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1.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1232: 3-9, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31893387

RESUMO

Neonates with hypoxic-ischaemic (HI) brain injury were monitored using a broadband near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) system in the neonatal intensive care unit. The aim of this work is to use the NIRS cerebral oxygenation data (HbD = oxygenated-haemoglobin - deoxygenated-haemoglobin) combined with arterial saturation (SaO2) from pulse oximetry to calculate cerebral blood flow (CBF) based on the oxygen swing method, during spontaneous desaturation episodes. The method is based on Fick's principle and uses HbD as a tracer; when a sudden change in SaO2 occurs, the change in HbD represents a change in tracer concentration, and thus it is possible to estimate CBF. CBF was successfully calculated with broadband NIRS in 11 HIE infants (3 with severe injury) for 70 oxygenation events on the day of birth. The average CBF was 18.0 ± 12.7 ml 100 g-1 min-1 with a range of 4 ml 100 g-1 min-1 to 60 ml 100 g-1 min-1. For infants with severe HIE (as determined by magnetic resonance spectroscopy) CBF was significantly lower (p = 0.038, d = 1.35) than those with moderate HIE on the day of birth.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas , Encéfalo , Circulação Cerebrovascular , Oximetria , Oxigênio , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho , Encéfalo/irrigação sanguínea , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Lesões Encefálicas/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Oximetria/instrumentação , Oximetria/métodos , Oxigênio/metabolismo
2.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1232: 25-31, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31893390

RESUMO

Hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) leads to significant mortality and morbidity, and therapeutic hypothermia (TH) has become a standard of care following HIE. After TH, the body temperature is brought back to 37 °C. Early electroencephalography (EEG) is a reliable outcome biomarker following HIE. We hypothesized that changes in cerebral oxidative metabolism, measured as Δ[oxCCO], in relation to changes in brain tissue oxygenation (measured as Δ[HbD]) during rewarming will correlate with injury severity as evidenced on amplitude integrated EEG/EEG at initial presentation. Broadband near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and systemic data were collected during rewarming from 14 infants following HIE over a mean period of 12.5 h. All infants were monitored with video EEG telemetry using a standard neonatal montage. aEEG and EEG background was classified into mild, moderate and severely abnormal groups based on the background pattern. Two infants had mild, 6 infants had moderate and another 6 infants had severe abnormality at presentation. The relationship between [oxCCO] and [HbD] was evaluated between two groups of infants with abnormal electrical activity (mild vs moderate to severe). A significant difference was noted between the groups in the relationship between [oxCCO] and [HbD] (as r2) (p = 0.02). This result indicates that the mitochondrial injury and deranged oxidative metabolism persists in the moderate to severely abnormal group during rewarming.


Assuntos
Eletroencefalografia , Hipotermia Induzida , Hipóxia-Isquemia Encefálica , Biomarcadores/análise , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Humanos , Hipóxia-Isquemia Encefálica/diagnóstico , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Reaquecimento
3.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1232: 245-251, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31893417

RESUMO

Skeletal muscle metabolic function is known to respond positively to endurance exercise interventions, such as marathon training. Studies investigating skeletal muscle have typically used muscle biopsy samples or magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) to interrogate metabolic function. We aimed to non-invasively detect exercise-training-induced improvements in muscle function using broadband near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). We used NIRS to determine concentration changes in oxygenated haemoglobin (HbO2) and the oxidation state of cytochrome-c-oxidase (oxCCO) in gastrocnemius during arterial occlusion in 14 volunteers. We also used a cardio-pulmonary exercise test (CPET) to assess peak total body oxygen uptake (peakVO2; a measure of fitness). Measurements were made at baseline (BL) which was prior to a period of at least 16 weeks of training for the 2017 London Marathon, and then within 3 weeks after completion of the marathon, follow-up (FU). We observed an increase in locally measured muscle oxygen consumption and rate of oxCCO concentration change, but not in cardio-respiratory fitness measured as whole-body peak oxygen consumption (peakVO2).


