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1.
Small ; 18(11): e2105857, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35297185

RESUMO

Reversible electrochemical intercalation of cations into the interlayer space of 2D materials induces tunable physical and chemical properties in them. In MXenes, a large class of recently developed 2D carbides and nitrides, low intercalation energy, high storage capacitance, and reversible intercalation of various cations have led to their improved performance in sensing and energy storage applications. Herein, a coupled nanopore-actuator system where an ultrathin free-standing MXene film serves as a nanopore support membrane and ionically active actuator is reported. In this system, the contactless MXene membrane in the electric field affects the cation movement in the field through their (de)intercalation between individual MXene flakes. This results in reversible swelling and contraction of the membrane monitored by ionic conductance through the nanopore. This unique nanopore coupled to a mechanical actuation system could provide new insights into designing single-molecule biosensing platforms at the nanoscale.


Assuntos
Nanoporos , Cátions , Capacitância Elétrica , Eletricidade
2.
ACS Nano ; 16(2): 2452-2460, 2022 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35129970

RESUMO

Antiferroelectric (AFE) materials, in which alternating dipole moments cancel out to a zero net macroscopic polarization, can be used for high-density energy storage and memory applications. The AFE phase can exist in bulk CuInP2Se6, CuBiP2S6, and a few other transition-metal thiophosphates below 200 K. The required low temperature poses challenges for practical applications. In this work, we report the coexistence of ferrielectric (FE) states and a stable surface phase that does not show piezoelectric response ("zero-response phase") in bulk CuInP2S6 at room temperature. Using piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM) tomographic imaging together with density functional theory, we find that direct and alternating voltages can locally and stably convert FE to zero-response phases and vice versa. While PFM loops show pinched hystereses reminiscent of antiferroelectricity, PFM tomography reveals that the zero-response areas form only on top of the FE phase in which the polarization vector is pointing up. Theoretical calculations suggest that the zero-response phase may correspond to AFE ordering where stacked CuInP2S6 layers have alternating polarization orientations thereby leading to a net-zero polarization. Consistent with experimental findings, theory predicts that the FE polarization pointing down is robust up to the top surface, whereas FE polarization pointing up energetically favors the formation of an AFE surface layer, whose thickness is likely to be sensitive to local strains. AFE order is likely to be more robust against detrimental size effects than polar order, therefore providing additional opportunities to create multifunctional heterostructures with 2D electronic materials.

3.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 14(2): 3018-3026, 2022 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34985251

RESUMO

The van der Waals layered material CuInP2S6 features interesting functional behavior, including the existence of four uniaxial polarization states, polarization reversal against the electric field through Cu ion migration, a negative-capacitance regime, and reversible extraction of Cu ions. At the heart of these characteristics lies the high mobility of Cu ions, which also determines the spontaneous polarization. Therefore, Cu migration across the lattice results in unusual ferroelectric behavior. Here, we demonstrate how the interplay of polar and ionic properties provides a path to ionically controlled ferroelectric behavior, achieved by applying selected DC voltage pulses and subsequently probing ferroelectric switching during fast triangular voltage sweeps. Using current measurements and theoretical calculations, we observe that increasing DC pulse duration results in higher ionic currents, the buildup of an internal electric field that shifts polarization loops, and an increase in total switchable polarization by ∼50% due to the existence of a high polarization phase which is stabilized by the internal electric field. Apart from tuning ferroelectric behavior by selected square pulses, hysteretic polarization switching can even be entirely deactivated and reactivated, resulting in three-state systems where polarization switching is either inhibited or can be performed in two different directions.

