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1.
Ann Med ; 53(1): 1779-1786, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34637370

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An unexpected high prevalence of enterococcal bloodstream infection (BSI) has been observed in critically ill patients with COVID-19 in the intensive care unit (ICU). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The primary objective was to describe the characteristics of ICU-acquired enterococcal BSI in critically ill patients with COVID-19. A secondary objective was to exploratorily assess the predictors of 30-day mortality in critically ill COVID-19 patients with ICU-acquired enterococcal BSI. RESULTS: During the study period, 223 patients with COVID-19 were admitted to COVID-19-dedicated ICUs in our centre. Overall, 51 episodes of enterococcal BSI, occurring in 43 patients, were registered. 29 (56.9%) and 22 (43.1%) BSI were caused by Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium, respectively. The cumulative incidence of ICU-acquired enterococcal BSI was of 229 episodes per 1000 ICU admissions (95% mid-p confidence interval [CI] 172-298). Most patients received an empirical therapy with at least one agent showing in vitro activity against the blood isolate (38/43, 88%). The crude 30-day mortality was 42% (18/43) and 57% (4/7) in the entire series and in patients with vancomycin-resistant E. faecium BSI, respectively. The sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score showed an independent association with increased mortality (odds ratio 1.32 per one-point increase, with 95% confidence interval 1.04-1.66, p = .021). CONCLUSIONS: The cumulative incidence of enterococcal BSI is high in critically ill patients with COVID-19. Our results suggest a crucial role of the severity of the acute clinical conditions, to which both the underlying viral pneumonia and the enterococcal BSI may contribute, in majorly influencing the outcome.KEY MESSAGESThe cumulative incidence of enterococcal BSI is high in critically ill patients with COVID-19.The crude 30-day mortality of enterococcal BSI in critically ill patients with COVID-19 may be higher than 40%.There could be a crucial role of the severity of the acute clinical conditions, to which both the underlying viral pneumonia and the enterococcal BSI may contribute, in majorly influencing the outcome.

2.
Eur J Intern Med ; 2021 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34511338

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The hypothesis of this study is that tocilizumab should affect common signs of infection due to its immunosuppressive properties. Primary aim of the study was to investigate whether the administration of tocilizumab to critically ill patients with COVID-19, led to a different clinical presentation of infectious complications compared to patients who did not receive tocilizumab. Secondary aim was investigating differences in laboratory parameters between groups. METHODS: Single-centre retrospective study, enrolling COVID-19 patients who developed a microbiologically confirmed infectious complication [ventilator associated pneumonia or bloodstream infection] after intensive care unit [ICU] admission and either treated with tocilizumab or not [controls]. RESULTS: A total of 58 patients were included, 25 treated with tocilizumab and 33 controls. Median time from tocilizumab administration to infection onset was 10 days [range 2-26]. Patients were 78% male, with median age 65 years [range 45-79]. At first clinical presentation of the infectious event, the frequency of hypotension [11/25, 44% vs. 11/33, 33%], fever [8/25, 32% vs. 10/33, 30%] or hypothermia [0/25,0%, vs. 2/33, 6%], and oxygen desaturation [6/25, 28% vs 4/33, 12%], as well as the frequency of SOFA score increase of ≥ 2 points [4/25, 16%,vs. 4/33, 12%] was similar in tocilizumab treated patients and controls [p>0.1 for all comparisons]. Among laboratory parameters, C-Reactive Protein elevation was reduced in tocilizumab treated patients compared to controls [8/25, 32% vs. 22/33, 67%, p=0.009]. CONCLUSION: The clinical features of infectious complications in critically ill patients with COVID-19 admitted to ICU were not affected by tocilizumab.

