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2.
J Med Chem ; 59(24): 11138-11147, 2016 12 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28002964

RESUMO

We describe a highly efficient route for the synthesis of 4a (BMS-986104). A key step in the synthesis is the asymmetric hydroboration of trisubstituted alkene 6. Particularly given the known difficulties involved in this type of transformation (6 → 7), the current methodology provides an efficient approach to prepare this class of compounds. In addition, we disclose the efficacy of 4a in a mouse EAE model, which is comparable to 4c (FTY720). Mechanistically, 4a exhibited excellent remyelinating effects on lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) induced demyelination in a three-dimensional brain cell culture assay.


Assuntos
Encefalomielite Autoimune Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Naftalenos/farmacologia , Receptores de Lisoesfingolipídeo/agonistas , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Linfócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Estrutura Molecular , Naftalenos/síntese química , Naftalenos/química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
3.
J Med Chem ; 59(21): 9837-9854, 2016 11 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27726358

RESUMO

Fingolimod (1) is the first approved oral therapy for the treatment of relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis. While the phosphorylated metabolite of fingolimod was found to be a nonselective S1P receptor agonist, agonism specifically of S1P1 is responsible for the peripheral blood lymphopenia believed to be key to its efficacy. Identification of modulators that maintain activity on S1P1 while sparing activity on other S1P receptors could offer equivalent efficacy with reduced liabilities. We disclose in this paper a ligand-based drug design approach that led to the discovery of a series of potent tricyclic agonists of S1P1 with selectivity over S1P3 and were efficacious in a pharmacodynamic model of suppression of circulating lymphocytes. Compound 10 had the desired pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) profile and demonstrated maximal efficacy when administered orally in a rat adjuvant arthritis model.


Assuntos
Desenho de Drogas , Cloridrato de Fingolimode/farmacologia , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis/farmacologia , Receptores de Lisoesfingolipídeo/agonistas , Animais , Artrite Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Artrite Experimental/imunologia , Cães , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Cloridrato de Fingolimode/administração & dosagem , Cloridrato de Fingolimode/química , Adjuvante de Freund/administração & dosagem , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis/administração & dosagem , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis/química , Ligantes , Linfócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macaca fascicularis , Masculino , Camundongos , Estrutura Molecular , Mycobacterium/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos Lew , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Distribuição Tecidual
4.
J Med Chem ; 59(13): 6248-64, 2016 07 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27309907

RESUMO

Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a bioactive sphingolipid metabolite that regulates a multitude of physiological processes such as lymphocyte trafficking, cardiac function, vascular development, and inflammation. Because of the ability of S1P1 receptor agonists to suppress lymphocyte egress, they have great potential as therapeutic agents in a variety of autoimmune diseases. In this article, the discovery of selective, direct acting S1P1 agonists utilizing an ethanolamine scaffold containing a terminal carboxylic acid is described. Potent S1P1 agonists such as compounds 18a and 19a which have greater than 1000-fold selectivity over S1P3 are described. These compounds efficiently reduce blood lymphocyte counts in rats through 24 h after single doses of 1 and 0.3 mpk, respectively. Pharmacodynamic properties of both compounds are discussed. Compound 19a was further studied in two preclinical models of disease, exhibiting good efficacy in both the rat adjuvant arthritis model (AA) and the mouse experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis model (EAE).


Assuntos
Etanolamina/química , Etanolamina/farmacologia , Linfócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores de Lisoesfingolipídeo/agonistas , Animais , Artrite/tratamento farmacológico , Cães , Encefalomielite Autoimune Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Etanolamina/farmacocinética , Etanolamina/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Haplorrinos , Humanos , Contagem de Linfócitos , Linfócitos/citologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos Lew , Receptores de Lisoesfingolipídeo/metabolismo , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
5.
Bioorg Med Chem Lett ; 26(10): 2470-2474, 2016 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27055941

RESUMO

The synthesis and structure-activity relationship (SAR) of a series of pyridyl-isoxazole based agonists of S1P1 are discussed. Compound 5b provided potent in vitro activity with selectivity, had an acceptable pharmacokinetic profile, and demonstrated efficacy in a dose dependent manner when administered orally in a rodent model of arthritis.