Assuntos
Músculo Esquelético , Consumo de Oxigênio , Corrida , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho , Adulto , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Oxiemoglobinas/metabolismo
4.
Neurophotonics ; 6(4): 045009, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31737744

RESUMO

We describe the development of a miniaturized broadband near-infrared spectroscopy system (bNIRS), which measures changes in cerebral tissue oxyhemoglobin ( [ HbO 2 ] ) and deoxyhemoglobin ([HHb]) plus tissue metabolism via changes in the oxidation state of cytochrome-c-oxidase ([oxCCO]). The system is based on a small light source and a customized mini-spectrometer. We assessed the instrument in a preclinical study in 27 newborn piglets undergoing transient cerebral hypoxia-ischemia (HI). We aimed to quantify the recovery of the HI insult and estimate the severity of the injury. The recovery in brain oxygenation ( Δ [ HbDiff ] = Δ [ HbO 2 ] - Δ [ HHb ] ), blood volume ( Δ [ HbT ] = Δ [ HbO 2 ] + Δ [ HHb ] ), and metabolism ( Δ [ oxCCO ] ) for up to 30 min after the end of HI were quantified in percentages using the recovery fraction (RF) algorithm, which quantifies the recovery of a signal with respect to baseline. The receiver operating characteristic analysis was performed on bNIRS-RF measurements compared to proton ( H 1 ) magnetic resonance spectroscopic (MRS)-derived thalamic lactate/N-acetylaspartate (Lac/NAA) measured at 24-h post HI insult; Lac/NAA peak area ratio is an accurate surrogate marker of neurodevelopmental outcome in babies with neonatal HI encephalopathy. The Δ [ oxCCO ] -RF cut-off threshold of 79% within 30 min of HI predicted injury severity based on Lac/NAA with high sensitivity (100%) and specificity (93%). A significant difference in thalamic Lac/NAA was noticed ( p < 0.0001 ) between the two groups based on this cut-off threshold of 79% Δ [ oxCCO ] -RF. The severe injury group ( n = 13 ) had ∼ 30 % smaller recovery in Δ [ HbDiff ] -RF ( p = 0.0001 ) and no significant difference was observed in Δ [ HbT ] -RF between groups. At 48 h post HI, significantly higher P 31 -MRS-measured inorganic phosphate/exchangeable phosphate pool (epp) ( p = 0.01 ) and reduced phosphocreatine/epp ( p = 0.003 ) were observed in the severe injury group indicating persistent cerebral energy depletion. Based on these results, the bNIRS measurement of the oxCCO recovery fraction offers a noninvasive real-time biomarker of brain injury severity within 30 min following HI insult.

5.
J Cereb Blood Flow Metab ; 39(1): 118-130, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28949271

RESUMO

Hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) leads to significant morbidity and mortality. Impaired autoregulation after hypoxia-ischaemia has been suggested to contribute further to injury. Thalamic lactate/N-Acetylasperate (Lac/NAA) peak area ratio of > 0.3 on proton (1H) magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) is associated with poor neurodevelopment outcome following HIE. Cytochrome-c-oxidase (CCO) plays a central role in mitochondrial oxidative metabolism and ATP synthesis. Using a novel broadband NIRS system, we investigated the impact of pressure passivity of cerebral metabolism (CCO), oxygenation (haemoglobin difference (HbD)) and cerebral blood volume (total haemoglobin (HbT)) in 23 term infants following HIE during therapeutic hypothermia (HT). Sixty-minute epochs of data from each infant were studied using wavelet analysis at a mean age of 48 h. Wavelet semblance (a measure of phase difference) was calculated to compare reactivity between mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) with oxCCO, HbD and HbT. OxCCO-MABP semblance correlated with thalamic Lac/NAA ( r = 0.48, p = 0.02). OxCCO-MABP semblance also differed between groups of infants with mild to moderate and severe injury measured using brain MRI score ( p = 0.04), thalamic Lac/NAA ( p = 0.04) and neurodevelopmental outcome at one year ( p = 0.04). Pressure passive changes in cerebral metabolism were associated with injury severity indicated by thalamic Lac/NAA, MRI scores and neurodevelopmental assessment at one year of age.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/metabolismo , Hipóxia-Isquemia Encefálica/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Trifosfato de Adenosina/biossíntese , Ácido Aspártico/análogos & derivados , Ácido Aspártico/metabolismo , Pressão Sanguínea , Circulação Cerebrovascular , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/diagnóstico por imagem , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/etiologia , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/metabolismo , Feminino , Homeostase , Humanos , Hipóxia-Isquemia Encefálica/complicações , Hipóxia-Isquemia Encefálica/diagnóstico por imagem , Recém-Nascido , Ácido Láctico/metabolismo , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Tálamo/metabolismo
6.
J Cereb Blood Flow Metab ; 39(10): 2035-2047, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29775114

