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1.
Microb Pathog ; 154: 104871, 2021 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33771632

RESUMO

This study points to evaluate the effects of pre-treatment with standardized dry extract of Curcuma longa (Motore™) added to the diet (0; 250; 500; and 750 mg/kg) on oxidative stress parameters, longevity, and therapeutic success in Rhamdia quelen experimentally infected with Aeromonas hydrophila (MF 372510). After treatment, the liver and kidney were collected to determine non-enzymatic oxidative parameters such as the formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), non-protein thiols (NPSH), and quantification of reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. Also, two enzymatic antioxidant parameters were evaluated: superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities. The results showed an increase of ROS and TBARS levels, a depletion in NPSH, and a decrease of SOD and CAT activities in infected fish compared to control. The highest Motore™ dose minimized the deleterious effect of A. hydrophila infection improving longevity, oxidative status, and survival rate. The addition of 750 mg Motore™/kg feed is recommended for silver catfish in fish farming. Serious economic losses in Rhamdia quelen culture caused by Aeromonas hydrophila infections can be prevented by the addition of Motore™ to the diet.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33610818

RESUMO

Evidence suggests the involvement of purinergic signaling, a mechanism mediated by extracellular nucleotides and nucleosides, with the impairment of immune and inflammatory responses in silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen) exposed to trichlorfon. Plant-derived substances have been considered potent anti-inflammatory agents due to effects on the purinergic system, such as the use of the flavonoid rutin. The aim of this study was to determine whether a diet containing rutin is able to prevent or reduce trichlorfon-induced impairment of immune responses through alteration of the purinergic pathway. Spleen adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels were significantly higher in silver catfish exposed to 11 mg/L trichlorfon for 48 h compared to the control group, while adenosine (Ado) levels were significantly lower. Spleen ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase (NTPDase) activity was significantly lower in silver catfish exposed to trichlorfon compared to control group, while adenosine deaminase activity was significantly higher. Spleen metabolites of nitric oxide, interleukin-1, and IL-6 were significantly higher in silver catfish exposed to trichlorfon compared to control group. Diet with 3 mg rutin/kg diet was able to prevent all the alterations elicited by trichlorfon, except restoring spleen ATP levels. The purinergic exposure signaling is involved in impairment of immune and inflammatory responses in fish exposed to trichlorfon due to reduction in ATP hydrolyses and by an increase in Ado deamination, leading to release of pro-inflammatory mediators. Use of rutin-added diet exerted an essential role in protecting the silver catfish spleen from trichlorfon-induced impairment on immune and inflammatory responses, preventing all alterations on splenic purinergic signaling.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33540080

RESUMO

The Amazonian aquatic ecosystem undergoes seasonal variations and daily changes that directly affect the availability of oxygen. During the day the levels of oxygen can reach supersaturation, and at night can drop to zero. In this way, aquatic organisms are exposed daily to physiological challenges regarding the availability of oxygen. The present study revealed significant differences in the physiology and performance of two cichlids: Geophagus proximus (black water cichlid - from Negro River) and Chaetobranchopsis orbicularis (white water cichlid - from Amazon River), exposed to hypoxia. The white water cichlid showed lower value (1.99 ± 0.79 pKa) of critical pressure of oxygen (Pcrit) and a longer time (68.00 ± 14.11 min) for total loss of balance (LOE); however, this species showed 50% mortality during exposure to hypoxia, while the black water cichlid did not show mortality. Both cichlids presented a decrease in O2 consumption rate (OCR) during hypoxia.. In this sense, it was observed that the black water cichlid presented several physiological strategies during hypoxia, such as, a significant increase in plasma cortisol levels, nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase activity (for adenosine diphosphate (ADP) as a substrate) in the gills, and the activity of adenosine deaminase (ADA) in gills and liver, in addition to a significant increase in the activity of complexes (II-III) in the transporter chain of electrons in both analyzed tissues and succinate dehydrogenase activity of gills' mitochondria. On the other hand, the only physiological change observed in the white water cichlid was a significant reduction in the activity of complexes II-III in gills and liver. Based on our findings, we can hypothesize that the white water cichlid specie has less tolerant to hypoxia when compared to the black water cichlid.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32777463

