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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32814146

RESUMO

Trichlorfon is an organophosphate pesticide used extensively for controlling ectoparasites in aquaculture. Studies have found that trichlorfon caused environmental pollution and severe neurotoxic effects in several freshwater species. Feed additives such as flavonoids may reduce or prevent pesticide-induced toxicity in fish. The aim of the present study was to determine whether acute exposure to trichlorfon impairs behavior and causes oxidative damage in brains of silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen). We also sought to determine whether rutin would be capable of preventing or reducing these effects. Silver catfish were divided into four groups: groups A and C received basal feed, while groups B and D received feed containing 3 mg rutin/kg diet for 21 days. After 21 days, groups C and D were exposed for 48 h to a nominal concentration of 11 mg trichlorfon/L water. Fish exposed to trichlorfon showed significantly longer distances travelled and swimming performances than did unexposed fish. Cerebral levels of reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation were significantly higher in fish exposed to trichlorfon than in unexposed fish, while cerebral superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activities were significantly lower. Taken together, our findings suggest that dietary supplementation rutin completely prevented all alterations elicited by trichlorfon, except for cerebral AChE activity; the latter remained significantly lower compared to the unexposed group. In summary, rutin prevents trichlorfon-induced neurotoxicity in silver catfish.

2.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 92(4): e20191066, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33206785

RESUMO

Inflammatory dermatoses are prevalent worldwide, with impacts on the quality of life of patients and their families. The aim of this study was to determine the anti-inflammatory effects of Achyrocline satureioides oily extracts and nanocapsules on the skin using a mouse model of irritant contact dermatitis induced by croton oil, and a skin inflammation model induced by ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation. The mice were treated with 15 mg/ear oily extract (HG-OLAS) or nanocapsules (HG-NCAS) of A. satureioides incorporated into Carbopol® 940 hydrogels. We found that HG-OLAS and HG-NCAS formulations reduced ear edema in croton oil-induced lesions with maximum inhibitions of 54±7% and 74±3%, respectively. HG-OLAS and HG-NCAS formulations decreased ear edema induced by UVB radiation (0.5 J/cm2), with maximum inhibitions of 68±6% and 76±2% compared to the UVB radiation group, respectively. HG-OLAS and HG-NCAS modulated myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity after croton oil induction. Furthermore, croton oil and UVB radiation for 6 and 24 h, respectively, stimulated polymorphonuclear cells infiltration. The topical treatments reduced inflammatory processes, as shown by histological analysis. Together, the data suggest that topical application of A. satureioides oily extracts and nanocapsules produced antiedematogenic and anti-inflammatory effects. They constitute a compelling alternative for treatment of skin injuries.

3.
Fish Physiol Biochem ; 46(6): 2377-2387, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33025302

RESUMO

Rapid industrialization results in the production of large quantities of waste that are commonly discharged into water bodies, leading to the damage of the aquatic ecosystem and freshwater organisms. Copper (Cu) can induce oxidative damage in fish muscle, the main fish portion that is consumed by humans. However, the responses of the Amazon fish Cichlasoma amazonarum and its capacity to withstand acute Cu concentrations found in Amazon water around mines remain unknown. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate whether exposure to Cu causes muscle oxidative stress and/or oxidative damage and impairs the fillet fatty acid profile of C. amazonarum acutely exposed to Cu found in Amazon waters around mines. Muscle reactive oxygen species and protein carbonylation levels were significantly higher in fish exposed to 1500 µg/L Cu compared with the control group, while muscle lipid peroxidation levels were significantly higher in fish exposed to 500, 750, and 1500 µg/L Cu compared with control group. Muscle antioxidant capacity against peroxyl radical's levels and glutathione peroxidase activity were significantly lower in fish exposed to 1500 µg/L Cu compared with the control group, while muscle superoxide dismutase activity was significantly lower in fish exposed to 750 and 1500 µg/L Cu compared with control group. The total content of saturated fatty acids was significantly higher in fish exposed to 1500 µg/L Cu compared with the control group, while the total content of monounsaturated fatty acids and sum of n3 fatty acids were significantly lower in fish exposed to 1500 µg/L Cu compared with control group. No significant difference was observed regarding muscle catalase, glutathione S-transferase, and glutathione reductase activities. Based on these lines of evidence, the results of this comprehensive study agree with the initial hypothesis that the exposure to Cu found in Amazon water around mines induces oxidative damage and inhibits enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant response in the muscle of C. amazonarum exposed to high Cu levels. Moreover, the impairment of the fillet fatty acid profile appears to be mediated by oxidative damage, representing a negative impact on fish health.

