids were lower in the egg yolks. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: Based on a regression analysis, we verified that 1.47% of açaí flour is ideal in terms of productive efficiency. Dietary supplementation with açaí flour improved performance, egg quality, and had positive effects on the health of hens. Supplementation with açaí flour increased egg shelf life, reducing lipid peroxidation, biochemical reaction responsible for egg putrefaction.

10.
Microb Pathog ; 135: 103649, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31374321

RESUMO

Extracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is as key mediator of immune and inflammatory responses. ATP is normally sequestered in the intracellular milieu and released by apoptotic and necrotic cells, where it acts as a pro-inflammatory mediator in the extracellular milieu. A limited number of studies have explored the involvement of purinergic signaling in oomycete infections, including Saprolegnia parasitica; this is a most destructive oomycete pathogen, associated with high mortality and severe economic losses for fish producers. The aim of this study was to determine whether purinergic signaling exerts anti- or pro-inflammatory effects in spleens of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) naturally infected by S. parasitica. Animals naturally infected with S. parasitica showed typical gross lesions characterized by cotton-wool tufts on the tail and fins, as well as severe histopathological lesions such as necrosis. Spleen ATP and metabolites of nitric oxide (NOx) levels were higher in fish naturally infected by S. parasitica compared to control on day 7 post-infection (PI). Spleen nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase (NTPDase) activity (ATP as substrate) was greater in fish naturally infected by S. parasitica than in uninfected on day 7 PI, while no significant differences were observed between groups with respect to NTPDase (adenosine diphosphate as substrate) and 5'-nucleotidase activities. Finally, adenosine deaminase (ADA) activity was lower in fish naturally infected by S. parasitica than in uninfected fish on day 7 PI. In summary, spleen tissue necrosis in the context of saprolegniosis provokes an intense release of ATP into the extracellular milieu, where it interacts with the P2X7 purine receptor and leads to a self-sustained pro-inflammatory deleterious cycle, contributing to an intense inflammatory process. In response to excessive ATP levels in the extracellular milieu, ATP and adenosine hydrolysis were modulated in an attempt to restrict the inflammatory process via upregulation of NTPDase and downregulation of ADA activities. We conclude that the purinergic signaling pathway modulates immune and inflammatory responses during natural infection with S. parasitica.

11.
Exp Parasitol ; 205: 107735, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31381870

RESUMO

Two experiments were performed to determine whether oral administration of copper oxide capsules controlled helminthic infections in Lacaune sheep without acute collateral effects on animal health. In experiment 1, 48 multiparous lactating sheep (60.1 ±â€¯8.5 kg) were stratified according to initial number of eggs (Haemonchus contortus) per gram of feces (EPG) and were assigned randomly to 1 of two treatments (24 sheep/treatment): no oral administration (control) or oral administration of two copper capsules (treated; approximately 58 mg copper/kg body weight). Blood and fecal samples were collected on days 0, 15 and 45. Animals treated with copper capsules showed lower of EPG, eosinophils, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in whole blood, and lower butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) activity in serum. Treated sheep had higher erythrocyte numbers, hemoglobin concentrations, hematocrit, and lymphocyte numbers. In experiment 2, 12 male lambs negative for helminths and coccidia were assigned randomly to one of two treatments (six lambs/treatment): control or treated (one copper capsule; approximately 58 mg copper/kg body weight); the experiment was designed to determine whether the results of experiment 1 were due to treatment or parasitism. Blood samples were collected on days 0, 5, 10 and 15 and fecal samples were collected on days 0, 7 and 15. Treated animals showed greater concentrations of lymphocytes; however, treatment had no effect on other hemogram variables, AChE and BChE activities, or levels of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyl transferase, creatinine, urea, albumin, total protein, and reactive oxygen species. These data suggest that copper capsules in dairy sheep efficiently controlled H. contortus infections. Treatment was not harmful to lambs during the first 15 days, i.e. there were no signs of acute toxicity.


Assuntos
Cobre/administração & dosagem , Hemoncose/veterinária , Helmintíase Animal/tratamento farmacológico , Lactação , Doenças dos Ovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Acetilcolinesterase/sangue , Administração Oral , Animais , Butirilcolinesterase/sangue , Cápsulas , Cobre/uso terapêutico , Indústria de Laticínios , Resíduos de Drogas , Eosinófilos/efeitos dos fármacos , Contagem de Eritrócitos/veterinária , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Hemoncose/tratamento farmacológico , Hemoncose/prevenção & controle , Helmintíase Animal/sangue , Helmintíase Animal/prevenção & controle , Hematócrito/veterinária , Hemoglobinas/análise , Contagem de Linfócitos/veterinária , Masculino , Leite/química , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/veterinária , Paridade , Distribuição Aleatória , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/sangue , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/prevenção & controle
12.
J Therm Biol ; 84: 250-258, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31466761