RESUMO

There is a need for a method of real-time assessment of brain metabolism during neonatal hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE). We have used broadband near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to monitor cerebral oxygenation and metabolic changes in 50 neonates with HIE undergoing therapeutic hypothermia treatment. In 24 neonates, 54 episodes of spontaneous decreases in peripheral oxygen saturation (desaturations) were recorded between 6 and 81 h after birth. We observed differences in the cerebral metabolic responses to these episodes that were related to the predicted outcome of the injury, as determined by subsequent magnetic resonance spectroscopy derived lactate/N-acetyl-aspartate. We demonstrated that a strong relationship between cerebral metabolism (broadband NIRS-measured cytochrome-c-oxidase (CCO)) and cerebral oxygenation was associated with unfavourable outcome; this is likely to be due to a lower cerebral metabolic rate and mitochondrial dysfunction in severe encephalopathy. Specifically, a decrease in the brain tissue oxidation state of CCO greater than 0.06 µM per 1 µM brain haemoglobin oxygenation drop was able to predict the outcome with 64% sensitivity and 79% specificity (receiver operating characteristic area under the curve = 0.73). With further work on the implementation of this methodology, broadband NIRS has the potential to provide an early, cotside, non-invasive, clinically relevant metabolic marker of perinatal hypoxic-ischaemic injury.

7.
Front Hum Neurosci ; 12: 371, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30333736

RESUMO

It has been 20 years since functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) was first used to investigate the evoked hemodynamic response to a stimulus in newborns. The hemodynamic response to functional activation is well-established in adults, with an observed increase in concentration change of oxygenated hemoglobin (Δ[HbO2]) and decrease in deoxygenated hemoglobin (Δ[HHb]). However, functional studies in newborns have revealed a mixed response, particularly with Δ[HHb] where an inconsistent change in direction is observed. The reason for this heterogeneity is unknown, with potential explanations arising from differing physiology in the developing brain, or differences in instrumentation or methodology. The aim of this review is to collate the findings from studies that have employed fNIRS to monitor cerebral hemodynamics in term newborn infants aged 1 day-1 month. A total of 46 eligible studies were identified; some studies investigated more than one stimulus type, resulting in a total of 51 reported results. The NIRS parameters reported varied across studies with 50/51 cases reporting Δ[HbO2], 39/51 reporting Δ[HHb], and 13/51 reporting total hemoglobin concentration Δ[HbT] (Δ[HbO2] + Δ[HHb]). However, of the 39 cases reporting Δ[HHb] in graphs or tables, only 24 studies explicitly discussed the response (i.e., direction of change) of this variable. In the studies where the fNIRS responses were discussed, 46/51 cases observed an increase in Δ[HbO2], 7/51 observed an increase or varied Δ[HHb], and 2/51 reported a varied or negative Δ[HbT]. An increase in Δ[HbO2] and decrease or no change in Δ[HHb] was observed in 15 studies. By reviewing this body of literature, we have identified that the majority of research articles reported an increase in Δ[HbO2] across various functional tasks and did not report the response of Δ[HHb]. Confirming the normal, healthy hemodynamic response in newborns will allow identification of unhealthy patterns and their association to normal neurodevelopment.