4.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 205: 111127, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32846293

RESUMO

Trichlorfon is an organophosphate insecticide that is widely used on fish farms to control parasitic infections. It has been detected in freshwater ecosystems as well as in fishery products. There is a growing body of evidence to suggest that certain feed additives may reduce or prevent pesticide-induced toxicity in fish. The aim of the present study was to determine whether acute exposure to trichlorfon would alter bioenergetic homeostasis and alter fatty acid profiles in muscles of silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen). We also sought to determine whether rutin prevents or reduces these effects. Cytosolic and mitochondrial creatine kinase (CK) and activities of complexes II-III and IV in muscle were significantly inhibited by exposure to 11 mg/L trichlorfon for 48 h compared to effects in the unexposed group. Total content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-3 and omega-6) were significantly lower in muscle of silver catfish exposed to 11 mg/L trichlorfon for 48 h than in the unexposed group. Addition of 3 mg rutin/kg feed increased CK activity and prevented inhibition of complex IV activity, as well as preventing all alterations of muscle fatty acid profiles elicited by exposure to trichlorfon. No significant differences were observed between groups with respect to muscle adenylate kinase or pyruvate kinase activities, as well as total content of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids. Our findings suggest that exposure (48 h) to 11 mg trichlorfon/L water inhibits cytosolic and mitochondrial CK activity in muscle. Trichlorfon also affects activities of complexes II-III and IV in respiratory chain, with important consequences for adenosine triphosphate production. The pesticide alters fatty acid profiles in the fish and endangers human consumers of the product. The most important finding of the present study is that inclusion of rutin improves bioenergetic homeostasis and muscle fatty acid profiles, suggesting that it reduces trichlorfon-induced muscle damage.


Assuntos
Peixes-Gato/metabolismo , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Músculos/efeitos dos fármacos , Rutina/farmacologia , Triclorfon/toxicidade , Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Adenilato Quinase/metabolismo , Ração Animal , Animais , Peixes-Gato/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Creatina Quinase/metabolismo , Dieta , Aditivos Alimentares , Homeostase , Mitocôndrias Musculares/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias Musculares/metabolismo , Músculos/metabolismo
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32777469

RESUMO

The toxic effects of copper (Cu) are linked to dysfunction of metabolism and depletion of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Nevertheless, the effects related to phosphoryl transfer network, a network of enzymes to precise coupling of the ATP-production and ATP-consuming process for maintenance of bioenergetic, remain unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine whether the phosphoryl transfer network could be one pathway involved in the bioenergetic imbalance of Cichlasoma amazonarum exposed for 96 h to environmentally relevant concentrations of Cu found in Amazonia water around mines. Branchial mitochondrial creatine kinase (CK) activity was significantly lower in fish exposed to 1500 µg/L Cu than in the control group, while branchial cytosolic CK activity was significantly greater. Branchial (exposed to 750 and 1500 µg/L Cu) and hepatic (exposed to 1500 µg/L Cu) pyruvate kinase (PK) activity was significantly lower in fish exposed to Cu than in the control group. Branchial and hepatic ATP levels were significantly lower in fish exposed to 1500 µg/L than in the control group. Branchial reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels were significantly higher in fish exposed to 750 and 1500 µg/L Cu compared to control. Hepatic ROS and LPO levels were significantly higher in fish exposed to 1500 µg/L than in the control group. Branchial and hepatic Cu levels were significantly higher in fish exposed to 1500 µg/L compared to other groups. Exposure to 750 and 1500 µg/L Cu impairs bioenergetics homeostasis, which appears to be mediated by ROS overproduction and lipid peroxidation.

