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1.
Bone ; : 115681, 2020 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33035729

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Sclerostin, an inhibitor of bone formation, has emerged as a potential negative regulator of glucose homeostasis. We aimed to investigate if serum sclerostin associates with insulin sensitivity, beta cell function, prediabetes or metabolic syndrome in healthy men. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Serum sclerostin was measured in basal and insulin-stimulated samples from 526 men without diabetes from the RISC cohort study. An OGTT was performed at baseline and after 3 years. An IVGTT and a hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp were performed at baseline. Insulin sensitivity was estimated by the oral glucose sensitivity index (OGIS) and the M-value relative to insulin levels. Beta cell function was assessed by the acute and total insulin secretion (ISRtot) and by beta cell glucose sensitivity. RESULTS: Serum sclerostin levels correlated positively with age but were similar in individuals with (n=69) and without (n=457) prediabetes or the metabolic syndrome. Serum sclerostin was associated with measures of neither insulin sensitivity nor beta cell function at baseline in age-adjusted analyses including all participants. However, baseline serum sclerostin correlated inversely with OGIS at follow-up in men without prediabetes (B: -0.29 (-0.57, -0.01) p=0.045), and inversely with beta cell glucose sensitivity in men with prediabetes (B: -13.3 (-26.3, -0.2) p=0.046). Associations between serum sclerostin and 3-year changes in measures of glucose homeostasis were not observed. Acute hyperinsulinemia suppressed serum sclerostin (p=0.02), and this reduction correlated with OGIS and ISRtot. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, serum sclerostin was not associated with prediabetes, insulin sensitivity or insulin secretion in healthy men. The inverse relationship between serum sclerostin and insulin sensitivity at follow-up was weak and likely not of clinical relevance. The ability of insulin to reduce sclerostin, possibly promoting bone formation, needs to be clarified.

2.
Nat Metab ; 2(10): 1126-1134, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33046911

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies have identified 240 independent loci associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk, but this knowledge has not advanced precision medicine. In contrast, the genetic diagnosis of monogenic forms of diabetes (including maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY)) are textbook cases of genomic medicine. Recent studies trying to bridge the gap between monogenic diabetes and T2D have been inconclusive. Here, we show a significant burden of pathogenic variants in genes linked with monogenic diabetes among people with common T2D, particularly in actionable MODY genes, thus implying that there should be a substantial change in care for carriers with T2D. We show that, among 74,629 individuals, this burden is probably driven by the pathogenic variants found in GCK, and to a lesser extent in HNF4A, KCNJ11, HNF1B and ABCC8. The carriers with T2D are leaner, which evidences a functional metabolic effect of these mutations. Pathogenic variants in actionable MODY genes are more frequent than was previously expected in common T2D. These results open avenues for future interventions assessing the clinical interest of these pathogenic mutations in precision medicine.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32503810

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Little research has been done to systematically evaluate concerns of people living with diabetes through social media, which has been a powerful tool for social change and to better understand perceptions around health-related issues. This study aims to identify key diabetes-related concerns in the USA and primary emotions associated with those concerns using information shared on Twitter. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A total of 11.7 million diabetes-related tweets in English were collected between April 2017 and July 2019. Machine learning methods were used to filter tweets with personal content, to geolocate (to the USA) and to identify clusters of tweets with emotional elements. A sentiment analysis was then applied to each cluster. RESULTS: We identified 46 407 tweets with emotional elements in the USA from which 30 clusters were identified; 5 clusters (18% of tweets) were related to insulin pricing with both positive emotions (joy, love) referring to advocacy for affordable insulin and sadness emotions related to the frustration of insulin prices, 5 clusters (12% of tweets) to solidarity and support with a majority of joy and love emotions expressed. The most negative topics (10% of tweets) were related to diabetes distress (24% sadness, 27% anger, 21% fear elements), to diabetic and insulin shock (45% anger, 46% fear) and comorbidities (40% sadness). CONCLUSIONS: Using social media data, we have been able to describe key diabetes-related concerns and their associated emotions. More specifically, we were able to highlight the real-world concerns of insulin pricing and its negative impact on mood. Using such data can be a useful addition to current measures that inform public decision making around topics of concern and burden among people with diabetes.

