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Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31493584


Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is one of the most important mycotoxins due to its hepatotoxic and carcinogenic effects on animals. The effect of dietary supplementation with vegetable choline (VC) at 400, 800, and 1200 mg/kg against the deleterious effects of AFB1 (2 ppm/kg diet) in the liver of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) was studied. The experimental period was 81 days, and the diet with VC was offered to the fish for 60 days prior to challenge with AFB1. Diets with AFB1 were tested in three replications and animals were analyzed at days 14 and 21 of dietary intake. The addition of VC to tilapia diet increased body weight (days 30 and 60 pre-challenge and day 21 post-challenge). The group fed aflatoxin-contaminated diet presented significantly reduced antioxidant enzymes and increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) levels, and protein carbonyl (PC) content in the liver. Dietary supplementation with VC at 800 and 1200 mg/kg demonstrated a significant protective effect, avoiding the increase of ROS, TBARS, and PC levels in the liver of tilapia from the aflatoxin contaminated groups. Thus, dietary VC supplementation may be used in tilapia to increase antioxidant status and reduce the negative effects caused by AFB1 toxicity. Based on the findings, it is recommended to use VC as a food supplement for Nile tilapia in order to avoid AFB1 toxication. In addition, decreased aflatoxin toxicity can be attributed to the VC antioxidant property.

Aflatoxina B1/toxicidade , Ração Animal/análise , Colina/farmacologia , Ciclídeos , Doenças dos Peixes/induzido quimicamente , Contaminação de Alimentos , Aflatoxina B1/administração & dosagem , Animais , Catalase/genética , Catalase/metabolismo , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/veterinária , Colina/administração & dosagem , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Doenças dos Peixes/tratamento farmacológico , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Glutationa Peroxidase/genética , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Glutationa Transferase/genética , Glutationa Transferase/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/genética , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
Front Physiol ; 10: 785, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31281264


In fish, stressful events initiate a hormone cascade along the hypothalamus-pituitary-interrenal and hypothalamus-sympathetic-chromaffin (HSC) axis to evoke several physiological reactions in order to orchestrate and maintain homeostasis. Several biotic and abiotic factors, as well as aquaculture procedures (handling, transport, or stocking density), activated stress system inducing negative effects on different physiological processes in fish (growth, reproduction, and immunity). In order to reduce these consequences, the use of essential oils (EOs) derived from plants has been the focus of aquaculture studies due to their diverse properties (e.g., anesthetic, antioxidant, and antimicrobial), which have been shown to reduce biochemical and endocrine alterations and, consequently, to improve the welfare status. Recently, several studies have shown that biogenic compounds isolated from different EOs present excellent biological activities, as well as the nanoencapsulated form of these EOs may potentiate their effects. Overall, EOs presented less side effects than synthetic compounds, but their stress-reducing efficacy is related to their chemical composition, concentration or chemotype used. In addition, their species-specific actions must be clearly established since they can act as stressors by themselves if their concentrations and chemotypes used are not suitable. For this reason, it is necessary to assess the effect of these natural compound mixtures in different fish species, from marine to freshwater, in order to find the ideal concentration range and the way for their administration to obtain the desired biological activity, without any undesired side effects. In this review, the main findings regarding the use of different EOs as stress reducers will be presented to highlight the most important issues related to their use to improve fish welfare in aquaculture.

Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30910599


Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by varieties of fungi that contaminate food and feed resources and are capable of inducing a wide range of toxicity. This problem is extensively aggravated due to the increasing replacement of fish meal by plant-derived proteins. Among the mycotoxins, aflatoxins have received a great deal of attention owing to their great prevalence in plant feedstuffs and to the detrimental effects on animals. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether dietary supplementation with tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) oil (TTO) would avoid or minimize the negative impacts on silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen) fed with aflatoxins-contaminated diets. Four treatments were tested: control (fish fed with a control diet); AFB (fish fed with a mycotoxin-contaminated diet - 1893 µg kg-1 of AFB1 and 52.2 µg kg-1 AFB2); TTO (fish fed with a control diet + 1 mL kg-1 of TTO), and TTO + AFB (fish fed with a mycotoxin contaminated diet - 2324 µg kg-1 of AFB1 and 43.5 µg kg-1 AFB2 + 1 mL kg-1 of TTO). Diets were tested in three replications and analyzed at days 5 and 10 of dietary intake. Significantly reduced antioxidant enzymes (SOD, GPx, and GST) and increased lipid peroxidation (LOOH) and protein carbonyl (PC) content in plasma and liver, with 16.6% mortality occurrence, were observed in the group fed aflatoxin-contaminated diet. Furthermore, aflatoxins also significantly increased plasmatic and hepatic ROS levels and decreased hepatic antioxidant capacity against peroxyl radical (ACAP) levels. Plasma cortisol levels were not altered by aflatoxicosis, but the intoxication induced hepatose. Notwithstanding, addition of TTO to the groups receiving aflatoxins showed a protective effect, avoiding the increase of ROS, LOOH, and PC levels in plasma and liver. Moreover, TTO treatment ameliorated the aflatoxin-associated liver damage. Thus, TTO supplementation at concentration of 1 mL kg-1 in feed may be used in fish to increase antioxidant status and reduce the negative effects caused by aflatoxins toxicity.