4.
Adv Mater ; 34(2): e2106426, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34647655

RESUMO

Since their discovery in late 1940s, perovskite ferroelectric materials have become one of the central objects of condensed matter physics and materials science due to the broad spectrum of functional behaviors they exhibit, including electro-optical phenomena and strong electromechanical coupling. In such disordered materials, the static properties of defects such as oxygen vacancies are well explored but the dynamic effects are less understood. In this work, the first observation of enhanced electromechanical response in BaTiO3 thin films is reported driven via dynamic local oxygen vacancy control in piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM). A persistence in peizoelectricity past the bulk Curie temperature and an enhanced electromechanical response due to a created internal electric field that further enhances the intrinsic electrostriction are explicitly demonstrated. The findings are supported by a series of temperature dependent band excitation PFM in ultrahigh vacuum and a combination of modeling techniques including finite element modeling, reactive force field, and density functional theory. This study shows the pivotal role that dynamics of vacancies in complex oxides can play in determining functional properties and thus provides a new route toward- achieving enhanced ferroic response with higher functional temperature windows in ferroelectrics and other ferroic materials.

5.
Small Methods ; 5(5): e2001279, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34928092

RESUMO

Electrochemical strain microscopy (ESM) is a distinguished method to characterize Li-ion mobility in energy materials with extremely high spatial resolution. The exact origin of the cantilever deflection when the technique is applied on solid state electrolytes (SSEs) is currently discussed in the literature. Understanding local properties and influences on ion mobility in SSEs is of utmost importance to improve such materials for next generation batteries. Here, the exact signal formation process of ESM when applied on sodium super ionic conductor (NASICON)-type SSE containing Na- and Li-ions is investigated. Changes in the dielectric properties, which are linked to the local chemical composition, are found to be responsible for the observed contrast in the deflection of the cantilever instead of a physical volume change as a result of Vegard´s Law. The cantilever response is strongly reduced in areas of high sodium content which is attributed to a reduction of the tip-sample capacitance in comparison to areas with high lithium content. This is the first time a direct link between electrostatic forces in contact mode and local chemical information is demonstrated on SSEs. The results open up new possibilities in information gain since dielectric properties are sensitive to subtle changes in local chemical composition.

6.
ACS Nano ; 15(9): 15274-15284, 2021 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34415730

RESUMO

Identifying and understanding charge storage mechanisms is important for advancing energy storage. Well-separated peaks in cyclic voltammograms (CVs) are considered key indicators of diffusion-controlled electrochemical processes with distinct Faradaic charge transfer. Herein, we report on an electrochemical system with separated CV peaks, accompanied by surface-controlled partial charge transfer, in 2D Ti3C2Tx MXene in water-in-salt electrolytes. The process involves the insertion/desertion of desolvation-free cations, leading to an abrupt change of the interlayer spacing between MXene sheets. This unusual behavior increases charge storage at positive potentials, thereby increasing the amount of energy stored. This also demonstrates opportunities for the development of high-rate aqueous energy storage devices and electrochemical actuators using safe and inexpensive aqueous electrolytes.

7.
Nat Mater ; 20(12): 1689-1694, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34341525

RESUMO

Nanostructured birnessite exhibits high specific capacitance and nearly ideal capacitive behaviour in aqueous electrolytes, rendering it an important electrode material for low-cost, high-power energy storage devices. The mechanism of electrochemical capacitance in birnessite has been described as both Faradaic (involving redox) and non-Faradaic (involving only electrostatic interactions). To clarify the capacitive mechanism, we characterized birnessite's response to applied potential using ex situ X-ray diffraction, electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance, in situ Raman spectroscopy and operando atomic force microscope dilatometry to provide a holistic understanding of its structural, gravimetric and mechanical responses. These observations are supported by atomic-scale simulations using density functional theory for the cation-intercalated structure of birnessite, ReaxFF reactive force field-based molecular dynamics and ReaxFF-based grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations on the dynamics at the birnessite-water-electrolyte interface. We show that capacitive charge storage in birnessite is governed by interlayer cation intercalation. We conclude that the intercalation appears capacitive due to the presence of nanoconfined interlayer structural water, which mediates the interaction between the intercalated cation and the birnessite host and leads to minimal structural changes.


Assuntos
Óxidos , Água , Oxirredução , Óxidos/química , Água/química , Difração de Raios X
8.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 57(55): 6744-6747, 2021 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34137403

RESUMO

Alkali ion insertion into Prussian blue from aqueous electrolytes is characterized with operando AFM and EQCM, showing coupling of current with deformation and mass change rates. Stable cycling occurs only with K+, attributed to its lower hydration energy. The (de)insertion of K+ results in reversible deformation even in the open framework structure.