4.
Diabetologia ; 63(8): 1616-1625, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32424541

RESUMO

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The aim of this work was to examine whether synergistic associations with mortality exist for BMI and fasting blood glucose (FBG) and to identify FBG-BMI combined subgroups with higher mortality according to sex and age. METHODS: A total of 15,149,275 Korean adults participated in health examinations during 2003-2006 and were followed up until December 2018. Mortality HRs of 40 FBG-BMI combined groups were assessed by Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS: During a mean 13.7 years of follow-up, 1,213,401 individuals died. A J-shaped association was seen between FBG and all-cause mortality for all BMI categories. Those with BMI <20 kg/m2 had the highest mortality for any given FBG level, followed by those with BMI 20-22.4 kg/m2. The detrimental effect of elevated FBG was greater among leaner individuals than more corpulent individuals. Moreover, the synergistic adverse effects of hyperglycaemia and leanness was stronger in younger adults than in older adults. Compared with the reference group (overweight with normoglycaemia), age- and sex-adjusted HRs of the leanest with normoglycaemia (BMI <20 kg/m2 and FBG 4.4-5.2 mmol/l), overweight with diabetes (BMI 25-27.4 kg/m2 and FBG ≥10.0 mmol/l) and leanest with diabetes (BMI <20 kg/m2 and FBG ≥10.0 mmol/l) were 1.29, 2.59 and 11.18, respectively, in those aged 18-44 years and 1.56, 1.72 and 2.87, respectively, in those aged 75-99 years. The identification of BMI-FBG subgroups associated with higher mortality was not straightforward, illustrated by the group with FBG 6.1-6.9 mmol/l and BMI 20-22.4 kg/m2 having a similar or higher mortality compared with the group with FBG 7.0-9.9 mmol/l and BMI ≥22.5 kg/m2. In women aged <45 years with FBG <6.9 mmol/l, those with BMI ≥27.5 kg/m2 had the highest mortality, whereas individuals with BMI <20 kg/m2 had the highest mortality for each given FBG level in other age and sex groups. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Leanness and hyperglycaemia interact together to increase mortality in a supra-multiplicative manner, especially in younger adults; the interactions of BMI, FBG, sex and age with mortality are complex. Graphical abstract.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32162656

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although kidney transplantation prolongs survival relative to dialysis, it is associated with a higher death rate than in the general population. The objective of the present study was to assess and compare the risk of mortality and frequency of non-lethal cardiovascular (CV) events in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) beyond 1 year after successful transplantation versus patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) using propensity score-matched analysis of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and other parameters. METHODS: After propensity score matching, we studied 340 KTRs from the French Données Informatisées et Validées en Transplantation cohort and 605 non-transplant patients with CKD (CKDps) from the French Chronic Kidney Disease-Renal Epidemiology and Information Network cohort. The mean ± standard deviation eGFR was 42 ± 13 and 41 ± 12 mL/min/ 1.73 m2, respectively (P = 0.649). Descriptive data were completed by a survival analysis with Cox regression models. RESULTS: After a median follow-up period of 2.8 years (KTRs 2.0 years, CKDp 2.9 years), 71 deaths were recorded (31 and 40 in the KTR and CKD groups, respectively). Univariate analysis showed that KTRs had a significantly greater risk of mortality than CKDps. In multivariable analysis, KTRs were found to have a 2.7-fold greater risk of mortality [hazard ratio 2.7 (95% confidence interval 1.6-4.7); P = 0.005]. There was no between-group difference concerning the risk of CV events (P = 0.448). CV death rates in KTRs (29.0%) approximated those of CKDps (22.5%), whereas death rates due to infections were higher in KTRs (19.4% versus 10.0%). CONCLUSION: Beyond 1 year after transplantation, KTRs, who possibly had a longer CKD history, had a significantly greater mortality risk than eGFR-matched CKDps. The excess risk was not associated with CV events.

6.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 44(2): 539-543, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31388097

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified more than 250 loci associated with body mass index (BMI) and obesity. However, post-GWAS functional genomic investigations have been inadequate for understanding how these genetic loci physiologically impact disease development. METHODS: We performed a PCR-free expression assay targeting genes located nearby the GWAS-identified SNPs associated with BMI/obesity in a large panel of human tissues. Furthermore, we analyzed several genetic risk scores (GRS) summing GWAS-identified alleles associated with increased BMI in 4236 individuals. RESULTS: We found that the expression of BMI/obesity susceptibility genes was strongly enriched in the brain, especially in the insula (p = 4.7 × 10-9) and substantia nigra (p = 6.8 × 10-7), which are two brain regions involved in addiction and reward. Inversely, we found that top obesity/BMI-associated loci, including FTO, showed the strongest gene expression enrichment in the two brain regions. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest for the first time that the susceptibility genes for common obesity may have an effect on eating addiction and reward behaviors through their high expression in substantia nigra and insula, i.e., a different pattern from monogenic obesity genes that act in the hypothalamus and cause hyperphagia. Further epidemiological studies with relevant food behavior phenotypes are necessary to confirm these findings.