Aflatoxinas/toxicidade , Ração Animal/análise , Peixes-Gato , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/veterinária , Doenças dos Peixes/induzido quimicamente , Óleo de Melaleuca/farmacologia , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos Locais/uso terapêutico , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/prevenção & controle , Contaminação de Alimentos , Hidrocortisona , Distribuição Aleatória , Óleo de Melaleuca/administração & dosagem
Chemosphere ; 223: 124-130, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30772591


The objective of this study was to evaluate whether antiparasitic eprinomectin may be an environmental contaminant in water compartment in low concentrations, negatively affecting neurotransmission and, consequently, the natural behavior of the jundiá (Rhamdia quelen). Fish were randomly allocated in tanks and exposed for 24 and 48 h to eprinomectin concentrations in water [0.0 (Control), 1.124 (T1), 1.809 (T2) and 3.976 (T3) µg L-1], followed by 48 h of recovery in eprinomectin-free water, in order to evaluate the behavioral parameters, levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the brain, as well as cerebral enzymatic activities of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and of the sodium-potassium ATPase pump (Na+/K+-ATPase). Especially at the two highest concentrations of eprinomectin (T2 and T3), the fish showed alterations in natural behavior, particularly hyperlocomotion and longer time on the surface. Furthermore, at these same concentrations, cerebral ROS levels increased and cerebral AChE activity decreased. At the highest concentration (T3) cerebral Na+/K+-ATPase activity was reduced. Increased ROS and impairment of AChE and Na+/K+-ATPase enzymes in the brain may have contributed directly to behavioral changes, due to neuronal damage and synapse impairment. Even after 48 h in water without eprinomectin, behavioral changes and neurotoxic effects were observed in fish, suggesting residual effects of the antiparasitic. In conclusion, eprinomectin even in low concentrations may be a hazardous environmental contaminant for aquatic organisms, as it causes brain damage and affects the natural behavior of fish.

Acetilcolinesterase/efeitos dos fármacos , Peixes-Gato/fisiologia , Ivermectina/análogos & derivados , ATPase Trocadora de Sódio-Potássio/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/enzimologia , Inibidores da Colinesterase , Ivermectina/toxicidade , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
Fish Physiol Biochem ; 45(1): 155-166, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30120603


In teleost fish, stress initiates a hormone cascade along the hypothalamus-pituitary-interrenal (HPI) axis to provoke several physiological reactions in order to maintain homeostasis. In aquaculture, a number of factors induce stress in fish, such as handling and transport, and in order to reduce the consequences of this, the use of anesthetics has been an interesting alternative. Essential oil (EO) of Lippia alba is considered to be a good anesthetic; however, its distinct chemotypes have different side effects. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate, in detail, the expression of genes involved with the HPI axis and the effects of anesthesia with the EOs of two chemotypes of L. alba (citral EO-C and linalool EO-L) on this expression in silver catfish, Rhamdia quelen. Anesthesia with the EO-C is stressful for silver catfish because there was an upregulation of the genes directly related to stress: slc6a2, crh, hsd20b, hspa12a, and hsp90. In this study, it was also possible to observe the importance of the hsd11b2 gene in the response to stress by handling. The use of EO-C as anesthetics for fish is not recommended, but, the use of OE-L is indicated for silver catfish as it does not cause major changes in the HPI axis.