RESUMO

It is unknown whether the flavonoid rutin can protect the silver catfish liver in response to exposure to a known stressor, such as the prophylactic usage of the antimicrobial agent oxytetracycline. Thus, the current study aimed to assess the effect of rutin incorporation into the silver catfish diet formulation on oxytetracycline-induced liver oxidative stress and apoptosis. Fish were split into four groups as follows: control, rutin (1.5 g kg diet-1), oxytetracycline (0.1 g kg diet-1) and rutin+oxytetracycline (1.5 g kg diet-1 and 0.1 g kg diet-1, respectively). After two weeks of feeding with the different diets (standard, rutin-, oxytetracycline and rutin+oxytetracycline-added diets), fish were euthanized to collect the liver. Although the rutin-added diet was unable to recover glutathione peroxidase activity, ascorbic acid and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels, which were depleted due to oxytetracycline consumption, it markedly diminished the oxidized glutathione (GSSG) content, thus decreasing the GSSG to GSH ratio, an important index of oxidative stress. It also increased glutathione reductase and markedly augmented glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activities, which were declined after oxytetracycline ingestion. Furthermore, the rutin-added diet reestablished superoxide dismutase and catalase activities and reduced lipid peroxidation, nitric oxide and superoxide anion levels as well, all changes resulting from oxytetracycline consumption. Finally, it also prevented oxytetracycline-induced apoptosis through increasing heat shock protein 70 and markedly decreasing high mobility group box 1 and, consequently, reducing cleaved caspase-3 protein levels. Therefore, in conclusion, the incorporation of this flavonoid to the silver catfish diet protected the liver against oxytetracycline-induced liver oxidative stress and apoptosis.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32814146

RESUMO

Trichlorfon is an organophosphate pesticide used extensively for controlling ectoparasites in aquaculture. Studies have found that trichlorfon caused environmental pollution and severe neurotoxic effects in several freshwater species. Feed additives such as flavonoids may reduce or prevent pesticide-induced toxicity in fish. The aim of the present study was to determine whether acute exposure to trichlorfon impairs behavior and causes oxidative damage in brains of silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen). We also sought to determine whether rutin would be capable of preventing or reducing these effects. Silver catfish were divided into four groups: groups A and C received basal feed, while groups B and D received feed containing 3 mg rutin/kg diet for 21 days. After 21 days, groups C and D were exposed for 48 h to a nominal concentration of 11 mg trichlorfon/L water. Fish exposed to trichlorfon showed significantly longer distances travelled and swimming performances than did unexposed fish. Cerebral levels of reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation were significantly higher in fish exposed to trichlorfon than in unexposed fish, while cerebral superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activities were significantly lower. Taken together, our findings suggest that dietary supplementation rutin completely prevented all alterations elicited by trichlorfon, except for cerebral AChE activity; the latter remained significantly lower compared to the unexposed group. In summary, rutin prevents trichlorfon-induced neurotoxicity in silver catfish.

6.
Fish Physiol Biochem ; 2020 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33196935

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate the essential oil of Ocimum gratissimum L. (EOOG) for anesthesia and in the transport of Oreochromis niloticus. Experiment I determined the time of anesthesia induction and recovery during anesthesia of O. niloticus exposed to different concentrations of EOOG (0, 30, 90, 150, and 300 mg L-1). Based on data from Experiment I, Experiment II evaluated the effect of 0, 30, and 90 mg L-1 EOOG on blood parameters and oxidative stress immediately after anesthesia induction and 1 h after recovery. Experiment III evaluated the effect of 0, 5, and 10 mg L-1 EOOG on blood variables immediately after 4.5 h of transport of juveniles. Concentrations between 90 and 150 mg L-1 EOOG were efficient for anesthesia and recovery. The use of 90 mg L-1 of EOOG prevented an increase in plasma glucose. Other changes in blood parameters and oxidative stress are discussed. The use of 10 mg L-1 EOOG in transport increased plasma glucose and decreased hematocrit values immediately after transport. It is concluded that the use of 90 and 150 mg L-1 EOOG causes anesthesia and recovery in O. niloticus within the time intervals considered ideal. The use of 90 mg L-1 EOOG favored stable plasma glucose soon after anesthesia induction and 1 h after recovery, but caused changes in the antioxidant defense system by increasing hepatic and kidney ROS. The transport of 12 g O. niloticus for 4.5 h can be performed with concentration of 5 mg L-1 of EOOG.