9.
Sci Adv ; 7(18)2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33910905

RESUMO

In past few decades, there have been substantial advances in theoretical material design and experimental synthesis, which play a key role in the steep ascent of developing functional materials with unprecedented properties useful for next-generation technologies. However, the ultimate goal of synthesis science, i.e., how to locate atoms in a specific position of matter, has not been achieved. Here, we demonstrate a unique way to inject elements in a specific crystallographic position in a composite material by strain engineering. While the use of strain so far has been limited for only mechanical deformation of structures or creation of elemental defects, we show another powerful way of using strain to autonomously control the atomic position for the synthesis of new materials and structures. We believe that our synthesis methodology can be applied to wide ranges of systems, thereby providing a new route to functional materials.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32746203

RESUMO

The dependence of electromechanical behavior on strain in ferroelectric materials can be leveraged as parameter to tune ferroelectric properties such as the Curie temperature. For van der Waals materials, a unique opportunity arises because of wrinkling, bubbling, and Moiré phenomena accessible due to structural properties inherent to the van der Waals gap. Here, we use piezoresponse force microscopy and unsupervised machine learning methods to gain insight into the ferroelectric properties of layered CuInP2S6 where local areas are strained in-plane due to a partial delamination, resulting in a topographic bubble feature. We observe significant differences between strained and unstrained areas in piezoresponse images as well as voltage spectroscopy, during which strained areas show a sigmoid-shaped response usually associated with the response measured around the Curie temperature, indicating a lowering of the Curie temperature under tensile strain. These results suggest that strain engineering might be used to further increase the functionality of CuInP2S6 through locally modifying ferroelectric properties on the micro- and nanoscale.

11.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 12(34): 38546-38553, 2020 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32805973

RESUMO

CuInP2S6 (CIPS) is a van der Waals material that has attracted attention because of its unusual properties. Recently, a combination of density functional theory (DFT) calculations and piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM) showed that CIPS is a uniaxial quadruple-well ferrielectric featuring two polar phases and a total of four polarization states that can be controlled by external strain. Here, we combine DFT and PFM to investigate the stress-dependent piezoelectric properties of CIPS, which have so far remained unexplored. The two different polarization phases are predicted to differ in their mechanical properties and the stress sensitivity of their piezoelectric constants. This knowledge is applied to the interpretation of ferroelectric domain images, which enables investigation of local strain and stress distributions. The interplay of theory and experiment produces polarization maps and layer spacings which we compare to macroscopic X-ray measurements. We found that the sample contains only the low-polarization phase and that domains of one polarization orientation are strained, whereas domains of the opposite polarization direction are fully relaxed. The described nanoscale imaging methodology is applicable to any material for which the relationship between electromechanical and mechanical characteristics is known, providing insight on structural, mechanical, and electromechanical properties down to ∼10 nm length scales.

12.
ACS Nano ; 14(8): 10569-10577, 2020 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32806054

RESUMO

Domain walls and topological defects in ferroelectric materials have emerged as a powerful tool for functional electronic devices including memory and logic. Similarly, wall interactions and dynamics underpin a broad range of mesoscale phenomena ranging from giant electromechanical responses to memory effects. Exploring the functionalities of individual domain walls, their interactions, and controlled modifications of the domain structures is crucial for applications and fundamental physical studies. However, the dynamic nature of these features severely limits studies of their local physics since application of local biases or pressures in piezoresponse force microscopy induce wall displacement as a primary response. Here, we introduce an approach for the control and modification of domain structures based on automated experimentation, whereby real-space image-based feedback is used to control the tip bias during ferroelectric switching, allowing for modification routes conditioned on domain states under the tip. This automated experiment approach is demonstrated for the exploration of domain wall dynamics and creation of metastable phases with large electromechanical response.