6.
Fish Physiol Biochem ; 46(6): 2055-2064, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32770302

RESUMO

The practice of replacing costly animal-derived proteins with more economical plant proteins has augmented the risk of mycotoxin contamination in fish feeds, including contamination with ochratoxin A (OTA). OTA is a secondary metabolite produced by molds commonly found in fish feeds that causes impairment of performance in several fish species and some hepatic biochemical alterations. However, the pathways involved in hepatic damage remain unknown and are limited to histopathological alterations. Purinergic signaling is a homeostatic system that continuously monitors the internal environment to detect injury primarily by two intercellular messengers: adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and adenosine (Ado). The objective of this study was to determine whether OTA-contaminated feed induces the release of nucleotides in the extracellular milieu, as well as whether ectoenzymes modulate ATP pro-inflammatory effects in liver of tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum). Final mean weight, weight gain (WG), and liver weight were significantly lower in tambaqui fed feeds containing 1.6 and 2.4 mg OTA/kg feed than in the control group. Liver ATP and Ado levels were significantly higher in tambaqui fed feeds containing 1.6 and 2.4 mg OTA/kg feed compared with control, while no significant difference was observed regarding adenosine diphosphate and adenosine monophosphate levels. Hepatic triphosphate diphosphohydrolase (NTPDase) activity (for ATP) was significantly greater in tambaqui fed feeds containing 1.6 and 2.4 mg OTA/kg feed compared with control, while adenosine deaminase (ADA) activity was lower. No significant difference was observed with respect to hepatic NTPDase activity (for ADP) or for 5'-nucleotidase activity. Finally, levels of liver metabolites of nitric oxide were significantly higher in tambaqui fed feeds containing 1.6 and 2.4 mg OTA/kg feed than in the control group. Based on these data, exposure to 1.6 and 2.4 mg OTA/kg feed impaired tambaqui growth performance associated with final mean weight and WG. Levels of two important intercellular messengers, ATP and Ado, increased in the extracellular space as a consequence of hepatic damage, exerting opposite immune responses. Finally, liver NTPDase and ADA activities were altered to modulate ATP and Ado levels, respectively, exerting anti-inflammatory effects to counteract OTA-induced hepatic injury.

7.
Arch Anim Nutr ; 74(5): 397-413, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32602378

RESUMO

The objectives of this study were to produce dog food containing curcumin replacing synthetic antioxidants, to evaluate its beneficial effects on animal growth and health. Curcumin (100 mg/kg) was added after the extrusion process along with the other micronutrients. The final concentration of curcumin was 32.9 mg/kg. The control feed was composed of the same ingredients without curcumin. After a storage of 6 months, feed composition and pH did not differ; however, the feed with curcumin showed lower protein oxidation, lipid peroxidation and higher total antioxidant capacity. After 2 months of feed production, 12 young Beagle dogs received either curcumin-containing food (n = 6)  or the control diet (n = 6). The animals were fed twice a day using individual kennels. Blood samples were taken on d 1, 35 and 42. During the first 30 d of the study, the animals had natural infectious diseases that were controlled with anti-protozoals and antibiotics. Greater numbers of red blood cells were observed in dogs fed with curcumin (d 35 and 45), and there were greater numbers of white blood cells as a consequence of increased neutrophils on d 42. At the end of the experiment, a significant reduction in the number of lymphocytes was observed in dogs that ingested curcumin (d 42), suggesting an anti-inflammatory effect, manifested as a decrease in globulin levels. In the final 15 d of the experiment, the animals were clinical healthy. Higher serum levels of glucose, urea, triglycerides and cholesterol were observed in dogs fed with curcumin. Curcumin increased the activity of several antioxidant enzymes in addition to non-protein thiols and the total antioxidant capacity in the serum, consequently reducing levels of oxygen reactive species. Curcumin supplementation of dogs did not favour growth or weight gain. Neverthless, it was concluded that curcumin improved animal health, with emphasis on the stimulation of the antioxidant system and evidence of an anti-inflammatory effect.

8.
J Therm Biol ; 91: 102618, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32716868

RESUMO

Curcumin is an herbal component with several biological properties, and we highlight here the thermal stability, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. We determined whether curcumin supplementation in the diets of laying hens under cold stress and naturally infected with Escherichia coli would control infection, and would have positive effects on overall health, as well as egg production and quality. We allocated 36 chickens that had been naturally infected with E. coli into two groups, with six replicates and three chickens per repetition: control group and curcumin group (200 mg curcumin/kg). The experimental period lasted 42 days, and fecal, blood and egg samples were collected at 1, 21 and 42 days We found that feces and eggs had lower total bacterial counts, E. coli counts and total coliform counts in the curcumin group at 21 and 42 days. In fresh eggs, the brightness and yellow intensity (b+) were significantly higher in the curcumin group. In stored eggs, higher specific gravity, albumen height and lower yolk pH were observed in the curcumin group. Fresh eggs collected and stored on day 42 showed lower levels of lipid peroxidation in the curcumin group, while the total antioxidant capacity in the stored eggs was significantly higher in the curcumin group. The curcumin group showed lower total leukocyte counts as a result of lower numbers of neutrophils and lymphocytes, as well as lower levels of total protein, alkaline phosphatase and alanine aminotransferase. Lower serum lipoperoxidation at 42 days was observed in the curcumin group, probably because of the higher activity of glutathione peroxidase and glutathione transferase in other words, because of antioxidant stimulation. Taken together, our findings suggest that curcumin supplementation in laying hens under cold stress and with colibacillosis has positive effects on infection control because of antioxidant stimulation.