7.
Fish Physiol Biochem ; 46(6): 2377-2387, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33025302

RESUMO

Rapid industrialization results in the production of large quantities of waste that are commonly discharged into water bodies, leading to the damage of the aquatic ecosystem and freshwater organisms. Copper (Cu) can induce oxidative damage in fish muscle, the main fish portion that is consumed by humans. However, the responses of the Amazon fish Cichlasoma amazonarum and its capacity to withstand acute Cu concentrations found in Amazon water around mines remain unknown. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate whether exposure to Cu causes muscle oxidative stress and/or oxidative damage and impairs the fillet fatty acid profile of C. amazonarum acutely exposed to Cu found in Amazon waters around mines. Muscle reactive oxygen species and protein carbonylation levels were significantly higher in fish exposed to 1500 µg/L Cu compared with the control group, while muscle lipid peroxidation levels were significantly higher in fish exposed to 500, 750, and 1500 µg/L Cu compared with control group. Muscle antioxidant capacity against peroxyl radical's levels and glutathione peroxidase activity were significantly lower in fish exposed to 1500 µg/L Cu compared with the control group, while muscle superoxide dismutase activity was significantly lower in fish exposed to 750 and 1500 µg/L Cu compared with control group. The total content of saturated fatty acids was significantly higher in fish exposed to 1500 µg/L Cu compared with the control group, while the total content of monounsaturated fatty acids and sum of n3 fatty acids were significantly lower in fish exposed to 1500 µg/L Cu compared with control group. No significant difference was observed regarding muscle catalase, glutathione S-transferase, and glutathione reductase activities. Based on these lines of evidence, the results of this comprehensive study agree with the initial hypothesis that the exposure to Cu found in Amazon water around mines induces oxidative damage and inhibits enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant response in the muscle of C. amazonarum exposed to high Cu levels. Moreover, the impairment of the fillet fatty acid profile appears to be mediated by oxidative damage, representing a negative impact on fish health.

8.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(5): 1405-1411, oct. 2020. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134456

RESUMO

SUMMARY: Establishing guidelines for responsible management in fish production systems requires knowledge of the basic biology of the fish to be raised. The objective of this work was to determine the reproductive capacity of hybrids produced from the crossing of females of Pseudoplatystoma metaense with males of Leiarius marmoratus. Males presented a digitiform, unrestricted spermatogonial testicle containing caudal digits producing glycoproteins that do not form a seminal vesicle. It was possible to find free sperm in the lumen of the tubules and in the ducts. The ovary of the females was found to be saccular and synchronous with at least three groups of oocytes. In the first year of life, only oogonia up to previtellogenic oocytes (cortical alveolus 284.9 ± 35.7 mm in diameter) were found. After the second year vitellogenic oocytes 730 ± 3.78 mm in diameter were observed. The events of gonadal development of the hybrids indicate that they are gonochoric, synchronic animals. The maturation peaks in the high-water season, overlapping with the parental species. Therefore, the escape of hybrids from fish cultures to the rivers may increase the risk of crosses, gene introgression, or diminution of the reproductive capacity of the pure species.


RESUMEN: El establecimiento de pautas para la gestión responsable en los sistemas de producción de peces requiere el conocimiento de la biología básica de los peces a criar. El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar la capacidad reproductiva de los híbridos producidos por el cruce de hembras de Pseudoplatystoma metaense con machos de Leiarius marmoratus. Los machos presentaron un testículo espermatogonial digital no restringido que contiene dígitos caudales que producen glucoproteínas que no forman una vesícula seminal. Fue posible encontrar esperma libre en la luz de los túbulos y en los conductos. Se encontró que el ovario de las hembras era sacular y sincrónico con al menos tres grupos de ovocitos. En el primer año de vida, solo se encontraron oogonia hasta ovocitos previtelogénicos (alvéolo cortical de 284,9 ± 35,7 mm de diámetro). Después del segundo año, se observaron ovocitos vitelogénicos de 730 ± 3,78 mm de diámetro. Los eventos de desarrollo gonadal de los híbridos indican que son animales sincrónicos gonocóricos. La maduración alcanza su punto máximo en la temporada de aguas altas, superponiéndose con las especies parentales. Por lo tanto, el escape de híbridos de cultivos de peces a los ríos puede aumentar el riesgo de cruces, introgresión genética o disminución de la capacidad reproductiva de las especies puras.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32777469