Assuntos
Artrite Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Lisofosfolipídeos/agonistas , Esfingosina/análogos & derivados , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Administração Oral , Animais , Técnicas de Química Sintética , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos/métodos , Humanos , Isoxazóis/química , Isoxazóis/farmacologia , Contagem de Linfócitos , Masculino , Ratos Endogâmicos Lew , Receptores de Lisoesfingolipídeo/agonistas , Esfingosina/agonistas
6.
ACS Med Chem Lett ; 7(3): 283-8, 2016 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26985316

RESUMO

Clinical validation of S1P receptor modulation therapy was achieved with the approval of fingolimod (Gilenya, 1) as the first oral therapy for relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis. However, 1 causes a dose-dependent reduction in the heart rate (bradycardia), which occurs within hours after first dose. We disclose the identification of clinical compound BMS-986104 (3d), a novel S1P1 receptor modulator, which demonstrates ligand-biased signaling and differentiates from 1 in terms of cardiovascular and pulmonary safety based on preclinical pharmacology while showing equivalent efficacy in a T-cell transfer colitis model.

7.
J Med Chem ; 59(6): 2820-40, 2016 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26924461

RESUMO

Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) is the endogenous ligand for the sphingosine 1-phosphate receptors (S1P1-5) and evokes a variety of cellular responses through their stimulation. The interaction of S1P with the S1P receptors plays a fundamental physiological role in a number of processes including vascular development and stabilization, lymphocyte migration, and proliferation. Agonism of S1P1, in particular, has been shown to play a significant role in lymphocyte trafficking from the thymus and secondary lymphoid organs, resulting in immunosuppression. This article will detail the discovery and SAR of a potent and selective series of isoxazole based full agonists of S1P1. Isoxazole 6d demonstrated impressive efficacy when administered orally in a rat model of arthritis and in a mouse experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model of multiple sclerosis.


Assuntos
Isoxazóis/síntese química , Isoxazóis/farmacologia , Lisofosfolipídeos/agonistas , Esfingosina/análogos & derivados , Animais , Artrite Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Células CHO , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Cricetinae , Cricetulus , Descoberta de Drogas , Encefalomielite Autoimune Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Imunossupressores/síntese química , Imunossupressores/farmacologia , Sistema Linfático/citologia , Sistema Linfático/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos Lew , Esfingosina/agonistas , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Timo/citologia , Timo/efeitos dos fármacos
8.
J Biomol Screen ; 18(9): 1072-83, 2013 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24062352

RESUMO

Transporter proteins are known to play a critical role in affecting the overall absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion characteristics of drug candidates. In addition to efflux transporters (P-gp, BCRP, MRP2, etc.) that limit absorption, there has been a renewed interest in influx transporters at the renal (OATs, OCTs) and hepatic (OATPs, BSEP, NTCP, etc.) organ level that can cause significant clinical drug-drug interactions (DDIs). Several of these transporters are also critical for hepatobiliary disposition of bilirubin and bile acid/salts, and their inhibition is directly implicated in hepatic toxicities. Regulatory agencies took action to address transporter-mediated DDI with the goal of ensuring drug safety in the clinic and on the market. To meet regulatory requirements, advanced bioassay technology and automation solutions were implemented for high-throughput transporter screening to provide structure-activity relationship within lead optimization. To enhance capacity, several functional assay formats were miniaturized to 384-well throughput including novel fluorescence-based uptake and efflux inhibition assays using high-content image analysis as well as cell-based radioactive uptake and vesicle-based efflux inhibition assays. This high-throughput capability enabled a paradigm shift from studying transporter-related issues in the development space to identifying and dialing out these concerns early on in discovery for enhanced mechanism-based efficacy while circumventing DDIs and transporter toxicities.


Assuntos
Descoberta de Drogas , Drogas em Investigação/farmacologia , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/metabolismo , Transporte Biológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Aprovação de Drogas , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Interações de Medicamentos , Drogas em Investigação/química , Drogas em Investigação/metabolismo , Corantes Fluorescentes , Humanos , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/metabolismo , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
9.
Drug Metab Dispos ; 41(7): 1347-66, 2013 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23620485