13.
Small ; 16(37): e2002878, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32780947

RESUMO

Fast scanning probe microscopy enabled via machine learning allows for a broad range of nanoscale, temporally resolved physics to be uncovered. However, such examples for functional imaging are few in number. Here, using piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM) as a model application, a factor of 5.8 reduction in data collection using a combination of sparse spiral scanning with compressive sensing and Gaussian process regression reconstruction is demonstrated. It is found that even extremely sparse spiral scans offer strong reconstructions with less than 6% error for Gaussian process regression reconstructions. Further, the error associated with each reconstructive technique per reconstruction iteration is analyzed, finding the error is similar past ≈15 iterations, while at initial iterations Gaussian process regression outperforms compressive sensing. This study highlights the capabilities of reconstruction techniques when applied to sparse data, particularly sparse spiral PFM scans, with broad applications in scanning probe and electron microscopies.

14.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3623, 2020 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32681040

RESUMO

Polar van der Waals chalcogenophosphates exhibit unique properties, such as negative electrostriction and multi-well ferrielectricity, and enable combining dielectric and 2D electronic materials. Using low temperature piezoresponse force microscopy, we revealed coexistence of piezoelectric and non-piezoelectric phases in CuInP2Se6, forming unusual domain walls with enhanced piezoelectric response. From systematic imaging experiments we have inferred the formation of a partially polarized antiferroelectric state, with inclusions of structurally distinct ferrielectric domains enclosed by the corresponding phase boundaries. The assignment is strongly supported by optical spectroscopies and density-functional-theory calculations. Enhanced piezoresponse at the ferrielectric/antiferroelectric phase boundary and the ability to manipulate this entity with electric field on the nanoscale expand the existing phenomenology of functional domain walls. At the same time, phase-coexistence in chalcogenophosphates may lead to rational strategies for incorporation of ferroic functionality into van der Waals heterostructures, with stronger resilience toward detrimental size-effects.

15.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 11(9): 3257-3262, 2020 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32233492

RESUMO

The structure of electrical double layers at electrified interfaces is of utmost importance for electrochemical energy storage as well as printable, flexible, and bioelectronic devices, such as ion-gated transistors (IGTs). Here we report a study based on atomic force microscopy force-distance profiling on electrical double layers forming at the interface between the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide and sol-gel films of mesoporous tungsten oxide. We successfully followed, under in operando conditions, the evolution of the arrangement of the ions at the interface with the tungsten oxide films used as channel materials in IGTs. Our work sheds light on the mechanism of operation of IGTs, thus offering the possibility of optimizing their performance.

16.
Nat Mater ; 19(1): 43-48, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31740791

RESUMO

The family of layered thio- and seleno-phosphates has gained attention as potential control dielectrics for the rapidly growing family of two-dimensional and quasi-two-dimensional electronic materials. Here we report a combination of density functional theory calculations, quantum molecular dynamics simulations and variable-temperature, -pressure and -bias piezoresponse force microscopy data to predict and verify the existence of an unusual ferroelectric property-a uniaxial quadruple potential well for Cu displacements-enabled by the van der Waals gap in copper indium thiophosphate (CuInP2S6). The calculated potential energy landscape for Cu displacements is strongly influenced by strain, accounting for the origin of the negative piezoelectric coefficient and rendering CuInP2S6 a rare example of a uniaxial multi-well ferroelectric. Experimental data verify the coexistence of four polarization states and explore the temperature-, pressure- and bias-dependent piezoelectric and ferroelectric properties, which are supported by bias-dependent molecular dynamics simulations. These phenomena offer new opportunities for both fundamental studies and applications in data storage and electronics.