RESUMO

The toxic effects of copper (Cu) are linked to dysfunction of metabolism and depletion of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Nevertheless, the effects related to phosphoryl transfer network, a network of enzymes to precise coupling of the ATP-production and ATP-consuming process for maintenance of bioenergetic, remain unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine whether the phosphoryl transfer network could be one pathway involved in the bioenergetic imbalance of Cichlasoma amazonarum exposed for 96 h to environmentally relevant concentrations of Cu found in Amazonia water around mines. Branchial mitochondrial creatine kinase (CK) activity was significantly lower in fish exposed to 1500 µg/L Cu than in the control group, while branchial cytosolic CK activity was significantly greater. Branchial (exposed to 750 and 1500 µg/L Cu) and hepatic (exposed to 1500 µg/L Cu) pyruvate kinase (PK) activity was significantly lower in fish exposed to Cu than in the control group. Branchial and hepatic ATP levels were significantly lower in fish exposed to 1500 µg/L than in the control group. Branchial reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels were significantly higher in fish exposed to 750 and 1500 µg/L Cu compared to control. Hepatic ROS and LPO levels were significantly higher in fish exposed to 1500 µg/L than in the control group. Branchial and hepatic Cu levels were significantly higher in fish exposed to 1500 µg/L compared to other groups. Exposure to 750 and 1500 µg/L Cu impairs bioenergetics homeostasis, which appears to be mediated by ROS overproduction and lipid peroxidation.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32781297

RESUMO

This study aimed to verify whether dietary quercetin protects against the detrimental effects induced by oxytetracycline (OTC) administration in silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen). Fish were divided into different experimental groups that received OTC and/or quercetin, either during 14 or 21 days. To determine the endocrine system stress response, we have measured the brain mRNA expression levels of corticotropin-releasing hormone (crh), proopiomelanocortins (pomca and pomcb) and some of the pituitary hormones (growth hormone [gh], somatolactin [sl], and prolactin [prl]). We have also quantified the levels of cortisol as well as some metabolites (glucose, glycogen, lactate, and triglycerides) in the plasma. Moreover, the enzymatic activity of hexokinase, phosphorylase (active GPase), fructose-biphosphatase (FBP), glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, and glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) and gill Na+/K+-ATPase were measured. The results demonstrated that OTC activates the silver catfish stress response by increasing the plasma cortisol and decreasing the glucose levels at 14 and 21 days. Additionally, OTC also altered the fish hepatic metabolic status as demonstrated by an increase in triglycerides levels and the enzymatic activity of both FBP and GDH after 14 days. OTC also stimulated Na+/K+-ATPase activity in the gill after 14 days and altered the hypophyseal expression of gh (at 14 and 21 days) and prl (at 14 days). The co-treatment with 1.5 g of quercetin could prevent most of the alterations caused by OTC, strongly suggesting quercetin as a beneficial compound when added to the fish diet.