Peixes-Gato/fisiologia , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/efeitos dos fármacos , Lippia/química , Monoterpenos/farmacologia , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Anestesia/veterinária , Anestésicos/química , Anestésicos/farmacologia , Animais , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/fisiologia , Monoterpenos/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Óleos Vegetais/química
Ciênc. rural (Online) ; 49(6): e20190064, 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1045381


ABSTRACT: The use of natural products, such as essential oils (EOs), is a potential novel approach to treat fish bacterial infections with a lower risk of developing resistance. There has been a number of studies reporting the activity of EOs as those obtained from the species Achyrocline satureioides, Aniba parviflora, Aniba rosaeodora, Anthemis nobilis, Conobea scoparioides, Cupressus sempervirens, Illicium verum, Lippia origanoides, and Melaleuca alternifolia against bacteria. However, there are few studies investigating the effect of these EOs against fish bacteria. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro antibacterial activity of EOs against the following fish bacteria, Aeromonas hydrophila, Citrobacter freundii, and Raoultella ornithinolytica. Additionally, the in vivo antibacterial activity of the EO L. origanoides was evaluated against experimentally induced A. hydrophila infection of silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen). The EO of L. origanoides was chosen as it showed the highest in vitro antibacterial activity, with minimum inhibitory concentrations ranging from 0.2 to 0.8 mg mL-1. This EO also presented a therapeutic success of 58.33%, on a 30 day A. hydrophila infection. Therefore, we suggested that the EO of L. origanoides may be a viable alternative as a treatment for A. hydrophila infection.

RESUMO: O uso de produtos naturais, como óleos essenciais (OEs), é uma nova abordagem potencial para o tratamento de infecções bacterianas em peixes com um baixo risco de desenvolvimento de resistência. Existem estudos reportando a atividade de OEs como aqueles obtidos das espécies Achyrocline satureioides, Aniba parviflora, Aniba rosaeodora, Anthemis nobilis, Conobea scoparioides, Cupressus sempervirens, Illicium verum, Lippia origanoides e Melaleuca alternifolia contra bactérias. Porém, existem poucos estudos investigando o efeito desses OEs supracitados contra bactérias isoladas de peixes. Portanto, o objetivo desse estudo foi avaliar a atividade antibacteriana in vitro desses OEs contra bactérias isoladas de peixes (Aeromonas hydrophila, Citrobacter freundii e Raoultella ornithinolytica). Assim como avaliar a atividade antibacteriana in vivo do OE de L. origanoides contra uma infecção por A. hydrophila experimentalmente induzida em jundiá (Rhamdia quelen). O OE de L. origanoides foi escolhido porque apresentou a melhor atividade antibacteriana in vitro, com concentrações inibitórias mínimas variando de 0,2 a 0,8 mg mL-1. Esse OE apresentou sucesso terapêutico de 58,33% no dia 30 pós-infecção. Portanto, sugerimos que o OE de L. origanoides possa ser uma alternativa viável no tratamento da infecção por A. hydrophila em peixes.

Microb Pathog ; 125: 276-280, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30266258


Citrobacter freundii is a fish pathogen known for its ability to cause injury and high mortality. There have been no studies reporting the effect of this bacterium on hematological parameters and internal organ histology in silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen). Therefore, the aim of this study is to evaluate the hematological and histopathological effects of an experimentally induced C. freundii infection in silver catfish. Twenty fish were divided into healthy and infected groups. The fish of the infected group were inoculated intramuscularly with 100 µL of bacterial suspension (6.4 × 108 CFU mL-1), while healthy control animals received 100 µL of sterile saline. On day 18 post-infection, blood and tissues (cephalic kidneys, livers, and spleens) were collected for histological analysis. The infected animals presented high mortality, as well as hematological and histological changes. In relation to hematology, the infected fish presented aregenerative anemia, protein loss, leukopenia with neutropenia, lymphocytosis, and leukoblastosis. Regarding histology, there was liver degeneration, decrease in the amount of renal hematopoietic tissue, and the presence of melanomacrophage centers (MMCs) in the spleen and cephalic kidney of infected fish. In summary, these alterations may contribute to disease pathophysiology, contributing to high mortality of affected fish.

Peixes-Gato/microbiologia , Citrobacter freundii/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/veterinária , Doenças dos Peixes/patologia , Estruturas Animais/patologia , Animais , Células Sanguíneas/patologia , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/microbiologia , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/patologia , Doenças dos Peixes/microbiologia , Histocitoquímica , Análise de Sobrevida
Fish Physiol Biochem ; 44(1): 21-34, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28948452


The viability using Lippia alba essential oil as an anesthetic for fish was studied, particularly with respect to physiological effects during recovery. Anesthesia of silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen) using 100 and 300 µL L-1 of two different chemotypes of L. alba essential oil (citral EO-C and linalool EO-L) prevented the increase of plasma cortisol levels caused by handling, but did not avoid alterations in energetic metabolism. Silver catfish did not have increased the levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive species in the kidney and liver during recovery after anesthesia with either EO, avoiding lipid damage. On the other hand, fish anesthetized with EO-C showed higher protein carbonylation levels, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione S-transferase activities and non-protein thiol group levels in both tissues compared to controls. Our results suggest that both oils show antioxidant capacity, but anesthesia with EO-L does not cause damage to lipids or proteins, only temporary changes, typical of physiological adjustments during recovery from anesthesia. Therefore, EO-L is an effective anesthetic for silver catfish with fewer side effects than EO-C.