8.
Biomed Opt Express ; 9(6): 2588-2603, 2018 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30258675

RESUMO

Preterm infants born with very low birth weights are at a high risk of brain injury, in part because the premature brain is believed to be prone to periods of low cerebral blood flow (CBF). Tissue damage is likely to occur if reduction in CBF is sufficient to impair cerebral energy metabolism for extended periods. Therefore, a neuromonitoring method that can detect reductions in CBF, large enough to affect metabolism, could alert the neonatal intensive care team before injury occurs. In this report, we present the development of an optical system that combines diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) for monitoring CBF and broadband near-infrared spectroscopy (B-NIRS) for monitoring the oxidation state of cytochrome c oxidase (oxCCO) - a key biomarker of oxidative metabolism. The hybrid instrument includes a multiplexing system to enable concomitant DCS and B-NIRS measurements while avoiding crosstalk between the two subsystems. The ability of the instrument to monitor dynamic changes in CBF and oxCCO was demonstrated in a piglet model of neonatal hypoxia-ischemia (HI). Experiments conducted in eight animals, including two controls, showed that oxCCO exhibited a delayed response to ischemia while CBF and tissue oxygenation (StO2) responses were instantaneous. These findings suggest that simultaneous neuromonitoring of perfusion and metabolism could provide critical information regarding clinically significant hemodynamic events prior to the onset of brain injury.

9.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1072: 151-156, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30178338

RESUMO

Perinatal hypoxic ischaemic (HI) encephalopathy is associated with severe neurodevelopment problems and mortality. This study uses broadband continuous-wave near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to assess the early changes in cerebral oxygenation and metabolism after HI injury in an animal model using controlled anoxia events. Anoxia was induced before and 1 h after various levels of HI injury to assess the metabolic response via the changes in the oxidation state of cytochrome-c-oxidase (oxCCO), a marker of oxidative metabolism. The oxCCO responses to anoxia were classified into five categories: increase, no change, decrease, biphasic and triphasic responses. The most common response (54%) was a biphasic decrease in oxCCO. A change in the classification of the metabolic response to anoxia after HI injury indicated a severe injury, as determined by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy, with 86% sensitivity. This shows that broadband NIRS can identify disturbances to cerebral metabolism in the first hours after severe HI injury.


Assuntos
Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/metabolismo , Hipóxia-Isquemia Encefálica/metabolismo , Hipóxia/metabolismo , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho/métodos , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Consumo de Oxigênio/fisiologia , Suínos
10.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1072: 319-324, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30178365

RESUMO

Artefacts are a common and unwanted aspect of any measurement process, especially in a clinical environment, with multiple causes such as environmental changes or motion. In near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), there are several existing methods that can be used to identify and remove artefacts to improve the quality of collected data.We have developed a novel Automatic Broadband Artefact Detection (ABroAD) process, using machine learning methods alongside broadband NIRS data to detect common measurement artefacts using the broadband intensity spectrum. Data were collected from eight subjects, using a broadband NIRS monitoring over the frontal lobe with two sensors. Six different artificial artefacts - vertical head movement, horizontal head movement, frowning, pressure, ambient light, torch light - were simulated using movement and light changes on eight subjects in a block test design. It was possible to identify both light artefacts to a good degree, as well as pressure artefacts. This is promising and, by expanding this work to larger datasets, it may be possible to create and train a machine learning pipeline to automate the detection of various artefacts, making the analysis of collected data more reliable.