RESUMO

A P-glycoprotein (P-gp) IC50 working group was established with 23 participating pharmaceutical and contract research laboratories and one academic institution to assess interlaboratory variability in P-gp IC50 determinations. Each laboratory followed its in-house protocol to determine in vitro IC50 values for 16 inhibitors using four different test systems: human colon adenocarcinoma cells (Caco-2; eleven laboratories), Madin-Darby canine kidney cells transfected with MDR1 cDNA (MDCKII-MDR1; six laboratories), and Lilly Laboratories Cells--Porcine Kidney Nr. 1 cells transfected with MDR1 cDNA (LLC-PK1-MDR1; four laboratories), and membrane vesicles containing human P-glycoprotein (P-gp; five laboratories). For cell models, various equations to calculate remaining transport activity (e.g., efflux ratio, unidirectional flux, net-secretory-flux) were also evaluated. The difference in IC50 values for each of the inhibitors across all test systems and equations ranged from a minimum of 20- and 24-fold between lowest and highest IC50 values for sertraline and isradipine, to a maximum of 407- and 796-fold for telmisartan and verapamil, respectively. For telmisartan and verapamil, variability was greatly influenced by data from one laboratory in each case. Excluding these two data sets brings the range in IC50 values for telmisartan and verapamil down to 69- and 159-fold. The efflux ratio-based equation generally resulted in severalfold lower IC50 values compared with unidirectional or net-secretory-flux equations. Statistical analysis indicated that variability in IC50 values was mainly due to interlaboratory variability, rather than an implicit systematic difference between test systems. Potential reasons for variability are discussed and the simplest, most robust experimental design for P-gp IC50 determination proposed. The impact of these findings on drug-drug interaction risk assessment is discussed in the companion article (Ellens et al., 2013) and recommendations are provided.


Assuntos
Membro 1 da Subfamília B de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/antagonistas & inibidores , Digoxina/farmacocinética , Medição de Risco , Animais , Transporte Biológico , Células CACO-2 , Cães , Interações de Medicamentos , Humanos , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Células LLC-PK1 , Análise de Componente Principal , Suínos
10.
Drug Metab Dispos ; 41(7): 1367-74, 2013 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23620486

RESUMO

In the 2012 Food and Drug Administration (FDA) draft guidance on drug-drug interactions (DDIs), a new molecular entity that inhibits P-glycoprotein (P-gp) may need a clinical DDI study with a P-gp substrate such as digoxin when the maximum concentration of inhibitor at steady state divided by IC50 ([I1]/IC50) is ≥0.1 or concentration of inhibitor based on highest approved dose dissolved in 250 ml divide by IC50 ([I2]/IC50) is ≥10. In this article, refined criteria are presented, determined by receiver operating characteristic analysis, using IC50 values generated by 23 laboratories. P-gp probe substrates were digoxin for polarized cell-lines and N-methyl quinidine or vinblastine for P-gp overexpressed vesicles. Inhibition of probe substrate transport was evaluated using 15 known P-gp inhibitors. Importantly, the criteria derived in this article take into account variability in IC50 values. Moreover, they are statistically derived based on the highest degree of accuracy in predicting true positive and true negative digoxin DDI results. The refined criteria of [I1]/IC50 ≥ 0.03 and [I2]/IC50 ≥ 45 and FDA criteria were applied to a test set of 101 in vitro-in vivo digoxin DDI pairs collated from the literature. The number of false negatives (none predicted but DDI observed) were similar, 10 and 12%, whereas the number of false positives (DDI predicted but not observed) substantially decreased from 51 to 40%, relative to the FDA criteria. On the basis of estimated overall variability in IC50 values, a theoretical 95% confidence interval calculation was developed for single laboratory IC50 values, translating into a range of [I1]/IC50 and [I2]/IC50 values. The extent by which this range falls above the criteria is a measure of risk associated with the decision, attributable to variability in IC50 values.


Assuntos
Digoxina/farmacocinética , Membro 1 da Subfamília B de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/antagonistas & inibidores , Árvores de Decisões , Interações de Medicamentos , Humanos , Curva ROC , Estados Unidos , United States Food and Drug Administration
11.
Drug Metab Dispos ; 41(4): 827-35, 2013 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23382458