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to determine whether the addition of açai (Euterpe oleracea) oil in the diets of lactating sheep under heat stress exerted beneficial effects on health as well as milk production and quality. Eighteen multiparous Lacaune sheep (2 or 3 parities; 28-30 days of lactation; average milk production of 1.7 L/sheep/day) were stratified by parity and milk production and were assigned randomly to 1 of 2 treatments (9 sheep/treatment): diet supplemented with 2% of soybean oil (SOY) or 2% of açai oil (AÇAI) in the concentrate for 14 days. The amount of oil added in the diet was equivalent to 0.65% of the total diet (dry matter basis). Blood and milk samples were collected on days 1, 10 and 14. On day 14, the AÇAI group sheep had lower serum concentrations of leukocytes, neutrophils, and lymphocytes than did the SOY group sheep. On day 14, AÇAI group sheep had lower serum concentration of triglycerides and urea, milk concentration of fat and total solid and milk lipid peroxidation than did SOY group sheep. However, on day 14, AÇAI group sheep had higher serum concentrations of glucose and globulin, serum and milk antioxidant capacity against peroxyl radicals, milk production and productive efficiency than did SOY group sheep. The fatty acids profile in milk did not differ between groups. These data suggest that açai oil improved the antioxidant activity in serum and milk and improved milk production and quality in dairy sheep under heat stress.

13.
J Therm Biol ; 84: 451-459, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31466786

RESUMO

We aimed to determine whether the use of injectable vitamins and minerals improves growth performance and immune and antioxidant responses in dairy calves during pre- and post-weaning period in summer. Twenty dairy calves (45 days of age) were randomized to two groups (10 each): control group (CON) and treated group [TREAT; injection providing 0.20, 0.80, 0.20, 0.10, 35 and 1 mg/kg of copper, zinc, manganese selenium, and vitamins A and E, during two periods (15 days pre- and 15 days post-weaning)]. The animals were weighed and blood samples were collected on days 1, 15, 30 and 45 of the study. Levels of serum copper, selenium, zinc, and manganese were measured on day 1; and the results showed that calves were not deficient in these minerals. The TREAT group had greater BW gain during the final third of the experiment. There was an increase in total leukocyte numbers as a result of elevation in neutrophil counts (day 45) and monocytes (days 30 and 45) in the TREAT group. This group also had lower reactive oxygen species (ROS) content (days 15, 30 and 45) and lipid peroxidation (LPO; days 15 and 45). Furthermore, the TREAT group had greater antioxidant capacity against peroxyl radicals (ACAP; days 15 and 30), activities of the enzymes glutathione peroxidase (GPx; days 15, 30 and 45) and superoxide dismutase (SOD; day 15), concentrations of total serum proteins (day 30), serum globulin (days 15 and 30), ceruloplasmin (day 15), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1, (IL-1; days 30 and 45) and interferon gamma (IFNγ; day 45), compared to CON group. High respiratory rates during hot times of the day in all study calves was suggestive of heat stress. Taken together, the data suggest that mineral and vitamins injections increased the growth performance and boosted the antioxidant and immunological systems of dairy calves during the diet transition period in summer.

14.
J Food Biochem ; 43(8): e12942, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31368562

RESUMO

The main objective of this study was to evaluate whether the addition of curcumin-loaded nanocapsules (prepared and characterized) in the diets of dairy sheep improved milk quality. The nanocapsules were prepared using two polymers: poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL) and Eudragit L-100. The nanocapsules contained 0.25 mg/ml (Nano-Eudragit L-100) and 2 mg/ml (Nano-PCL) of curcumin. Dairy sheep were divided into four groups: A (control), B (30 mg free curcumin/kg concentrate), C (3 mg Nano-PCL/kg concentrate), and D (3 mg Nano-Eudragit/kg concentrate). We observed that the number of total leukocytes and serum globulin levels were lower in Group D than in the control (Group A) (p < 0.05). Antioxidant capacity against peroxyl radicals (ACAP) and catalase enzymes was elevated in Group D, with consequently reduced lipid peroxidation (LPO; p < 0.05). In milk, there were no differences in production and composition between groups during the experimental period (p > 0.05); however, ACAP increased and LPO decreased in milk. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: Curcumin is a functional molecule with potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial actions, used frequently and with medical indications in human food. Free curcumin in sheep diets improves milk quality and increases its shelf life. This study showed that curcumin nanocapsules produced from the Eudragit L-100 polymer potentiated the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant actions of dairy sheep when used in the diet daily, at doses 10 times lower than that of free curcumin. These positive effects were reflected in higher total antioxidant capacity and lower lipid peroxidation in milk in sheep-fed curcumin-loaded Eudragit L-100 nanocapsules, generating desirable milk properties. In practice, the use of nanotechnology enhances the beneficial effects of curcumin in milk, possibly creating a nutraceutical food desirable to consumers.