7.
Ann Hum Genet ; 84(3): 280-290, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31834638

RESUMO

Most genome-wide association studies used genetic-model-based tests assuming an additive mode of inheritance, leading to underpowered association tests in case of departure from additivity. The general regression model (GRM) association test proposed by Fisher and Wilson in 1980 makes no assumption on the genetic model. Interestingly, it also allows formal testing of the underlying genetic model. We conducted a simulation study of quantitative traits to compare the power of the GRM test to the classical linear regression tests, the maximum of the three statistics (MAX), and the allele-based (allelic) tests. Simulations were performed on two samples sizes, using a large panel of genetic models, varying genetic models, minor allele frequencies, and the percentage of explained variance. In case of departure from additivity, the GRM was more powerful than the additive regression tests (power gain reaching 80%) and had similar power when the true model is additive. GRM was also as or more powerful than the MAX or allelic tests. The true simulated model was mostly retained by the GRM test. Application of GRM to HbA1c illustrates its gain in power. To conclude, GRM increases power to detect association for quantitative traits, allows determining the genetic model and is easily applicable.

8.
Nat Med ; 25(11): 1733-1738, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31700171

RESUMO

The G-protein-coupled receptor accessory protein MRAP2 is implicated in energy control in rodents, notably via the melanocortin-4 receptor1. Although some MRAP2 mutations have been described in people with obesity1-3, their functional consequences on adiposity remain elusive. Using large-scale sequencing of MRAP2 in 9,418 people, we identified 23 rare heterozygous variants associated with increased obesity risk in both adults and children. Functional assessment of each variant shows that loss-of-function MRAP2 variants are pathogenic for monogenic hyperphagic obesity, hyperglycemia and hypertension. This contrasts with other monogenic forms of obesity characterized by excessive hunger, including melanocortin-4 receptor deficiency, that present with low blood pressure and normal glucose tolerance4. The pleiotropic metabolic effect of loss-of-function mutations in MRAP2 might be due to the failure of different MRAP2-regulated G-protein-coupled receptors in various tissues including pancreatic islets.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Hiperfagia/genética , Obesidade/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Metabolismo Energético/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperglicemia/complicações , Hiperglicemia/genética , Hiperglicemia/metabolismo , Hiperglicemia/patologia , Hiperfagia/complicações , Hiperfagia/metabolismo , Hiperfagia/patologia , Hipertensão/complicações , Hipertensão/genética , Hipertensão/metabolismo , Hipertensão/patologia , Ilhotas Pancreáticas/metabolismo , Ilhotas Pancreáticas/patologia , Mutação com Perda de Função/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/patologia , Receptor Tipo 4 de Melanocortina/genética , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
9.
Mol Metab ; 29: 182-196, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31668389