RESUMO

The studies reported here were conducted to investigate the transport characteristics of apixaban (1-(4-methoxyphenyl)-7-oxo-6-(4-(2-oxopiperidin-1-yl)phenyl)-4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-c]pyridine-3-carboxamide) and to understand the impact of transporters on apixaban distribution and disposition. In human permeability glycoprotein (P-gp)- and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP)-cDNA-transfected cell monolayers as well as Caco-2 cell monolayers, the apparent efflux ratio of basolateral-to-apical (PcB-A) versus apical-to-basolateral permeability (PcA-B) of apixaban was >10. The P-gp- and BCRP-facilitated transport of apixaban was concentration- and time-dependent and did not show saturation over a wide range of concentrations (1-100 µM). The efflux transport of apixaban was also demonstrated by the lower mucosal-to-serosal permeability than that of the serosal-to-mucosal direction in isolated rat jejunum segments. Apixaban did not inhibit digoxin transport in Caco-2 cells. Ketoconazole decreased the P-gp-mediated apixaban efflux in Caco-2 and the P-gp-cDNA-transfected cell monolayers, but did not affect the apixaban efflux to a meaningful extent in the BCRP-cDNA-transfected cell monolayers. Coincubation of a P-gp inhibitor (ketoconazole or cyclosporin A) and a BCRP inhibitor (Ko134) provided more complete inhibition of apixaban efflux in Caco-2 cells than separate inhibition by individual inhibitors. Naproxen inhibited apixaban efflux in Caco-2 cells but showed only a minimal effect on apixaban transport in the BCRP-transfected cells. Naproxen was the first nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug that was demonstrated as a weak P-gp inhibitor. These results demonstrate that apixaban is a substrate for efflux transporters P-gp and BCRP, which can help explain its low brain penetration, and low fetal exposures and high milk excretion in rats.


Assuntos
Membro 1 da Subfamília B de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Fibrinolíticos/farmacocinética , Proteínas de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Pirazóis/farmacocinética , Piridonas/farmacocinética , Membro 1 da Subfamília B de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/antagonistas & inibidores , Membro 2 da Subfamília G de Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP , Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/antagonistas & inibidores , Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Adenosina/farmacologia , Animais , Transporte Biológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Células CACO-2/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Transformada , Permeabilidade da Membrana Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclosporina/farmacologia , Digoxina/farmacocinética , Dicetopiperazinas , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Interações de Medicamentos , Compostos Heterocíclicos de 4 ou mais Anéis , Humanos , Cetoconazol/farmacologia , Masculino , Naproxeno/farmacologia , Proteínas de Neoplasias/antagonistas & inibidores , Ratos
12.
J Pharmacol Exp Ther ; 344(3): 673-85, 2013 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23297161

RESUMO

Organic anion-transporting polypeptides (OATP) 1B1, 1B3, and 2B1 can serve as the loci of drug-drug interactions (DDIs). In the present work, the cynomolgus monkey was evaluated as a potential model for studying OATP-mediated DDIs. Three cynomolgus monkey OATPs (cOATPs), with a high degree of amino acid sequence identity (91.9, 93.5, and 96.6% for OATP1B1, 1B3, and 2B1, respectively) to their human counterparts, were cloned, expressed, and characterized. The cOATPs were stably transfected in human embryonic kidney cells and were functionally similar to the corresponding human OATPs (hOATPs), as evident from the similar uptake rate of typical substrates (estradiol-17ß-d-glucuronide, cholecystokinin octapeptide, and estrone-3-sulfate). Moreover, six known hOATP inhibitors exhibited similar IC(50) values against cOATPs. To further evaluate the appropriateness of the cynomolgus monkey as a model, a known hOATP substrate [rosuvastatin (RSV)]-inhibitor [rifampicin (RIF)] pair was examined in vitro; the monkey-derived parameters (RSV K(m) and RIF IC(50)) were similar (within 3.5-fold) to those obtained with hOATPs and human primary hepatocytes. In vivo, the area under the plasma concentration-time curve of RSV (3 mg/kg, oral) given 1 hour after a single RIF dose (15 mg/kg, oral) was increased 2.9-fold in cynomolgus monkeys, consistent with the value (3.0-fold) reported in humans. A number of in vitro-in vivo extrapolation approaches, considering the fraction of the pathways affected and free versus total inhibitor concentrations, were also explored. It is concluded that the cynomolgus monkey has the potential to serve as a useful model for the assessment of OATP-mediated DDIs in a nonclinical setting.