15.
J Food Biochem ; 43(8): e12957, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31368567

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to determine whether supplementing the diets of laying hens with selenomethionine (SM, 1% selenium) improves performance and egg quality. We supplemented diets with SM as follows: T0 control (without SM); T5, T10, T15, and T20 were supplemented with 5, 10, 15, and 20 mg of SM/kg of feed, respectively (equal to 0.05, 0.10, 0.15, and 0.20 mg selenium/kg of feed). T5 and T10 hens showed better feed conversion per kg of egg, percentage of laying, higher daily feed intake, and higher average egg weight. The eggs of hens supplemented with SM had lower levels of lipoperoxidation (LPO) in fresh (T15 and T20) and stored eggs (T20). Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities, as well as total antioxidant capacity were greater in egg yolks after storage (T10; T15; T20 compared to T0). Hens supplemented with SM had elevated GPx and SOD activities and decreased oxidative reactions. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: Selenium has several nutraceutical properties, with beneficial effects on the health of the animal and the food produced from them (eggs, in this case). Selenomethionine supplementation in the diet of laying hens improves productive efficiency, stimulates the antioxidant system and reduces lipid peroxidation in the egg yolk. Egg-laying hens that received selenomethionine showed minimized lipid peroxidation in stored eggs, possibly improving shelf life of the eggs.

16.
Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis ; 66: 101330, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31437690

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate the seroprevalence of Neospora caninum in dairy cows, as well as to verify the risk factors for N. caninum infection and inflammatory response in dairy cows. Using the indirect immunofluorescence reaction, the seroprevalence of neosporosis was determined to be 32.82%. Based on regression analysis, the presence of dogs at a farm increased the probability of a cow testing positive for N. caninum (OR = 20.01 [5.21-123.12]). These data suggest that N. caninum has a relevant prevalence in dairy cows of the Microregion of Rio do Sul (Brazil), with elevated frequencies of anti-N. caninum IgG. The data also suggest that the parasite is widely distributed in dairy herds of the micro-region, because 94.4% of properties screened had at least one seropositive animal. The principal risk factors for disease maintenance in herds may be considered the presence of dogs and absence of a diagnostic test when introducing new animals. Blood from these cows was used to measure variables related to the inflammatory response. Serum cholinesterase activity, as well as serum levels of globulins and C-reactive protein were higher in seropositive to N. caninum than in seronegative cows. Furthermore, the infection by parasite causes an intense inflammatory process, contributing to disease pathophysiology.

17.
Microb Pathog ; 135: 103637, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31326563

RESUMO

The indiscriminate use of antibiotics is a major concern for the aquaculture industry because of the increasing prevalence of bacterial resistance, including the emergence of multi-resistant strains of Aeromonas hydrophila. Therefore, alternative ecofriendly therapeutic or prophylactic approaches such as natural products have been suggested, including caffeine, a methylxanthine with potent bactericidal and antioxidant properties. The aims of this study were to evaluate whether dietary supplementation with caffeine exerted bactericidal effects against A. hydrophila, and to determine whether caffeine protected the liver of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) against A. hydrophila-induced oxidative damage. Experiment I evaluated the antimicrobial properties of caffeine dietary supplementation linked to longevity and mortality rates during aeromonosis. Fish infected with A. hydrophila that were fed diets containing 5% and 8% caffeine lived significantly longer than those fed with control diets. Experiment II evaluated hepatic oxidative stress-related parameters and microbial loads on day 7 post-infection. Levels of hepatic reactive oxygen species (ROS), lipid peroxidation (LOOH) and protein carbonylation (PC) levels were significantly higher in infected fish fed with control diet than in uninfected fish, and hepatic antioxidant capacity against peroxyl radicals (ACAP) levels, and superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and glutathione reductase (GR) activities were significantly inhibited. Dietary supplementation with 5% and 8% caffeine prevented the increase on hepatic ROS, LOOH and PC levels (except 5% caffeine) elicited by infection. Caffeine supplementation reduced or prevented the inhibition of hepatic SOD, GPx and GST activities. Finally, both caffeine concentrations reduced the hepatic microbial load compared to fish fed with control diets that were infected with A. hydrophila. Taken together, the data suggest that dietary supplementation with 8% caffeine may be considered a compelling prophylactic approach to aeromonosis caused by A. hydrophila.