17.
ACS Nano ; 13(9): 9735-9780, 2019 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31433942

RESUMO

Electrochemical reactions and ionic transport underpin the operation of a broad range of devices and applications, from energy storage and conversion to information technologies, as well as biochemical processes, artificial muscles, and soft actuators. Understanding the mechanisms governing function of these applications requires probing local electrochemical phenomena on the relevant time and length scales. Here, we discuss the challenges and opportunities for extending electrochemical characterization probes to the nanometer and ultimately atomic scales, including challenges in down-scaling classical methods, the emergence of novel probes enabled by nanotechnology and based on emergent physics and chemistry of nanoscale systems, and the integration of local data into macroscopic models. Scanning probe microscopy (SPM) methods based on strain detection, potential detection, and hysteretic current measurements are discussed. We further compare SPM to electron beam probes and discuss the applicability of electron beam methods to probe local electrochemical behavior on the mesoscopic and atomic levels. Similar to a SPM tip, the electron beam can be used both for observing behavior and as an active electrode to induce reactions. We briefly discuss new challenges and opportunities for conducting fundamental scientific studies, matter patterning, and atomic manipulation arising in this context.

18.
Nano Lett ; 19(2): 1033-1038, 2019 02 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30673240

RESUMO

In classical morphotropic piezoelectric materials, rhombohedral and tetragonal phase variants can energetically compete to form a mixed phase regime with improved functional properties. While the discovery of morphotropic-like phases in multiferroic BiFeO3 films has broadened this definition, accessing these phase spaces is still typically accomplished through isovalent substitution or heteroepitaxial strain which do not allow for continuous modification of phase composition postsynthesis. Here, we show that it is possible to use low-energy helium implantation to tailor morphotropic phases of epitaxial BiFeO3 films postsynthesis in a continuous and iterative manner. Applying this strain doping approach to morphotropic films creates a new phase space based on internal and external lattice stress that can be seen as an analogue to temperature-composition phase diagrams of classical morphotropic ferroelectric systems.

19.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 10(49): 43211-43218, 2018 Dec 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30422617

RESUMO

In electric double-layer transistors (EDLTs), it is well known that the EDL formed by ionic liquids (ILs) can induce an ultrahigh carrier density at the semiconductor surface, compared to solid dielectric. However, the mechanism of device performance is still not fully understood, especially at a molecular level. Here, we evaluate the gating performance of amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide (a-IGZO) transistor coupled with a series of imidazolium-based ILs, using an approach combining of molecular dynamics simulation and finite element modeling. Results reveal that the EDL with different ion structures could produce inhomogeneous electric fields at the solid-electrolyte interface, and the heterogeneity of electric field-induced charge distributions at semiconductor surface could reduce the electrical conductance of a-IGZO during gating process. Meanwhile, a resistance network analysis was adopted to bridge the nanoscopic data with the macroscopic transfer characteristics of IL-gated transistor, and showed that our theoretical results could well estimate the gating performance of practical devices. Thereby, our findings could provide both new concepts and modeling techniques for IL-gated transistors.

20.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 10(32): 27188-27194, 2018 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30033718

RESUMO

Metal thiophosphates are attracting growing attention in the context of quasi-two-dimensional van der Waals functional materials. Alkali thiophosphates are investigated as ion conductors for solid electrolytes, and transition-metal thiophosphates are explored as a new class of ferroelectric materials. For the latter, a representative copper indium thiophosphate is ferrielectric at room temperature and, despite low polarization, exhibits giant negative electrostrictive coefficients. Here, we reveal that ionic conductivity in this material enables localized extraction of Cu ions from the lattice with a biased scanning probe microscopy tip, which is surprisingly reversible. The ionic conduction is tracked through local volume changes with a scanning probe microscopy tip providing a current-free probing technique, which can be explored for other thiophosphates of interest. Nearly 90 nm-tall crystallites can be formed and erased reversibly on the surface of this material as a result of ionic motion, the size of which can be sensitively controlled by both magnitude and frequency of the electric field, as well as the ambient temperature. These experimental results and density functional theory calculations point to a remarkable resilience of CuInP2S6 to large-scale ionic displacement and Cu vacancies, in part enabled by the metastability of Cu-deficient phases. Furthermore, we have found that the piezoelectric response of CuInP2S6 is enhanced by about 45% when a slight ionic modification is carried out with applied field. This new mode of modifying the lattice of CuInP2S6, and more generally ionically conducting thiophosphates, posits new prospects for their applications in van der Waals heterostructures, possibly in the context of catalytic or electronic functionalities.

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