Assuntos
Fígado/metabolismo , Macaca fascicularis/metabolismo , Transportadores de Ânions Orgânicos/metabolismo , Animais , Transporte Biológico , Linhagem Celular , Clonagem Molecular/métodos , Interações de Medicamentos , Fluorbenzenos/farmacologia , Células HEK293 , Hepatócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Humanos , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Modelos Animais , Transportadores de Ânions Orgânicos/genética , Pirimidinas/farmacologia , Rifampina/farmacologia , Rosuvastatina Cálcica , Sulfonamidas/farmacologia
13.
Drug Metab Dispos ; 40(11): 2212-8, 2012 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22917771

RESUMO

The multidrug resistance protein (MRP) 2 is predominantly expressed in liver, intestine, and kidney, where it plays an important role in the excretion of a range of drugs and their metabolites or endogenous compounds into bile, feces, and urine. Mrp knockout [Mrp2(-/-)] mice have been used recently to study the role of MRP2 in drug disposition. Here, we describe the first generation and initial characterization of a mouse line humanized for MRP2 (huMRP2), which is nulled for the mouse Mrp2 gene and expresses the human transporter in the organs and cell types where MRP2 is normally expressed. Analysis of the mRNA expression for selected cytochrome P450 and transporter genes revealed no major changes in huMRP2 mice compared with wild-type controls. We show that human MRP2 is able to compensate functionally for the loss of the mouse transporter as demonstrated by comparable bilirubin levels in the humanized mice and wild-type controls, in contrast to the hyperbilirubinemia phenotype that is observed in MRP2(-/-) mice. The huMRP2 mouse provides a model to study the role of the human transporter in drug disposition and in assessing the in vivo consequences of inhibiting this transporter by compounds interacting with human MRP2.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/genética , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/metabolismo , Proteínas Associadas à Resistência a Múltiplos Medicamentos/genética , Proteínas Associadas à Resistência a Múltiplos Medicamentos/metabolismo , Animais , Bilirrubina/sangue , Bilirrubina/genética , Bilirrubina/metabolismo , Bilirrubina/urina , Transporte Biológico , Linhagem Celular , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/genética , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Embrionárias/metabolismo , Técnicas de Introdução de Genes , Humanos , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Rim/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , RNA Mensageiro/genética
14.
Mol Pharm ; 7(5): 1805-15, 2010 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20795735

RESUMO

We have evaluated a novel in vitro cell-based human blood-brain barrier (BBB) model that could predict in vivo human brain penetration for compounds with different BBB permeabilities using the clinical positron emission tomography (PET) data. Comparison studies were also performed to demonstrate that the in vitro cell-based human BBB model resulted in better predictivity over the traditional permeability model in discovery organizations, Caco-2 cells. We evaluated the in vivo BBB permeability of [(18)F] and [(11)C]-compounds in humans by PET imaging. The in vivo plasma-brain exchange parameters used for comparison were determined in humans by PET using a kinetic analysis of the radiotracer binding. For each radiotracer, the parameters were determined by fitting the brain kinetics of the radiotracer using a two-tissue compartment model of the ligand-receptor interaction. Bidirectional transport studies with the same compounds as in in vivo studies were carried out using the in vitro cell-based human BBB model as well as Caco-2 cells. The in vitro cell-based human BBB model has important features of the BBB in vivo and is suitable for discriminating between CNS and non-CNS marketed drugs. A very good correlation (r(2) = 0.90; P < 0.001) was demonstrated between in vitro BBB permeability and in vivo permeability coefficient. In contrast, a poor correlation (r(2) = 0.17) was obtained between Caco-2 data and in vivo human brain penetration. This study highlights the potential of this in vitro cell-based human BBB model in drug discovery and shows that it can be an extremely effective screening tool for CNS programs.


Assuntos
Barreira Hematoencefálica/fisiologia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Modelos Neurológicos , Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Células CACO-2 , Claudinas/genética , Claudinas/metabolismo , Descoberta de Drogas , Humanos , Cinética , Permeabilidade , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos
15.
J Med Chem ; 53(9): 3814-30, 2010 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20405922

RESUMO

Leukocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1), also known as CD11a/CD18 or alpha(L)beta(2), belongs to the beta(2) integrin subfamily and is constitutively expressed on all leukocytes. The major ligands of LFA-1 include three intercellular adhesion molecules 1, 2, and 3 (ICAM 1, 2, and 3). The interactions between LFA-1 and the ICAMs are critical for cell adhesion, and preclinical animal studies and clinical data from the humanized anti-LFA-1 antibody efalizumab have provided proof-of-concept for LFA-1 as an immunological target. This article will detail the structure-activity relationships (SAR) leading to a novel second generation series of highly potent spirocyclic hydantoin antagonists of LFA-1. With significantly enhanced in vitro and ex vivo potency relative to our first clinical compound (1), as well as demonstrated in vivo activity and an acceptable pharmacokinetic and safety profile, 6-((5S,9R)-9-(4-cyanophenyl)-3-(3,5-dichlorophenyl)-1-methyl-2,4-dioxo-1,3,7-triazaspiro-[4.4]nonan-7-yl)nicotinic acid (2e) was selected to advance into clinical trials.