Assuntos
Artefatos , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Aprendizado de Máquina , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho/métodos , Humanos , Processamento de Sinais Assistido por Computador
11.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 977: 141-147, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28685438

RESUMO

Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is an increasingly common neuromonitoring technique used to observe evoked haemodynamic changes in the brain in response to a stimulus. The measurement is typically in terms of concentration changes of oxy- (∆HbO2) and deoxy- (∆HHb) haemoglobin. However, noise from systemic fluctuations in the concentration of these chromophores can contaminate stimulus-evoked haemodynamic responses, leading to misinterpretation of results. Short-separation channels can be used to regress out extracerebral haemodynamics to better reveal cerebral changes, significantly improving the reliability of fNIRS. Broadband NIRS can be used to additionally monitor concentration changes of the oxidation state of cytochrome-c-oxidase (∆oxCCO). Recent studies have shown ∆oxCCO to be a depth-dependent and hence brain-specific signal. This study aims to investigate whether ∆oxCCO can produce a more robust marker of functional activation. Continuous frontal lobe NIRS measurements were collected from 17 healthy adult volunteers. Short 1 cm source-detector separation channels were regressed from longer separation channels in order to minimise the extracerebral contribution to standard fNIRS channels. Significant changes in ∆HbO2 and ∆HHb were seen at 1 cm channels but were not observed in ∆oxCCO. An improvement in the haemodynamic signals was achieved with regression of the 1 cm channel. Broadband NIRS-measured concentration changes of the oxidation state of cytochrome-c-oxidase has the potential to be an alternative and more brain-specific marker of functional activation.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/análise , Lobo Frontal/metabolismo , Hemoglobinas/metabolismo , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho/métodos , Adulto , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/metabolismo , Feminino , Lobo Frontal/química , Hemodinâmica , Humanos , Masculino , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Especificidade de Órgãos , Consumo de Oxigênio/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
12.
Neurophotonics ; 4(2): 021106, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28630878

RESUMO

Broadband near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) can provide an endogenous indicator of tissue temperature based on the temperature dependence of the water absorption spectrum. We describe a first evaluation of the calibration and prediction of brain tissue temperature obtained during hypothermia in newborn piglets (animal dataset) and rewarming in newborn infants (human dataset) based on measured body (rectal) temperature. The calibration using partial least squares regression proved to be a reliable method to predict brain tissue temperature with respect to core body temperature in the wavelength interval of 720 to 880 nm with a strong mean predictive power of [Formula: see text] (animal dataset) and [Formula: see text] (human dataset). In addition, we applied regression receiver operating characteristic curves for the first time to evaluate the temperature prediction, which provided an overall mean error bias between NIRS predicted brain temperature and body temperature of [Formula: see text] (animal dataset) and [Formula: see text] (human dataset). We discuss main methodological aspects, particularly the well-known aspect of over- versus underestimation between brain and body temperature, which is relevant for potential clinical applications.

13.
Front Pediatr ; 4: 83, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27559538

RESUMO

Seizures are common following hypoxic-ischemic brain injury in newborn infants. Prolonged or recurrent seizures have been shown to exacerbate neuronal damage in the developing brain; however, the precise mechanism is not fully understood. Cytochrome-c-oxidase is responsible for more than 90% of ATP production inside mitochondria. Using a novel broadband near-infrared spectroscopy system, we measured the concentration changes in the oxidation state of cerebral cytochrome-c-oxidase (Δ[oxCCO]) and hemodynamics during recurrent neonatal seizures following hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy in a newborn infant. A rapid increase in Δ[oxCCO] was noted at the onset of seizures along with a rise in the baseline of amplitude-integrated electroencephalogram. Cerebral oxygenation and cerebral blood volume fell just prior to the seizure onset but recovered rapidly during seizures. Δ[oxCCO] during seizures correlated with changes in mean electroencephalogram voltage indicating an increase in neuronal activation and energy demand. The progressive decline in the Δ[oxCCO] baseline during seizures suggests a progressive decrease of mitochondrial oxidative metabolism.