9.
Fish Physiol Biochem ; 46(5): 1857-1866, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32535728

RESUMO

Amazon fish are vulnerable to climate change. Current temperature increases in Amazonian rivers are likely to continue in the coming years. Elevated temperatures impair homeostasis and subject fish to oxidative stress; nevertheless, the effects of elevated temperature on plasma and muscle oxidative stress as well as fillet fatty acid composition in matrinxã (Brycon amazonicus) remain unknown. Therefore, the aims of the present study were to determine whether antioxidant system is able to withstand acute thermal stress to avoid plasma and muscle oxidative damage and to determine the manner in which matrinxã adjust their muscle fatty acid metabolism in a response to acute heat stress. We exposed juvenile matrinxã to four temperatures (28 °C as control and 30, 32, and 34 °C) for 72 h and observed the effects on plasma and muscle oxidant/antioxidant status and on fatty acid composition. Plasma reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels were significantly higher in matrinxã exposed to 34 °C compared with the control group, while they were significantly higher in the muscle of matrinxã exposed to 32 °C and 34 °C compared with the control group. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) levels were significantly lower in the plasma and muscle of matrinxã exposed to 34 °C compared with the control group. Plasma glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity was significantly lower in matrinxã exposed to 32 and 34 °C compared with the control group, while it was significantly lower in the muscle of matrinxã exposed to 34 °C. The total content of saturated fatty acid (SFA) was significantly higher in the fillet of matrinxã exposed to 34 °C compared with the control group, while the total content of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) was significantly lower. Based on this evidence, we conclude that acute heat stress at 32 °C and 34 °C causes plasma and muscular oxidative stress, and the enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant system is unable to prevent oxidative damage. Moreover, increased levels of total SFA and decreased levels of PUFA occur in an attempt to withstand heat stress and maintain membrane fluidity; nevertheless, these responses can represent negative impacts for consumers.

10.
J Therm Biol ; 89: 102569, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32364972

RESUMO

Amazon fish are vulnerable to climate change. Several lines of evidence suggest that the temperature of Amazonian rivers will increase in the coming years. Elevated temperature disturbs homeostasis and subjects fish to physiological stress; however, the effects of temperature on immunity remain poorly understood, particularly those effects involving purinergic signaling. This system fine-tunes the inflammatory and immune responses triggered by stress. Therefore, the aims of this study were to determine whether acute heat stress induces the release of nucleotides into extracellular compartment and to determine whether purinergic enzymes modulate the proinflammatory effects of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in plasma and spleen of matrinxã (Brycon amazonicus) exposed to acute heat stress. We exposed juvenile matrinxã to four temperature regimes (28 °C as control, 30, 32 and 34 °C) for 72 h and observed the effects on purinergic signaling. Plasma cortisol levels were significantly higher in fish exposed to 34 °C than in the control group, while spleen ATP, adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and adenosine monophosphate (AMP) levels were significantly higher in this group than in controls. Activities of spleen nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase (NTPDase) and 5'-nucleotidase were significantly higher in fish exposed to 34 °C than those of the control group, while spleen interleukin-1 (IL-1) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels were higher in this same group than in the control group. No significant differences were observed between the groups regarding plasma parameters. Based on these data, we concluded that acute heat stress at 34 °C caused physiological stress in matrinxã, manifesting as elevated plasma cortisol levels. The most important finding is that purinergic enzymes were modulated, though not efficiently, in response to the excessive release of nucleotides into the extracellular space. In summary, the purinergic signaling pathway may be involved in the impairment of immune and inflammatory responses in matrinxã exposed acutely to 34 °C.