Assuntos
Hidantoínas/farmacocinética , Fatores Imunológicos/química , Antígeno-1 Associado à Função Linfocitária/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácidos Nicotínicos/farmacocinética , Humanos , Hidantoínas/farmacologia , Antígeno-1 Associado à Função Linfocitária/química , Antígeno-1 Associado à Função Linfocitária/imunologia , Ácidos Nicotínicos/toxicidade , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
16.
Bioorg Med Chem Lett ; 20(5): 1744-8, 2010 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20153189
17.
J Med Chem ; 52(23): 7360-3, 2009 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19778024
18.
AAPS J ; 10(4): 577-86, 2008 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19082742

RESUMO

The objective was to directly compare the four different "calculation" methods of assessing P-gp inhibition potential using experimental data obtained from approximately 60 structurally diverse internal research and marketed compounds. Bidirectional studies for digoxin (probe for P-gp substrate) were performed with and without test compounds (at 10 microM). Four different calculation methods were applied to the same dataset (raw bidirectional permeability values) to obtain the "percent inhibition of P-gp" for these compounds using the different methods. Significantly different inhibition potential was obtained with the "exact" same experimental dataset depending on the calculation method used. Subsequently, entirely different conclusions regarding the "inhibition potential" of test compound was reached due to the different calculation methods. Based on the direct comparison of these methods, method no. 3 (i.e., inhibition of B to A permeability of digoxin) is recommended as the calculation method ideal during screening stages due to its high throughput amenability. The methodology is capable of rapidly screening compounds with adequate reliability for early stage drug discovery. Method no. 3 provides an abridged version of a bidirectional study that is fully capable of identifying all non-inhibitors (0-20%), moderate inhibitors (20-60%), and potent inhibitors (>60%) and demonstrates high correlation with method no. 1 (inhibition based on both A to B and B to A permeability of digoxin). Nevertheless, method no. 1 might be appropriate for more detailed mechanistic studies required in late stage discovery and development.


Assuntos
Membro 1 da Subfamília B de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/antagonistas & inibidores , Células CACO-2/metabolismo , Transporte Biológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Células CACO-2/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Permeabilidade da Membrana Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Permeabilidade da Membrana Celular/fisiologia , Digoxina/farmacocinética , Digoxina/farmacologia , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos/métodos , Inibidores da Protease de HIV/farmacologia , Humanos , Indinavir/farmacologia , Cinética , Propionatos/farmacologia , Quinolinas/farmacologia , Saquinavir/farmacologia , Verapamil/farmacologia
19.
J Med Chem ; 51(19): 5897-900, 2008 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18763755

RESUMO

We previously reported that 1 (BMS-536924), a benzimidazole inhibitor of the insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor, had demonstrated in vivo antitumor activity. This lead compound was found to have potent CYP3A4 inhibition, CYP3A4 induction mediated by PXR transactivation, poor aqueous solubility, and high plasma protein binding. Herein we disclose the evolution of this chemotype to address these issues. This effort led to 10 (BMS-695735), which exhibits improved ADME properties, a low risk for drug-drug interactions, and in vivo efficacy in multiple xenograft models.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Benzimidazóis/administração & dosagem , Benzimidazóis/farmacologia , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/administração & dosagem , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Piridonas/administração & dosagem , Piridonas/farmacologia , Receptor IGF Tipo 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Administração Oral , Animais , Antineoplásicos/química , Benzimidazóis/química , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Citocromo P-450 CYP3A , Inibidores do Citocromo P-450 CYP3A , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Estrutura Molecular , Transplante de Neoplasias , Receptor de Pregnano X , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/química , Piridonas/química , Receptores de Esteroides/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores de Esteroides/metabolismo , Solubilidade , Estereoisomerismo , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
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