11.
Fish Physiol Biochem ; 46(6): 2055-2064, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32770302

RESUMO

The practice of replacing costly animal-derived proteins with more economical plant proteins has augmented the risk of mycotoxin contamination in fish feeds, including contamination with ochratoxin A (OTA). OTA is a secondary metabolite produced by molds commonly found in fish feeds that causes impairment of performance in several fish species and some hepatic biochemical alterations. However, the pathways involved in hepatic damage remain unknown and are limited to histopathological alterations. Purinergic signaling is a homeostatic system that continuously monitors the internal environment to detect injury primarily by two intercellular messengers: adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and adenosine (Ado). The objective of this study was to determine whether OTA-contaminated feed induces the release of nucleotides in the extracellular milieu, as well as whether ectoenzymes modulate ATP pro-inflammatory effects in liver of tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum). Final mean weight, weight gain (WG), and liver weight were significantly lower in tambaqui fed feeds containing 1.6 and 2.4 mg OTA/kg feed than in the control group. Liver ATP and Ado levels were significantly higher in tambaqui fed feeds containing 1.6 and 2.4 mg OTA/kg feed compared with control, while no significant difference was observed regarding adenosine diphosphate and adenosine monophosphate levels. Hepatic triphosphate diphosphohydrolase (NTPDase) activity (for ATP) was significantly greater in tambaqui fed feeds containing 1.6 and 2.4 mg OTA/kg feed compared with control, while adenosine deaminase (ADA) activity was lower. No significant difference was observed with respect to hepatic NTPDase activity (for ADP) or for 5'-nucleotidase activity. Finally, levels of liver metabolites of nitric oxide were significantly higher in tambaqui fed feeds containing 1.6 and 2.4 mg OTA/kg feed than in the control group. Based on these data, exposure to 1.6 and 2.4 mg OTA/kg feed impaired tambaqui growth performance associated with final mean weight and WG. Levels of two important intercellular messengers, ATP and Ado, increased in the extracellular space as a consequence of hepatic damage, exerting opposite immune responses. Finally, liver NTPDase and ADA activities were altered to modulate ATP and Ado levels, respectively, exerting anti-inflammatory effects to counteract OTA-induced hepatic injury.

12.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 205: 111127, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32846293

RESUMO

Trichlorfon is an organophosphate insecticide that is widely used on fish farms to control parasitic infections. It has been detected in freshwater ecosystems as well as in fishery products. There is a growing body of evidence to suggest that certain feed additives may reduce or prevent pesticide-induced toxicity in fish. The aim of the present study was to determine whether acute exposure to trichlorfon would alter bioenergetic homeostasis and alter fatty acid profiles in muscles of silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen). We also sought to determine whether rutin prevents or reduces these effects. Cytosolic and mitochondrial creatine kinase (CK) and activities of complexes II-III and IV in muscle were significantly inhibited by exposure to 11 mg/L trichlorfon for 48 h compared to effects in the unexposed group. Total content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-3 and omega-6) were significantly lower in muscle of silver catfish exposed to 11 mg/L trichlorfon for 48 h than in the unexposed group. Addition of 3 mg rutin/kg feed increased CK activity and prevented inhibition of complex IV activity, as well as preventing all alterations of muscle fatty acid profiles elicited by exposure to trichlorfon. No significant differences were observed between groups with respect to muscle adenylate kinase or pyruvate kinase activities, as well as total content of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids. Our findings suggest that exposure (48 h) to 11 mg trichlorfon/L water inhibits cytosolic and mitochondrial CK activity in muscle. Trichlorfon also affects activities of complexes II-III and IV in respiratory chain, with important consequences for adenosine triphosphate production. The pesticide alters fatty acid profiles in the fish and endangers human consumers of the product. The most important finding of the present study is that inclusion of rutin improves bioenergetic homeostasis and muscle fatty acid profiles, suggesting that it reduces trichlorfon-induced muscle damage.


Assuntos
Peixes-Gato/metabolismo , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Músculos/efeitos dos fármacos , Rutina/farmacologia , Triclorfon/toxicidade , Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Adenilato Quinase/metabolismo , Ração Animal , Animais , Peixes-Gato/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Creatina Quinase/metabolismo , Dieta , Aditivos Alimentares , Homeostase , Mitocôndrias Musculares/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias Musculares/metabolismo , Músculos/metabolismo
13.
Nat Prod Res ; : 1-5, 2020 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32662359

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate the toxicity of tucumã oil nanocapsules from the Amazon region in silver catfish, Rhamdia quelen. Fish were exposed to water treated with different concentrations of tucumã nanocapsules, white, solubilized oil and surfactant vehicles. After three days of exposure, fish were euthanized and liver, gills and brain removed for analysis of the dichlorofluorescein, nitric oxide and PicoGreen® assays. Plasma was collected for assay of hepatic transaminases. The nanocapsules had a diameter of 221 ± 1.27 nm, confirmed by atomic force microscopy. The oil nanocapsules were not toxic to this species of fish, but white nanocapsules and surfactant increased the levels of reactive oxygen species. Thus, nanocapsules are promising for the transport of tucumã oil. In view of the anti-inflammatory properties of this oil, it is possible to envisage its application in skin diseases for example, since they present essentially inflammatory conditions. Highlights The most abundant carotenoid in tucumã oil was all-trans-beta-carotene. Nanocapsules are good carriers for tucumã oil. Tucumã oil nanocapsules does nothas toxicity effect in catfish.