11.
Microb Pathog ; 147: 104247, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32437833

RESUMO

Fusarium verticillioides is often responsible for contamination of poultry feed with the mycotoxin fumonisin. The objective of the study was to determine whether fumonisin-contaminated feed in the early phase of broiler chicks causes oxidative imbalances and interferes with weight gain. One-day-old male Cobb 500 broiler chicks (n = 80) were divided into four treatments of 20 birds each, all of which were fed basal feed until the 11th day of age. From day 12, some birds were challenged with fumonisin in the feed: Control (T0) continued receiving the basal ration; treatments T1, T2, and T3 were given feed experimentally contaminated with fumonisin at concentrations of 2.5 ppm, 5 ppm and 10 ppm, respectively. After the 5th (day 17) and 10th (day 21) days, ten birds from each treatment were euthanized for blood and tissue collection to measure histopathological, biochemical and oxidative stress markers. All animals were weighed individually at the beginning of the experiment (day 12), and at 17 and 21 days of age. Birds that ingested 10 ppm of fumonisin (T3) had lower (P < 0.05) weight gain compared to those in T0. At 21 days, the body weights of the T1, T2 and T3 chicks were 1.3%, 8.97% and 18.7% lower, respectively, than those of T0. No histological lesions in the livers were observed for any treatment; however, higher levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS: day 21) and lipoperoxidation (LPO: days 17 and 21) were observed, associated with lower liver activity of the enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD: day 21), glutathione peroxidase (GPx: day 17 and 21) and glutathione S-transferase (GST: day 21) when birds consumed 5 or 10 ppm of fumonisin. In serum, LPO levels and SOD and GPx activities were lower for groups consuming high doses of fumonisin in the diet (T2 and T3); ROS levels and GST activity were higher in these birds. Birds that consumed fumonisin-containing diets had lower levels of alanine aminotransferase, total protein and albumin (T3); as well as lower serum glucose levels (days 17 and 21), uric acid and triglycerides (day 21) in T3 than in T0. At 21 days, there were smaller crypt sizes and intestinal villi in birds that consumed high levels of fumonisin. These results suggest that fumonisin (10 ppm) in chick diet causes hepatic oxidative stress and impairs intestinal health, consequently negatively affecting weight gain.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32470455

RESUMO

Plant-based ingredients are successfully replacing fishmeal in fish feeds. However, this practice increases the risk of feed contamination by mycotoxins that reduce production and heath associated with oxidative damage. The aim of this study was to determine whether feed contaminated with environmentally relevant concentrations of ochratoxin A (OTA) causes muscle oxidative damage in tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum), and to determine whether this feed impairs fatty acid profiles in fish meat. Final mean weight, weight gain, daily weight gain, feed efficiency, and specific growth rate were significantly lower in fish fed 1.6 and 2.4 mg OTA/kg compared to those fed basal diet, while feed conversion was significantly higher in these same groups compared to the basal group. Levels of reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation in muscle were significantly higher in fish fed 1.6 and 2.4 mg OTA/kg compared to those in the basal group. Likewise, muscle superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities were significantly higher in fish fed 1.6 and 2.4 mg OTA/kg then in those fed basal feed. The total content of saturated fatty acids was significantly higher, and total content of polyunsaturated fatty acids was significantly lower in fish fed 2.4 mg OTA/kg compared to those fed basal feed. Taken together, the data suggest that OTA-contaminated feed induces oxidative damage and disturbs enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant responses in tambaqui meat. The perturbations of fatty acid profiles in fish meat appears to mediated by oxidative damage, representing negative impact on fish health and presenting concerns for consumers of fish.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32169414

RESUMO

The trend toward using plant-based ingredients in aquafeeds has raised important concerns for aquaculture owing to the negative impacts of mycotoxins on fish health; with emphasis for contamination by fumonisin B1 (FB1). The brain is an important target of FB1; however, study of the pathways linked to brain damage is limited to an analysis of histopathological alterations. Reports have demonstrated the protective effects of dietary supplementation with diphenyl diselenide (Ph2Se2) in the brains of fish subjected to several environmental insults; nevertheless, its neuroprotective effects in fish fed with diets contaminated with FB1 remain unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate whether oxidative damage may be a pathway associated with FB1-induced neurotoxicity, as well as to evaluate whether dietary supplementation with Ph2Se2 prevents or reduces FB1-mediated brain oxidative damage in silver catfish. Brain reactive oxygen species (ROS), lipid peroxidation (LOOH) and protein carbonylation increased on day 30 post-feeding in animals that received FB1-contaminated diets compared to the control group, while brain antioxidant capacity against peroxyl radicals (ACAP) levels and catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities were lower. Diphenyl diselenide dietary supplementation avoid increases in brain ROS levels, as well minimizing the augmentation of LOOH levels. Furthermore, Ph2Se2 prevented impairment of brain ACAP levels, as well as GPx and GST activities elicited by FB1-contaminated diets. These data suggest that dietary supplementation with 3 mg/kg Ph2Se2 prevented FB1-induced brain damage in silver catfish, and this protective effect occurred through avoided of excessive ROS production, as well as via prevention of brain lipid damage. Furthermore, Ph2Se2 exerted its neuroprotective effects via ameliorative effects on the enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant defense systems, and may be an approach to prevent FB1-induced brain oxidative stress; however, is not an alternative to prevent the impairment on performance caused by FB1.