14.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 923: 181-186, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27526141

RESUMO

Perinatal hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE) is associated with severe neurodevelopmental problems and mortality. There is a clinical need for techniques to provide cotside assessment of the injury extent. This study aims to use non-invasive cerebral broadband near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in combination with systemic physiology to assess the severity of HIE injury. Broadband NIRS is used to measure the changes in haemodynamics, oxygenation and the oxidation state of cytochrome c oxidase (oxCCO). We used canonical correlation analysis (CCA), a multivariate statistical technique, to measure the relationship between cerebral broadband NIRS measurements and systemic physiology. A strong relationship between the metabolic marker, oxCCO, and systemic changes indicated severe brain injury; if more than 60 % of the oxCCO signal could be explained by the systemic variations, then the neurodevelopmental outcome was poor. This boundary has high sensitivity and specificity (100 and 83 %, respectively). Broadband NIRS measured concentration changes of the oxidation state of cytochrome c oxidase has the potential to become a useful cotside tool for assessment of injury severity following hypoxic ischaemic brain injury.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/enzimologia , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/metabolismo , Hipóxia-Isquemia Encefálica/enzimologia , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Diagnóstico Precoce , Feminino , Hemoglobinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Hipóxia-Isquemia Encefálica/mortalidade , Hipóxia-Isquemia Encefálica/fisiopatologia , Recém-Nascido , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , Oxirredução , Consumo de Oxigênio , Oxiemoglobinas/metabolismo , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
15.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 923: 245-251, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27526150

RESUMO

Therapeutic hypothermia (TH) has become a standard of care following hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). After TH, body temperature is brought back to 37 °C over 14 h. Lactate/N-acetylasperatate (Lac/NAA) peak area ratio on proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H MRS) is the best available outcome biomarker following HIE. We hypothesized that broadband near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) measured changes in the oxidation state of cytochrome-c-oxidase concentration (Δ[oxCCO]) and cerebral hemodynamics during rewarming would relate to Lac/NAA. Broadband NIRS and systemic data were collected during rewarming from 14 infants following HIE over a mean period of 12.5 h. (1)H MRS was performed on day 5-9. Heart rate increased by 20/min during rewarming while blood pressure and peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2) remained stable. The relationship between mitochondrial metabolism and oxygenation (measured as Δ[oxCCO] and Δ[HbD], respectively) was calculated by linear regression analysis. This was reviewed in three groups: Lac/NAA values <0.5, 0.5-1, >1. Mean regression coefficient (r (2)) values in these groups were 0.41 (±0.27), 0.22 (±0.21) and 0.01, respectively. The relationship between mitochondrial metabolism and oxygenation became impaired with rising Lac/NAA. Cardiovascular parameters remained stable during rewarming.


Assuntos
Regulação da Temperatura Corporal , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/metabolismo , Hipotermia Induzida , Hipóxia-Isquemia Encefálica/terapia , Consumo de Oxigênio , Oxigênio/sangue , Reaquecimento , Ácido Aspártico/análogos & derivados , Ácido Aspártico/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/sangue , Circulação Cerebrovascular , Feminino , Hemoglobinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Hipóxia-Isquemia Encefálica/sangue , Hipóxia-Isquemia Encefálica/fisiopatologia , Recém-Nascido , Ácido Láctico/metabolismo , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Oximetria/métodos , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Espectroscopia de Prótons por Ressonância Magnética , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
J Biomed Opt ; 21(9): 091307, 2016 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27170072

RESUMO

Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) measurements of cytochrome-c-oxidase (CCO) have the potential to yield crucial information about cerebral metabolism at the patient bedside. Developments in instrumentation and the analytical methods used to resolve changes in CCO have led to many clinical applications of the measurement since its first demonstration in 1977 by Jöbsis. There is a substantial literature of work on measures of CCO in animal and in vitro studies; however, this review focuses on translational studies. Almost 40 years from the advent of the first measurement of CCO using NIRS, this signal continues to hold significant interest in our understanding of the human brain in health and disease. We discuss methodologies for obtaining NIRS measurements of CCO in the clinic and review studies in neonates and adults.