Anestésicos/farmacologia , Peixes-Gato , Lippia/química , Monoterpenos/farmacologia , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Monoterpenos/química , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Estresse Oxidativo , Óleos Vegetais/química
Microb Pathog ; 104: 190-195, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28126664


Carya illinoensis is a widespread species, belonging to the Juglandaceae family, commonly known as Pecan. Popularly, the leaves have been used in the treatment of smoking as a hypoglycemic, cleansing, astringent, keratolytic, antioxidant, and antimicrobial agent. The following research aimed to identify for the first time the phytochemical compounds present in the leaves of C. illinoensis and carry out the determination of antimicrobial activity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts. The antimicrobial activity was tested against 20 microorganisms by determining the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Phenolic acids (gallic acid and ellagic acid), flavonoids (rutin), and tannins (catechins and epicatechins) were identified by HPLC-DAD and may be partially responsible for the antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive, Gram-negative, and yeast. The results showed MIC values between 25 mg/mL and 0.78 mg/mL. The extracts were also able to inhibit the production of germ tubes by Candida albicans.

Antifúngicos/análise , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Carya/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Leveduras/efeitos dos fármacos , Antifúngicos/isolamento & purificação , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Flavonoides/análise , Flavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Hidroxibenzoatos/análise , Hidroxibenzoatos/isolamento & purificação , Hidroxibenzoatos/farmacologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Folhas de Planta/química , Taninos/análise , Taninos/isolamento & purificação , Taninos/farmacologia
Neotrop. ichthyol ; 15(1): e160083, 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-841871


The aim of this study was to evaluate if Lippia alba has different chemotypes according to the chemical composition of the essential oil (EO) considering collection site, and if the EO may have different effects on blood and plasma parameters in silver catfish, Rhamdia quelen, during and immediately after anesthesia. The citral (EO-C) and linalool (EO-L) chemotypes were identified, and both presented similar anesthetic effects for silver catfish. Fish were exposed to two concentrations of each EO, which induced slow and fast anesthesia (100 and 300 µL L-1, respectively). Blood ions did not change at any time of anesthesia induction and recovery and, therefore, the electrolyte balance was not altered. Blood gases oscillated through all exposure and recovery times, but there was an increase in pO2 after 10 min recovery in fish anesthetized with EO-C. Glucose increased in fish exposed to both EOs when compared with the control group. Overall, exposure to both EOs (except 100 µL L-1 EO-L at most times) reduced plasma cortisol levels compared to the control and/or ethanol groups. However, as plasma creatinine levels in fish anesthetized with EO-C were higher than control fish, the use of EO-L is preferable.(AU)

O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar se Lippia alba apresenta diferentes quimiotipos de acordo com a composição química do óleo essencial (OE), considerando local de coleta e se o OE causa diferentes efeitos nos parâmetros sanguíneos e plasmáticos em jundiá, Rhamdia quelen, durante e imediatamente após a anestesia. Os quimiotipos citral (OE-C) e linalol (OE-L) foram identificados e ambos apresentaram efeito anestésico semelhante para jundiá. Os peixes foram expostos a duas concentrações de cada OE, que induziram anestesia lenta e rápida (100 e 300 mL L-1, respectivamente). Íons sanguíneos não se alteraram em nenhum tempo e consequentemente, o equilíbrio eletrolítico não foi alterado. Os gases sanguíneos oscilaram durante todo tempo de exposição e recuperação, mas houve aumento na pO2 após 10 min de recuperação em peixes anestesiados com OE-C. Níveis sanguíneos de glicose aumentaram nos peixes expostos a ambos OEs quando comparados com o grupo controle. De um modo geral, a exposição a ambos OEs (exceto 100 µL L-1 OE-L na maioria dos tempos) reduziu o cortisol plasmático comparado aos grupos controle e etanol. No entanto, como os níveis de creatinina plasmática em peixes anestesiados com OE-C foram maiores que nos peixes controle, é preferível o uso do OE-L.(AU)

Animais , Peixes-Gato/sangue , Peixes-Gato/metabolismo , Peixes-Gato/fisiologia , Óleos Voláteis/administração & dosagem , Hidrocortisona
Ciênc. rural ; 47(4): e20160837, 2017. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-839788