14.
Microb Pathog ; 142: 104070, 2020 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32081613

RESUMO

The head kidney is a lymphoid immune organ that plays a key role in the immune and inflammatory responses of teleost fish. It is associated with immunoglobulin G production and differentiation of B cells. The presence of a multi-enzymatic complex found anchored in the plasma membrane makes the head kidney an important purinergic-dependent tissue. Purinergic signaling has been associated with these responses under pathological conditions via regulation of extracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the main damage molecular associated pattern agent released during bacterial infections. The aim of this study was to determine whether purinergic signaling is a pathway associated with impairment of immune responses in silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen) experimentally infected by Flavobacterium columnare, as well as to evaluate the role of P2 purine receptors in this response. Triphosphate diphosphohydrolase (NTPDase) activity in the head kidney was significantly lower in silver catfish experimentally-infected F. columnare 72 h post-infection (hpi) than in the control group, while no significant difference was observed with respect NTPDase activity on adenosine diphosphate, as well as on 5'-nucleotidase and adenosine deaminase activities. Extracellular ATP levels were significantly higher in the head kidney of experimentally-infected fish than in the control group at 72 hpi. Finally, p2ry11 and p2rx3 purine receptor levels were significantly higher in experimentally-infected fish than in the control group at 72 hpi. We conclude that purinergic signaling in the head kidney of silver catfish infected by F. columnare creates a pro-inflammatory profile that may contribute to impairment of immune and inflammatory responses via reduction of ATP hydrolysis and its accumulation in the extracellular milieu, accompanied by upregulation of p2ry11 and p2rx3 purine receptors, leading to pro-inflammatory status.

15.
Microb Pathog ; 141: 103989, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31982567

RESUMO

Rampant and uncontrolled use of antibiotics is a major concern for aquaculture; the practice foments the emergence of resistant strains of Streptococcus agalactiae, among other negative impacts. Constituents of plant essential oils such as nerolidol are being considered as replacements for synthetic drugs to support fish nutrition and health. There is evidence to suggest that nanotechnology may enhance the efficacy of natural bioactive compounds; this is a substantial advance for the development and sustainability of aquaculture. Against the backdrop of this evidence, we aimed determine whether dietary supplementation with free nerolidol and nerolidol-loaded nanospheres would exert bactericidal effects against S. agalactiae, as well as prevent S. agalactiae-induced brain oxidative damage. In Experiment I, we measured the antimicrobial properties of dietary supplementation of nerolidol and nerolidol nanosphere in terms of mortality, longevity and relative percent survival. Fish infected with S. agalactiae fed 0.5 and 1.0 mL nerolidol nanospheres kg/diet demonstrated lower mortality and higher relative percent survival than the control group, while longevity was higher in all infected plus supplementation groups. Experiment II showed significantly lower microbial loads in brains of fish infected with S. agalactiae that were fed 1.0 mL nerolidol nanospheres kg/diet than in the control group. Brain nerolidol levels were significantly higher in uninfected as well as infected fish supplemented with nerolidol nanospheres than in fish supplemented with free nerolidol. Finally, brain reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation levels were higher in infected fish supplemented with basal diet compared to uninfected fish and supplemented with basal diet, and the supplementation with 1.0 mL/kg nerolidol nanospheres prevented this augmentation caused by infection. These data suggest that dietary supplementation with nerolidol nanospheres (1.0 mL/kg diet) has potent bactericidal effects in terms of augmentation of fish longevity and survival, and reduction of brain microbial loads. Also, S. agalactiae-induced brain oxidative damage that contributed to disease pathogenesis, and the dietary supplementation with nerolidol nanospheres (1.0 mL/kg diet) prevented this alteration. In summary, nanotechnology is a compelling approach to enhancing the efficacy of nerolidol, giving rise to reduction of S. agalactiae loads in fish brains.