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Prokineticin 2 (PROK2) is a hypothalamic neuropeptide that plays a critical role in the rhythmicity of physiological functions and inhibits food intake. PROK2 is also expressed in the main olfactory bulb (MOB) as an essential factor for neuro-and morphogenesis. Since the MOB was shown to be strongly involved in eating behavior, we hypothesized that PROK2 could be a new target in the regulation of food intake and energy homeostasis, through its effects in the MOB. We also asked whether PROK2 could be associated with the pathophysiology of obesity, the metabolic syndrome (MetS), and type 2 diabetes (T2D) in humans. METHODS: We assessed in wild type mice whether the expression of Prok2 in the MOB is dependent on the nutritional status. We measured the effect of human recombinant PROK2 (rPROK2) acute injection in the MOB on food intake and olfactory behavior. Then, using a lentivirus expressing Prok2-shRNA, we studied the effects of Prok2 underexpression in the MOB on feeding behavior and glucose metabolism. Metabolic parameters and meal pattern were determined using calorimetric cages. In vivo 2-deoxyglucose uptake measurements were performed in mice after intraperitoneally insulin injection. Plasmatic PROK2 dosages and genetic associations studies were carried out respectively on 148 and more than 4000 participants from the D.E.S.I.R. (Data from an Epidemiologic Study on the Insulin Resistance Syndrome) cohort. RESULTS: Our findings showed that fasting in mice reduced Prok2 expression in the MOB. Acute injection of rPROK2 in the MOB significantly decreased food intake whereas Prok2-shRNA injection resulted in a higher dietary consumption characterized by increased feeding frequency and decreased meal size. Additionally, Prok2 underexpression in the MOB induced insulin resistance compared to scrambled shRNA-injected mice. In the human D.E.S.I.R. cohort, we found a significantly lower mean concentration of plasma PROK2 in people with T2D than in those with normoglycemia. Interestingly, this decrease was no longer significant when adjusted for Body Mass Index (BMI) or calorie intake, suggesting that the association between plasma PROK2 and diabetes is mediated, at least partly, by BMI and feeding behavior in humans. Moreover, common Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) in PROK2 gene were genotyped and associated with incident T2D or impaired fasting glycemia (IFG), MetS, and obesity. CONCLUSIONS: Our data highlight PROK2 as a new target in the MOB that links olfaction with eating behavior and energy homeostasis. In humans, plasma PROK2 is negatively correlated with T2D, BMI, and energy intake, and PROK2 genetic variants are associated with incident hyperglycemia (T2D/IFG), the MetS and obesity.

10.
Environ Health Perspect ; 127(10): 107013, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31663775

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The question of whether exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) contributes to the development of type 2 diabetes is still unresolved. Most epidemiological evidence on the association between BPA and diabetes is from cross-sectional studies or longitudinal studies with single urinary measurements. No prospective study has examined exposure to BPA analogs such as bisphenol S (BPS) in relation to incident type 2 diabetes. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to investigate whether exposure to BPA and BPS, assessed at up to two time points, was associated with the incidence of type 2 diabetes. METHODS: We performed a case-cohort study on 755 participants without diabetes at baseline and followed-up over 9 y as part of the French prospective cohort Data from an Epidemiological Study on the Insulin Resistance Syndrome (D.E.S.I.R.). BPA-glucuronide (BPA-G) and BPS-glucuronide (BPS-G) were assessed in fasting spot urine samples collected during the health examinations at baseline and 3 y later. Associations with incident diabetes were examined using Prentice-weighted Cox regression models adjusted for potential confounders. RESULTS: A total of 201 incident cases of type 2 diabetes were diagnosed over the follow-up, including 30 in the subcohort. Compared with participants with the lowest average BPA exposure (below the first quartile), participants in the second, third, and fourth quartile groups of exposure had a near doubling of the risk of type 2 diabetes, with a hazard ratio (HR) = 2.56 (95% CI: 1.16, 5.65), 2.35 (95% CI: 1.07, 5.15), and 1.56 (95% CI: 0.68, 3.55), respectively. The detection of BPS-G in urine at one or both time points was associated with incident diabetes, with an HR = 2.81 (95% CI: 1.74, 4.53). DISCUSSION: This study shows positive associations between exposure to BPA and BPS and the incidence of type 2 diabetes, independent of traditional diabetes risk factors. Our results should be confirmed by recent, population-based observational studies in different populations and settings. Overall, these findings raise concerns about using BPS as a BPA substitute. Further research on BPA analogs is warranted. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP5159.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluentes Ambientais/metabolismo , Fenóis/metabolismo , Sulfonas/metabolismo , Adulto , Compostos Benzidrílicos/toxicidade , Estudos de Coortes , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Fenóis/toxicidade , Fatores de Risco , Sulfonas/toxicidade
11.
Diabetologia ; 62(12): 2222-2232, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31396661