14.
J Environ Sci Health B ; 55(8): 749-755, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32558613

RESUMO

This study assessed the hematological, enzymatic and osmoregulatory responses of silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen) exposed to sublethal concentrations (1.125 and 3.750 µg/L) of a commercial thiamethoxam-containing insecticide used on rice crops. Groups of 6 fish per tank (in triplicate, n = 3, total 54 fish) were exposed for up to 96 h to different concentrations of the compound. After this period, fish were placed in clean water for 48 h. Two fish from each tank (6 per treatment) that had been exposed to the insecticide for 24 h were anesthetized with eugenol and blood was collected to evaluate hematological and biochemical parameters. Blood, liver and muscle were collected for determination of metabolic parameters, plasma cortisol, Cl-, Na+ and K+ levels and H+-ATPase and Na+/K+-ATPase activity in the gill. H+-ATPase activity was higher in fish exposed to 1.125 µg/L insecticide at 24 h compared to control (0.0 µg/L). Differences in cortisol levels were evidenced throughout the experimental period. These results indicated that exposure to the insecticide changed the hematological, biochemical and metabolic profile of the animals, suggesting concern about environmental safety. Therefore, we discourage the use of this pesticide in areas that come into contact with water bodies inhabited by fish.


Assuntos
Peixes-Gato/fisiologia , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Tiametoxam/toxicidade , Adenosina Trifosfatases/metabolismo , Animais , Peixes-Gato/sangue , Ecotoxicologia/métodos , Brânquias/efeitos dos fármacos , Brânquias/metabolismo , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculos/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculos/metabolismo , Potássio/metabolismo , Sódio/metabolismo , Testes de Toxicidade Aguda , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
15.
Fish Physiol Biochem ; 46(5): 1857-1866, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32535728

RESUMO

Amazon fish are vulnerable to climate change. Current temperature increases in Amazonian rivers are likely to continue in the coming years. Elevated temperatures impair homeostasis and subject fish to oxidative stress; nevertheless, the effects of elevated temperature on plasma and muscle oxidative stress as well as fillet fatty acid composition in matrinxã (Brycon amazonicus) remain unknown. Therefore, the aims of the present study were to determine whether antioxidant system is able to withstand acute thermal stress to avoid plasma and muscle oxidative damage and to determine the manner in which matrinxã adjust their muscle fatty acid metabolism in a response to acute heat stress. We exposed juvenile matrinxã to four temperatures (28 °C as control and 30, 32, and 34 °C) for 72 h and observed the effects on plasma and muscle oxidant/antioxidant status and on fatty acid composition. Plasma reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels were significantly higher in matrinxã exposed to 34 °C compared with the control group, while they were significantly higher in the muscle of matrinxã exposed to 32 °C and 34 °C compared with the control group. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) levels were significantly lower in the plasma and muscle of matrinxã exposed to 34 °C compared with the control group. Plasma glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity was significantly lower in matrinxã exposed to 32 and 34 °C compared with the control group, while it was significantly lower in the muscle of matrinxã exposed to 34 °C. The total content of saturated fatty acid (SFA) was significantly higher in the fillet of matrinxã exposed to 34 °C compared with the control group, while the total content of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) was significantly lower. Based on this evidence, we conclude that acute heat stress at 32 °C and 34 °C causes plasma and muscular oxidative stress, and the enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant system is unable to prevent oxidative damage. Moreover, increased levels of total SFA and decreased levels of PUFA occur in an attempt to withstand heat stress and maintain membrane fluidity; nevertheless, these responses can represent negative impacts for consumers.