16.
Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol ; 393(5): 751-759, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31953674

RESUMO

Nerolidol is a sesquiterpene found in essential oils of several plant species. It is found commonly in human and animal diets and is approved by the US Food and Drug Administration as a flavoring agent. Nevertheless, recent studies have suggested that nerolidol has potent hepatotoxic effects. Because use of plant-based products in human and animal food has expanded considerably, it is essential to develop approaches such as nanotechnology to avoid or reduce hepatic toxic effects. Therefore, the aim of the study was to determine whether nerolidol dietary supplementation elicited hepatic damage associated with impairment of energy homeostasis, as well as whether supplementation with nerolidol-loaded in nanospheres prevented hepatotoxic effects in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Nile tilapia were divided into five groups (A-E, n = 10 per group) with four replicates each, as follows: group A received basal feed (without supplementation); group B received feed containing 0.5 mL free nerolidol/kg; group C received feed containing 1.0 mL free nerolidol/kg; group D received feed containing 0.5 mL nanospheres nerolidol/kg; and group E received feed containing 1.0 mL nanospheres nerolidol/kg. All groups received experimental feed once a day (10% total biomass) at 2 p.m. for 60 consecutive days. Hepatic liver weight and relative liver weight were significantly lower in fish fed 1.0 mL free nerolidol/kg feed than in fish given basal diet (control group). Hepatic pyruvate kinase (1.0 mL free nerolidol/kg) and adenylate kinase (0.5 and 1.0 mL free nerolidol/kg) activities were significantly lower than in the control group, while hepatic reactive oxygen species and lipid damage levels were significantly higher. Finally, the comet assay revealed significant increases in the frequency of damage and the damage index in fish given 0.5 and 1.0 mL free nerolidol/kg in a dose-dependent manner. Nerolidol-loaded in nanospheres prevented all alterations elicited by free nerolidol. Based on these data, we concluded that dietary supplementation with free nerolidol elicited severe impairment of hepatic bioenergetics homeostasis that appeared to be mediated by excessive ROS production and lipid damage, contributing to a genotoxic effect. Dietary supplementation with nerolidol-loaded in nanospheres did not elicit hepatic damage, and therefore, should be considered as a replacement so as to limit toxicity, permitting its continued use as a dietary supplement.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31760078

RESUMO

Mercury (Hg) induces neurobehavioral disorders through reactive oxygen species (ROS) elevation and impairment of brain key enzyme activities. Nevertheless, the therapeutic and toxic selenium concentrations for fish are very close; diphenyl diselenide (Ph2Se2), an organoselenium compound with neuroprotective effects, may be an alternative to elemental Se. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine whether dietary supplementation with Ph2Se2 prevented or reduced the neurobehavioral alterations and oxidative damage elicited by CH3HgCl in grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella. Fish exposed to CH3HgCl exhibited significantly reduced distance travelled and swimming speed compared to the control group, as well as augmented cortisol and ROS levels and xanthine oxidase (XO) activities. CH3HgCl exposure significantly increased lipid peroxidation (LOOH) and protein carbonylation (PC) levels compared to those of the control group, while acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and sodium-potassium pump (Na+, K+-ATPase) activities were inhibited. Dietary supplementation with 3 mg/kg Ph2Se2 ameliorated locomotor activity impairment and prevented the augmented brain cortisol and ROS levels as well as XO activity. The supplement reduced lipid and protein damage elicited by CH3HgCl and exerted protective effects on brain AChE and Na+, K+-ATPase activities. Exposure to an environmental concentration of CH3HgCl elicited neurobehavioral alterations linked to reduced locomotor activity, a finding that can be explained by oxidative damage and reduced activity of AChE and Na+, K+-ATPase in telencephalon and mesencephalon structures. Dietary supplementation with Ph2Se2 prevented CH3HgCl-induced locomotor impairment. This effect appeared to be mediated by antioxidant action. Ph2Se2 may be a viable approach to prevention or reduction CH3HgCl-mediated neurotoxic effects.


Assuntos
Derivados de Benzeno/farmacologia , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Carpas/metabolismo , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/toxicidade , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Compostos Organosselênicos/farmacologia , Adenosina Trifosfatases/metabolismo , Animais , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Encéfalo/patologia , Hidrocortisona/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Xantina Oxidase/metabolismo
18.
Microb Pathog ; 139: 103915, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31809794

RESUMO

We determined whether thymol supplementation of would minimize the negative effects of Aeromonas hydrophila infection on branchial energy metabolism, weight loss and mortality in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). We found that the infected fish all died, while 62.5% of those supplemented with 100 mg/kg thymol survived. Cytosolic and mitochondrial creatine kinase (CK) activities, as well as adenylate kinase (AK) and pyruvate kinase (PK) activities were significant lower in gills of A. hydrophila-infected fish than those of the control group, and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels were significant lower in the infected group. Finally, branchial reactive oxygen species (ROS) were significant higher in A. hydrophila-infected fish than in the control group. Supplementation with 100 and 300 mg thymol/kg diet prevented inhibition of branchial cytosolic and mitochondrial CK activities caused by infection, and also inhibited the reduction of branchial ATP levels. Supplementation with 100, 200 and 300 mg thymol/kg prevented the inhibition of branchial AK and PK activities induced by aeromonosis. Supplementation of 100 mg thymol/kg prevented weight loss after A. hydrophila infection. These data suggest that supplementation with 100 mg thymol/kg exerts potent bactericidal properties and augments longevity. Supplementation at all concentrations of thymol prevented A. hydrophila-induced branchial bioenergetics; nevertheless, higher concentrations were associated with side-effects.