RESUMO

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Diet is one of the main lifestyle-related factors that can modulate the inflammatory process. Surprisingly the dietary inflammatory index (DII) has been little investigated in relation to type 2 diabetes, and the role of BMI in this relationship is not well established. We studied this association and the role of BMI in the inflammatory process in a large population-based observational study. METHODS: A total of 70,991 women from the E3N (Etude Epidémiologique auprès de femmes de la Mutuelle Générale de l'Education Nationale) cohort study were followed for 20 years. Incident type 2 diabetes cases were identified using diabetes-specific questionnaires and drug reimbursement insurance databases, and 3292 incident cases were validated. The DII was derived from a validated food frequency questionnaire. Multivariable Cox regression models estimated HRs and 95% CIs between DII and incident type 2 diabetes. Interactions were tested between DII and BMI on incident type 2 diabetes and a mediation analysis of BMI was performed. RESULTS: Higher DII scores, corresponding to a higher anti-inflammatory potential of the diet, were associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes. Compared with the 1st quintile group, women from the 2nd quintile group (HR 0.85 [95% CI 0.77, 0.94]) up to the 5th quintile group (HR 0.77 [95% CI 0.69, 0.85]) had a lower risk of type 2 diabetes before adjustment for BMI. There was an interaction between DII and BMI on type 2 diabetes risk (pInteraction < 0.0001). The overall association was partly mediated by BMI (58%). CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Our findings suggest that a higher anti-inflammatory potential of the diet is associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes, and the association may be mediated by BMI. These results may improve our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the role of diet-related anti-inflammation in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes in women. Further studies are warranted to validate our results and evaluate whether the results are similar in men.

12.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 9439, 2019 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31263163

RESUMO

Type 2 diabetes (T2D) affects the health of millions of people worldwide. The identification of genetic determinants associated with changes in glycemia over time might illuminate biological features that precede the development of T2D. Here we conducted a genome-wide association study of longitudinal fasting glucose changes in up to 13,807 non-diabetic individuals of European descent from nine cohorts. Fasting glucose change over time was defined as the slope of the line defined by multiple fasting glucose measurements obtained over up to 14 years of observation. We tested for associations of genetic variants with inverse-normal transformed fasting glucose change over time adjusting for age at baseline, sex, and principal components of genetic variation. We found no genome-wide significant association (P < 5 × 10-8) with fasting glucose change over time. Seven loci previously associated with T2D, fasting glucose or HbA1c were nominally (P < 0.05) associated with fasting glucose change over time. Limited power influences unambiguous interpretation, but these data suggest that genetic effects on fasting glucose change over time are likely to be small. A public version of the data provides a genomic resource to combine with future studies to evaluate shared genetic links with T2D and other metabolic risk traits.

14.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 180(4): 257-263, 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30840582

RESUMO

Hypothesis Previous work suggested no or inconsistent associations between components of work-related stress and type 2 diabetes risk, but suggested sex-specific differences should be further investigated, as women potentially had higher risks. Methods We analyzed data from 73 517 women, mostly teachers, from the E3N cohort study followed for 22 years (1992-2014), to study the association between mentally tiring work, used as a proxy of job demands, and type 2 diabetes risk. Univariate and multivariable Cox regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Results A total of 4187 incident cases of type 2 diabetes cases were observed. There was a higher type 2 diabetes risk for women with a 'Very mentally tiring work' when compared to women with 'Little or not mentally tiring work' (HR = 1.21 (1.09-1.35)). This association was independent of unhealthy lifestyle and traditional metabolic factors. An interaction between mentally tiring work and BMI was detected (P < 0.0001), with a stronger association being observed in non-overweight women, HR = 1.26 (1.08-1.47) vs HR = 1.14 (0.98, 1.32), in overweight women. Conclusions We observed an increased risk of type 2 diabetes associated with mentally tiring work, used as a proxy of job demands. These observational results suggest the importance of taking into consideration the potential long-term metabolic impact of work-related stress for women working in a demanding environment. Increased support for such women should be investigated in intervention studies.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Emprego/psicologia , Fadiga Mental/complicações , Estresse Ocupacional/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/complicações , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Seguimentos , França/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Professores Escolares/psicologia
15.
Diabetologia ; 62(5): 874, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30899968

RESUMO

The affiliation details for Geltrude Mingrone are corrected below.