16.
Fish Physiol Biochem ; 46(5): 1867-1872, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32564238

RESUMO

Nitric oxide (NO) is a mediator and biomarker of pro- and anti-inflammatory processes. Excessive levels of NO for long periods have been associated with inflammation and tissue damage. The metabolism and synthesis of NO is usually measured indirectly, as metabolites and enzymes involved in reactions, often as the nitrite/nitrate (NOx) level. The aim of the present study was to measure the NOx levels in vital organs of juvenile silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen) exposed to various levels of eprinomectin in the water. The fish were exposed for 24 and 48 h to start concentration (0 h) of eprinomectin in water (0.0, 1.12, 1.80, and 3.97 µg/L). The eprinomectin concentrations in water were lower at 24 h (0.0, 0.85, 1.14, and 1.15 µg/L) and 48 h (0.0, 0.39, 0.69, and 1.28 µg/L), due to the process of eprinomectin metabolization. Subsequently, the fish were left for 48 h of recovery in eprinomectin-free water. NO levels were measured indirectly, as NOx levels in brain, liver, and gill tissue. Within 24 h of exposure, there was no significant increase in NOx levels in the organs evaluated at any of the concentrations tested. However, increases in NOx levels did occur at 48 h of exposure in all organs, particularly at the two highest concentrations of eprinomectin (1.80 and 3.97 µg/L). The transfer of fish to eprinomectin-free water did not result in reversal of NOx levels after 48 h of recovery, especially in fish that had been exposed to the two highest concentrations in the brain and liver tissues, and for the highest concentration in the gills. We conclude that silver catfish exposed to eprinomectin for up to 48 h present possible cerebral, hepatic, and branchial inflammatory process associated with increased tissue NOx levels, and that recovery for 48 h in water without antiparasitic is insufficient for the fish to recover from the poisoning.

17.
J Therm Biol ; 89: 102569, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32364972

RESUMO

Amazon fish are vulnerable to climate change. Several lines of evidence suggest that the temperature of Amazonian rivers will increase in the coming years. Elevated temperature disturbs homeostasis and subjects fish to physiological stress; however, the effects of temperature on immunity remain poorly understood, particularly those effects involving purinergic signaling. This system fine-tunes the inflammatory and immune responses triggered by stress. Therefore, the aims of this study were to determine whether acute heat stress induces the release of nucleotides into extracellular compartment and to determine whether purinergic enzymes modulate the proinflammatory effects of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in plasma and spleen of matrinxã (Brycon amazonicus) exposed to acute heat stress. We exposed juvenile matrinxã to four temperature regimes (28 °C as control, 30, 32 and 34 °C) for 72 h and observed the effects on purinergic signaling. Plasma cortisol levels were significantly higher in fish exposed to 34 °C than in the control group, while spleen ATP, adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and adenosine monophosphate (AMP) levels were significantly higher in this group than in controls. Activities of spleen nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase (NTPDase) and 5'-nucleotidase were significantly higher in fish exposed to 34 °C than those of the control group, while spleen interleukin-1 (IL-1) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels were higher in this same group than in the control group. No significant differences were observed between the groups regarding plasma parameters. Based on these data, we concluded that acute heat stress at 34 °C caused physiological stress in matrinxã, manifesting as elevated plasma cortisol levels. The most important finding is that purinergic enzymes were modulated, though not efficiently, in response to the excessive release of nucleotides into the extracellular space. In summary, the purinergic signaling pathway may be involved in the impairment of immune and inflammatory responses in matrinxã exposed acutely to 34 °C.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32470455