ABSTRACT: Liquid pig manure (LPM) is widely used as a compost fertilizer for vegetable crops destined for human consumption. However, these wastes may contain parasites eggs, such as the nematode Ascaris suum, that pose serious health risks to humans. We attempted to determine the most appropriate technique for recovering A. suum eggs from LPM compost. Samples were collected from two waste sources during composting, including 23 samples containing LPM, sawdust, and wood shavings, and 14 samples of LPM alone-both in triplicate. Samples were analyzed using several different recovery methods. Recovery of eggs by the modified Bailenger method with adaptations was significantly more effective and recovered 57% more eggs than by the modified Bailenger method alone. Willis-Mollay method, modified Faust method, and the simple sedimentation technique only recovered 4.4%, 13.9%, and 26% of eggs, respectively, compared with the modified Bailenger method with adaptations, indicating that the adjustments made to the Bailenger method were key to improving the recovery of A. suum eggs from compost and LPM.

RESUMO: Dejetos líquidos de suínos (DLS) são amplamente utilizado como adubo para as culturas vegetais destinados ao consumo humano. No entanto, estes resíduos podem conter os ovos de parasitas, tais como o nematoide Ascaris suum, que apresentam riscos graves para a saúde dos seres humanos. Neste estudo tentamos determinar a técnica mais apropriada para a recuperação de ovos de A. suum no composto de DLS e nos dejetos líquidos. Foram coletadas amostras de dois tratamentos destes resíduos, que consiste de 23 amostras de DLS + serragem + maravalha e 14 amostras de DLS sozinhos, todos em triplicata. Em ambos, dejetos líquidos e dejetos compostado foram analisados usando um método modificado Bailenger (BM), um método de Faust modificado (FM), o método de Willis-Mollay (WM), sedimentação simples (SS), e pelo método de Bailenger modificado com adaptações (BMA). A recuperação de ovos pelo Método BMA foi significativamente mais eficaz do que pela BM, com 57% mais ovos recuperados usando a técnica de BMA; além disso, o WM, FM, e o método SS recuperaram 4,4%, 13,9% e 26%, respectivamente, em comparação com o método BMA, indicando que os ajustes feitos com o método BM foram fundamentais para melhorar a recuperação de ovos de A. suum ovos em dejetos compostados e DLS puro.

Vet Parasitol ; 204(3-4): 96-103, 2014 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24916342


The use of avian antibodies has aroused interest in biomedical research due to the numerous advantages compared to mammal's antibodies. Our study aimed to produce and purify IgY immunoglobulins in order to use as an alternative therapy against Trypanosoma evansi. Every 14 days, four New Hampshire chickens were immunized with trypomastigotes of T. evansi, totaling five inoculations. Eggs were collected during 70 days and the extraction of IgY was performed by precipitation through the PEG-6000 method. Characterization and purification of IgY anti-T. evansi were carried out by SDS-PAGE and Western blot, where heavy and light chains were detected. The production of IgY was noted during the whole period, and the average production was 2.87 ± 0.14 at the end of this study. Sample's titration allowed the quantification of specific IgY anti-T. evansi, with antibodies produced showing high avidity indexes. The results indicated that T. evansi is able to generate an immune response in poultry, resulting in a production of specific antibodies. In vivo test showed that IgY treatment resulted in increase of prepatent period, longevity and survival of infected animals, when compared with the positive control, demonstrating an initial, but no curative, trypanocidal activity.

Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/imunologia , Galinhas/imunologia , Gema de Ovo/imunologia , Trypanosoma/imunologia , Tripanossomíase/veterinária , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Tripanossomíase/prevenção & controle
J Parasitol ; 100(1): 142-3, 2014 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24006849


Clinostomum complanatum is a zoonotic parasite of birds, and its larval form (metacercariae) may cause disease in fish. The immune response of fish infected by C. complanatum is unknown, and therefore the objective of this study was to evaluate serum levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen) infected by this parasite. The analysis showed that fish infected with metacercariae presented significantly (P < 0.05) higher levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin 1 (IL-1), and interleukin 6 (IL-6) when compared to those not infected. These data suggest that C. complanatum larvae activate the host immune response.

Peixes-Gato/parasitologia , Citocinas/sangue , Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Infecções por Trematódeos/veterinária , Animais , Feminino , Doenças dos Peixes/sangue , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Interleucina-1/sangue , Interleucina-6/sangue , Trematódeos/imunologia , Infecções por Trematódeos/sangue , Infecções por Trematódeos/imunologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/sangue