16.
Prev Med ; 123: 208-216, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30851294

RESUMO

We aimed to determine whether adherence to the Australian dietary guidelines and an index of healthy behavior was associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and to provide estimates of the proportion of preventable cases. Participants of the AusDiab cohort study were followed for 12 years (n = 6242), starting from May 1999, during which T2D cases were identified. The associations between T2D risk and a score of adherence to the dietary guidelines, its components, and a score of adherence to an index of healthy behaviors, (which included smoking, recreational physical activity, waist circumference and adherence to the dietary guidelines), were estimated using Cox proportional hazards ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals. The proportion of preventable cases was estimated using the population attributable fraction (PAF). Strong adherence to the dietary guidelines was not associated with T2D risk (HR = 0.64 [95% CI 0.39-1.06]), unless moderate alcohol consumption was considered as beneficial instead of no alcohol consumption (HR = 0.59 [0.36-0.96]). However, strong adherence to the guidelines regarding fruit and dairy intake were both associated with decreased risk of T2D (HR = 0.68 [0.51-0.91]; 0.56 [0.38-0.84], respectively) and could have prevented 23-37% of cases (PAF = 23.3% [7.3-38.2]; 37.1% [14.6-56.0], respectively). Strong adherence to the index of healthy behaviors was associated with decreased risk of T2D (HR = 0.30 [0.17-0.51]) and estimated to prevent almost 60% of T2D (PAF = 59.4% [34.3-76.6]). More than half of T2D cases could be preventable in Australia through modifying health behavior. These results could serve as a basis for prevention programs based on lifestyle modification.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Dieta com Restrição de Carboidratos , Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Guias como Assunto , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Adulto , Idoso , Austrália , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vigilância da População , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Medição de Risco , Circunferência da Cintura
17.
Nat Genet ; 51(3): 452-469, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30778226

RESUMO

Body-fat distribution is a risk factor for adverse cardiovascular health consequences. We analyzed the association of body-fat distribution, assessed by waist-to-hip ratio adjusted for body mass index, with 228,985 predicted coding and splice site variants available on exome arrays in up to 344,369 individuals from five major ancestries (discovery) and 132,177 European-ancestry individuals (validation). We identified 15 common (minor allele frequency, MAF ≥5%) and nine low-frequency or rare (MAF <5%) coding novel variants. Pathway/gene set enrichment analyses identified lipid particle, adiponectin, abnormal white adipose tissue physiology and bone development and morphology as important contributors to fat distribution, while cross-trait associations highlight cardiometabolic traits. In functional follow-up analyses, specifically in Drosophila RNAi-knockdowns, we observed a significant increase in the total body triglyceride levels for two genes (DNAH10 and PLXND1). We implicate novel genes in fat distribution, stressing the importance of interrogating low-frequency and protein-coding variants.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Variação Genética/genética , Homeostase/genética , Lipídeos/genética , Proteínas/genética , Animais , Distribuição da Gordura Corporal/métodos , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Drosophila/genética , Exoma/genética , Feminino , Frequência do Gene/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Relação Cintura-Quadril/métodos
20.
JAMA Neurol ; 76(3): 257-263, 2019 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30556831

RESUMO

Importance: Little is known about the associations between migraine and type 2 diabetes and the temporality of the association between these 2 diseases. Objective: To evaluate the association between migraine and type 2 diabetes incidence as well as the evolution of the prevalence of active migraine before and after type 2 diabetes diagnosis. Design, Setting, and Participants: We used data from the E3N cohort study, a French prospective population-based study initiated in 1990 on a cohort of women born between 1925 and 1950. The E3N study participants are insured by a health insurance plan that mostly covers teachers. From the eligible women in the E3N study, we included those who completed the 2002 follow-up questionnaire with information available on migraine. We then excluded prevalent cases of type 2 diabetes, leaving a final sample of women who were followed up between 2004 and 2014. All potential occurrences of type 2 diabetes were identified through a drug reimbursement database. Statistical analyses were performed in March 2018. Exposures: Self-reported migraine occurrence. Main Outcomes and Measures: Pharmacologically treated type 2 diabetes. Results: From the 98 995 women in the study, 76 403 women completed the 2002 follow-up survey. Of these, 2156 were excluded because they had type 2 diabetes, leaving 74 247 women. Participants had a mean (SD) age of 61 (6) years at baseline, and all were free of type 2 diabetes. During 10 years of follow-up, 2372 incident type 2 diabetes cases occurred. A lower risk of type 2 diabetes was observed for women with active migraine compared with women with no migraine history (univariate hazard ratio, 0.80 [95% CI, 0.67-0.96], multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio, 0.70 [95% CI, 0.58-0.85]). We also observed a linear decrease in active migraine prevalence from 22% (95% CI, 16%-27%) to 11% (95% CI, 10%-12%) during the 24 years prior to diabetes diagnosis, after adjustment for potential type 2 diabetes risk factors. A plateau of migraine prevalence around 11% was then observed for 22 years after diagnosis. Conclusions and Relevance: We observed a lower risk of developing type 2 diabetes for women with active migraine and a decrease in active migraine prevalence prior to diabetes diagnosis. Further targeted research should focus on understanding the mechanisms involved in explaining these findings.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/etiologia , Prevalência , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
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