Assuntos
Encéfalo , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/sangue , Imagem Óptica/métodos , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho/métodos , Encéfalo/irrigação sanguínea , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/enzimologia , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Processamento de Sinais Assistido por Computador
18.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 876: 493-500, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26782250

RESUMO

Neonatal stroke presents with features of encephalopathy and can result in significant morbidity and mortality. We investigated the cerebral metabolic and haemodynamic changes following neonatal stroke in a term infant at 24 h of life. Changes in oxidation state of cytochrome-c-oxidase (oxCCO) concentration were monitored along with changes in oxy- and deoxy- haemoglobin using a new broadband near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) system. Repeated transient changes in cerebral haemodynamics and metabolism were noted over a 3-h study period with decrease in oxyhaemoglobin (HbO2), deoxy haemoglobin (HHb) and oxCCO in both cerebral hemispheres without significant changes in systemic observations. A clear asymmetry was noted in the degree of change between the two cerebral hemispheres. Changes in cerebral oxygenation (measured as HbDiff=HbO2-HHb) and cerebral metabolism (measured as oxCCO) were highly coupled on the injured side of the brain.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho/métodos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/metabolismo , Eletroencefalografia , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Oxigênio/metabolismo
19.
Biomed Opt Express ; 5(10): 3450-66, 2014 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25360364

RESUMO

We present a novel lens-based broadband near-infrared spectroscopy system to simultaneously measure cerebral changes in tissue oxygenation and haemodynamics via estimation of the changes in haemoglobin concentration; in addition to oxygen utilization via the measurement of the oxidation state of cytochrome-c-oxidase (CCO). We demonstrate the use of the system in a cohort of 6 newborn infants with neonatal encephalopathy in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit for continuous measurement periods of up to 5 days. NIRS data was collected from above the frontal lobe on the left and right hemispheres simultaneously with systemic data to allow multimodal data analysis. This allowed us to study the NIRS variables in response to global pathophysiological events and we focused our analysis to spontaneous oxygen desaturations. We identified changes from the NIRS variables during 236 oxygen desaturations from over 212 hours of data with a change from the baseline to nadir of -12 ± 3%. There was a consistent negative change in the Δ[HbD] (= oxygenated - deoxygenated haemoglobin) and Δ[oxCCO] measurements, mean decreases were 3.0 ± 1.7µM and 0.22 ± 0.11µM, and a positive change in the Δ[HbT] (= oxygenated + deoxygenated haemoglobin) measurements across all subjects, mean increase was 0.85 ± 0.58µM. We have shown with a feasibility study that the relationship between haemoglobin oxygenation changes and CCO oxidation changes during these desaturation events was significantly associated with a magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS)-measured biomarker of injury severity (r = 0.91, p<0.01).

20.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 812: 165-171, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24729229

RESUMO

The relationship between cerebral autoregulation (CA) and the neurotoxic effects of anaesthesia with and without surgery is investigated. Newborn piglets were randomly assigned to receive either 6 h of anaesthesia (isoflurane) or the same with an additional hour of minor surgery. The effect of the spontaneous changes in mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) on the cerebral haemodynamics (oxy- and deoxy-haemoglobin, HbO2 and Hb) was measured using transverse broadband near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). A marker for impaired CA, concordance between MABP and intravascular oxygenation (HbD = HbO2 - Hb) in the ultra-low frequency domain (0.0018-0.0083 Hz), was assessed using coherence analysis. Presence of CA impairment was not significant but found to increase with surgical exacerbation. The impairment did not correlate with histological outcome (presence of cell death, apoptosis and microglial activation in the brain).


Assuntos
Anestesia , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Encéfalo/irrigação sanguínea , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho , Suínos
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