18.
J Food Biochem ; 43(4): e12792, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31353592

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate whether broiler breast fillets with severe white striping (WS) had elevated levels of lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation, as well as antioxidant responses. A total of 45 breast muscles from broiler chickens were divided into three groups (n = 15): normal, moderate (stripes <1 mm) and severe (stripes >1 mm). Chicken breasts with severe WS showed muscular cells with small areas and diameters (p < 0.05), as well as the presence of inflammatory cells. Higher percentages of moisture content, fat, collagen, and smaller protein content than did WS breast samples compared control. Breast samples with moderate and severe degrees of WS had higher reactive oxygen species levels and advanced oxidation protein products than did the control group, and animals with severe WS had higher lipid peroxidation levels. The activities of glutathione peroxidase and glutathione S-transferase were higher (p < 0.0001) in animals with moderate WS than those in the control. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: White striping myopathy in broiler breast fillets is characterized by the presence of parallel white stripes in the same direction as the muscular fiber, commonly occurring in the pectoralis major muscle. The results showed that chicken breasts with WS demonstrated imbalances of antioxidant/oxidant status, characterizing increases of lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation in muscle. This situation does not prevent the consumption of the meat, but negatively affects its quality.

19.
J Food Biochem ; 43(7): e12860, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31353724

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate whether microalgae in Japanese quail feed alters performance, fatty acid profiles in the eggs and egg quality. One hundred quails were distributed in four groups and five replicates of five birds per experimental group. The treatments consisted of four levels of Spirulina platensis microalgae (0%, 5%, 10%, and 15%) in the diets. We evaluated the productive performance and chemical-physical characteristics of eggs, the oxidant/antioxidant status in egg yolks, and the fatty acid profile in the diet and egg yolks. Microalgae in the diet did not influence egg production; however, it increased the yolk index as well as the color intensity of the yolk. Saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acid levels decreased in egg yolks, and monounsaturated fatty acid levels increased in the yolks. Lipid peroxidation levels were lower and total antioxidant capacity was higher in egg yolks of quails receiving microalgae in the diet. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: Microalgae in quail diets improves egg quality and provides benefits to consumer health, acting as an antioxidant and immune-stimulant. Microalgae in quail diets had positive effects on egg quality. This is because it reduced levels of saturated fatty acids that are undesirable, and increased monounsaturated fatty acid levels that are beneficial to the health of consumers. Finally, antioxidants increased in egg yolks, consequently reducing lipid peroxidation.

20.
Microb Pathog ; 134: 103564, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31163248

RESUMO

Bacterial infections require special care since the indiscriminate use of antibiotics to treat them has been linked to the emergence of resistant strains. In this sense, phytoterapeutic alternatives such as curcumin and its nanocapsules have emerged as a promising supplement in optimizing availability of bioactives and reducing the development of antimicrobial resistance. Thus, the aim of this study was to verify the effects of pure and nanoencapsulated curcumin in the treatment of experimental listeriosis in gerbils regarding many aspects including antibacterial effect, antioxidant mechanisms involved and the energetic metabolism. Four groups were used containing 6 animals each: T0 (control), T1 (infected), T2 (infected and treated with free curcumin - dose of 30 mg/kg/day) and T3 (infected and treated with nanocapsules containing curcumin - a dose of 3 mg/kg/day). Treated animals received curcumin for 6 consecutive days starting 24 h after Listeria monocytogenes infection. All animals were euthanized on the 12th day after L. monocytogenes infection. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) identified L. monocytogenes DNA in the spleens of all animals of the T1 group, as well as T2 (2 out of 6) and T3 (5 out of 6). The weight of the spleens confirmed the infection, since it was larger in the T1 group, differing statistically from T0, and similarly to T2 and T3. Hepatic histopathological examination showed mild infiltration of neutrophils and macrophages, except for the T3 group (only 1/6). In the liver, the pyruvate kinase activity was higher in T1 and T2 compared to T0 and T3. The adenylate kinase activity did not differ between groups. The Na+/K+ATPase activity was lower in T1 group compared to T0 and T3. Lipoperoxidation was lower in the T3 group compared to groups T0, T1 and T2. The antioxidant capacity against peroxyl radicals was higher in T1, T2 and T3 groups compared to T0. In conclusion, free curcumin showed potent antibacterial effects; however, the nanoencapsulated form was able to minimize the effects caused by L. monocytogenes regarding tissue injury, changes on enzymes of the energetic metabolism, in addition to an antioxidant effect against lipoperoxidation.

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