19.
Fish Physiol Biochem ; 46(1): 405-416, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31784931

RESUMO

Hypoxia is among the most critical environmental stressors for fish in aquatic environments, and several energetic alterations have been associated with it. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the involvement of the phosphoryl transfer network and its effects on adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-dependent enzymes during hypoxia, as well as the role of oxidative stress in the activity of the phosphoryl transfer network in pacamã (Lophiosilurus alexandri) subjected to severe hypoxia. Branchial creatine kinase (CK; cytosolic and mitochondrial fractions), adenylate kinase (AK), and pyruvate kinase (PK) activities were inhibited after 72 h of exposure to hypoxia compared to their respective normoxia groups, and remained low (except for AK) after 24 and 72 h of re-oxygenation. Activities of the branchial sodium-potassium pump (Na+, K+-ATPase) and proton pump (H+-ATPase) were inhibited in fish exposed to 72 h of hypoxia compared to the normoxia group, remained inhibited after 24 h of re-oxygenation, and were restored to physiological levels after 72 h of re-oxygenation. Levels of branchial reactive oxygen species (ROS) were higher in fish exposed to hypoxia for 72 h compared to the normoxia group, and increased during re-oxygenation. Lipid peroxidation (LOOH) levels were higher in fish subjected to 72 h of hypoxia compared to the normoxia group, and remained higher during re-oxygenation. On the other hand, protein sulfhydryl (PSH) levels were lower in fish exposed to hypoxia for 72 h compared to the normoxia group, and remained low during re-oxygenation. Based on this evidence, inhibition of the activities of enzymes belonging to phosphoryl transfer network contributed to impairing energetic homeostasis linked to ATP production and ATP utilization in gills of pacamã subjected to hypoxia, and remained inhibited during re-oxygenation (except AK activity). Moreover, inhibition of the phosphoryl transfer network impaired activity of ATP-dependent enzymes, which can be mediated by ROS overproduction, lipid peroxidation, and oxidation of SH groups.

20.
Exp Parasitol ; 208: 107790, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31697939

RESUMO

Neospora caninum is a protozoan that has tropism for the central nervous system. The aim of this study was to determine whether experimental infection of gerbils would interfere with activity of enzymes associated with energy metabolism. We randomized 20 gerbils into two groups (ten animals per group): the control group (healthy animals; uninfected) and the infected group (experimentally infected with dose 7.8 × 102 tachyzoites of N. caninum per gerbil). On day six and twelve post-infection (PI), brain and spleen tissues were collected for biochemical and histopathological analyses. No histopathological lesions were observed in the brains of infected animals; however, inflammatory infiltrates were found in the spleen. Significantly greater levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were observed in the brain and spleen of infected gerbils than in the control group at 12 days PI. Cytosolic creatine kinase (CK-CYT), mitochondrial creatine kinase (CK-MIT), and pyruvate kinase (PK) activities were lower in the brains of infected gerbils than in those of the control group on day 12 PI. There was significantly less CK-CYT activity in the spleens of infected gerbils on day 6 and 12 PI. Finally, there was significantly less sodium-potassium ion pump (Na+/K+ ATPase) activity in the brains and spleens of infected gerbils on day 12 PI. These data suggest that experimental infection with N. caninum interfered with energy metabolism associated with ATP homeostasis in the brain and spleen, directly or indirectly, apparently mediated by ROS overproduction, contributing to inhibition of Na+/K+ ATPase activity.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/enzimologia , Coccidiose/enzimologia , Metabolismo Energético , Neospora , Baço/enzimologia , Animais , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Encéfalo/patologia , Coccidiose/metabolismo , Creatina Quinase/metabolismo , Citosol/enzimologia , Gerbillinae , Masculino , Mitocôndrias/enzimologia , Piruvato Quinase/metabolismo , Distribuição Aleatória , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , ATPase Trocadora de Sódio-Potássio/metabolismo , Baço/química , Baço/patologia
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