RESUMO

Plant-based ingredients are successfully replacing fishmeal in fish feeds. However, this practice increases the risk of feed contamination by mycotoxins that reduce production and heath associated with oxidative damage. The aim of this study was to determine whether feed contaminated with environmentally relevant concentrations of ochratoxin A (OTA) causes muscle oxidative damage in tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum), and to determine whether this feed impairs fatty acid profiles in fish meat. Final mean weight, weight gain, daily weight gain, feed efficiency, and specific growth rate were significantly lower in fish fed 1.6 and 2.4 mg OTA/kg compared to those fed basal diet, while feed conversion was significantly higher in these same groups compared to the basal group. Levels of reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation in muscle were significantly higher in fish fed 1.6 and 2.4 mg OTA/kg compared to those in the basal group. Likewise, muscle superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities were significantly higher in fish fed 1.6 and 2.4 mg OTA/kg then in those fed basal feed. The total content of saturated fatty acids was significantly higher, and total content of polyunsaturated fatty acids was significantly lower in fish fed 2.4 mg OTA/kg compared to those fed basal feed. Taken together, the data suggest that OTA-contaminated feed induces oxidative damage and disturbs enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant responses in tambaqui meat. The perturbations of fatty acid profiles in fish meat appears to mediated by oxidative damage, representing negative impact on fish health and presenting concerns for consumers of fish.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32169414

RESUMO

The trend toward using plant-based ingredients in aquafeeds has raised important concerns for aquaculture owing to the negative impacts of mycotoxins on fish health; with emphasis for contamination by fumonisin B1 (FB1). The brain is an important target of FB1; however, study of the pathways linked to brain damage is limited to an analysis of histopathological alterations. Reports have demonstrated the protective effects of dietary supplementation with diphenyl diselenide (Ph2Se2) in the brains of fish subjected to several environmental insults; nevertheless, its neuroprotective effects in fish fed with diets contaminated with FB1 remain unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate whether oxidative damage may be a pathway associated with FB1-induced neurotoxicity, as well as to evaluate whether dietary supplementation with Ph2Se2 prevents or reduces FB1-mediated brain oxidative damage in silver catfish. Brain reactive oxygen species (ROS), lipid peroxidation (LOOH) and protein carbonylation increased on day 30 post-feeding in animals that received FB1-contaminated diets compared to the control group, while brain antioxidant capacity against peroxyl radicals (ACAP) levels and catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities were lower. Diphenyl diselenide dietary supplementation avoid increases in brain ROS levels, as well minimizing the augmentation of LOOH levels. Furthermore, Ph2Se2 prevented impairment of brain ACAP levels, as well as GPx and GST activities elicited by FB1-contaminated diets. These data suggest that dietary supplementation with 3 mg/kg Ph2Se2 prevented FB1-induced brain damage in silver catfish, and this protective effect occurred through avoided of excessive ROS production, as well as via prevention of brain lipid damage. Furthermore, Ph2Se2 exerted its neuroprotective effects via ameliorative effects on the enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant defense systems, and may be an approach to prevent FB1-induced brain oxidative stress; however, is not an alternative to prevent the impairment on performance caused by FB1.

20.
Microb Pathog ; 142: 104070, 2020 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32081613

RESUMO

The head kidney is a lymphoid immune organ that plays a key role in the immune and inflammatory responses of teleost fish. It is associated with immunoglobulin G production and differentiation of B cells. The presence of a multi-enzymatic complex found anchored in the plasma membrane makes the head kidney an important purinergic-dependent tissue. Purinergic signaling has been associated with these responses under pathological conditions via regulation of extracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the main damage molecular associated pattern agent released during bacterial infections. The aim of this study was to determine whether purinergic signaling is a pathway associated with impairment of immune responses in silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen) experimentally infected by Flavobacterium columnare, as well as to evaluate the role of P2 purine receptors in this response. Triphosphate diphosphohydrolase (NTPDase) activity in the head kidney was significantly lower in silver catfish experimentally-infected F. columnare 72 h post-infection (hpi) than in the control group, while no significant difference was observed with respect NTPDase activity on adenosine diphosphate, as well as on 5'-nucleotidase and adenosine deaminase activities. Extracellular ATP levels were significantly higher in the head kidney of experimentally-infected fish than in the control group at 72 hpi. Finally, p2ry11 and p2rx3 purine receptor levels were significantly higher in experimentally-infected fish than in the control group at 72 hpi. We conclude that purinergic signaling in the head kidney of silver catfish infected by F. columnare creates a pro-inflammatory profile that may contribute to impairment of immune and inflammatory responses via reduction of ATP hydrolysis and its accumulation in the extracellular milieu, accompanied by upregulation of p2ry11 and p2rx3 purine receptors, leading to pro-inflammatory status.

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