4.
BMC Pulm Med ; 21(1): 267, 2021 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34404383

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of the study is to estimate the prevalence of atelectasis assessed with computer tomography (CT) in SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia and the relationship between the amount of atelectasis with oxygenation impairment, Intensive Care Unit admission rate and the length of in-hospital stay. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Two-hundred thirty-seven patients admitted to the hospital with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia diagnosed by clinical, radiology and molecular tests in the nasopharyngeal swab who underwent a chest computed tomography because of a respiratory worsening from Apr 1 to Apr 30, 2020 were included in the study. Patients were divided into three groups depending on the presence and amount of atelectasis at the computed tomography: no atelectasis, small atelectasis (< 5% of the estimated lung volume) or large atelectasis (> 5% of the estimated lung volume). In all patients, clinical severity, oxygen-therapy need, Intensive Care Unit admission rate, the length of in-hospital stay and in-hospital mortality data were collected. RESULTS: Thirty patients (19%) showed small atelectasis while eight patients (5%) showed large atelectasis. One hundred and seventeen patients (76%) did not show atelectasis. Patients with large atelectasis compared to patients with small atelectasis had lower SatO2/FiO2 (182 vs 411 respectively, p = 0.01), needed more days of oxygen therapy (20 vs 5 days respectively, p = 0,02), more frequently Intensive Care Unit admission (75% vs 7% respectively, p < 0.01) and a longer period of hospitalization (40 vs 14 days respectively p < 0.01). CONCLUSION: In patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia, atelectasis might appear in up to 24% of patients and the presence of larger amount of atelectasis is associated with worse oxygenation and clinical outcome.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Hipóxia , Pneumonia Viral , Atelectasia Pulmonar , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Idoso , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/mortalidade , COVID-19/fisiopatologia , Teste para COVID-19/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Hipóxia/etiologia , Hipóxia/terapia , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Medidas de Volume Pulmonar/métodos , Masculino , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico por imagem , Pneumonia Viral/etiologia , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Prevalência , Atelectasia Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Atelectasia Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Atelectasia Pulmonar/etiologia , Atelectasia Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Respiração Artificial/métodos , Respiração Artificial/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Espanha/epidemiologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/estatística & dados numéricos
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34404594

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine whether driving pressure and expiratory flow limitation are associated with the development of postoperative pulmonary complications (PPCs) in cardiac surgery patients. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: University Hospital San Raffaele, Milan, Italy. PARTICIPANTS: Patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The primary endpoint was the occurrence of a predefined composite of PPCs. The authors determined the association among PPCs and intraoperative ventilation parameters, mechanical power and energy load, and occurrence of expiratory flow limitation (EFL) assessed with the positive end-expiratory pressure test. Two hundred patients were enrolled, of whom 78 (39%) developed one or more PPCs. Patients with PPCs, compared with those without PPCs, had similar driving pressure (mean difference [MD] -0.1 [95% confidence interval (CI), -1.0 to 0.7] cmH2O, p = 0.561), mechanical power (MD 0.5 [95% CI, -0.3 to 1.1] J/m, p = 0.364), and total energy load (MD 95 [95% CI, -78 to 263] J, p = 0.293), but they had a higher incidence of EFL (51% v 38%, p = 0.005). Only EFL was associated independently with the development of PPCs (odds ratio 2.46 [95% CI, 1.28-4.80], p = 0.007). CONCLUSIONS: PPCs occurred frequently in this patient population undergoing cardiac surgery. PPCs were associated independently with the presence of EFL but not with driving pressure, total energy load, or mechanical power.

6.
Br J Anaesth ; 127(3): 353-364, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34217468

RESUMO

COVID-19 pneumonia is associated with hypoxaemic respiratory failure, ranging from mild to severe. Because of the worldwide shortage of ICU beds, a relatively high number of patients with respiratory failure are receiving prolonged noninvasive respiratory support, even when their clinical status would have required invasive mechanical ventilation. There are few experimental and clinical data reporting that vigorous breathing effort during spontaneous ventilation can worsen lung injury and cause a phenomenon that has been termed patient self-inflicted lung injury (P-SILI). The aim of this narrative review is to provide an overview of P-SILI pathophysiology and the role of noninvasive respiratory support in COVID-19 pneumonia. Respiratory mechanics, vascular compromise, viscoelastic properties, lung inhomogeneity, work of breathing, and oesophageal pressure swings are discussed. The concept of P-SILI has been widely investigated in recent years, but controversies persist regarding its mechanisms. To minimise the risk of P-SILI, intensivists should better understand its underlying pathophysiology to optimise the type of noninvasive respiratory support provided to patients with COVID-19 pneumonia, and decide on the optimal timing of intubation for these patients.


Assuntos
Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/epidemiologia , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/terapia , Anestesiologistas , COVID-19 , Ventilação não Invasiva , Respiração Artificial , Lesão Pulmonar Induzida por Ventilação Mecânica/epidemiologia , Lesão Pulmonar Induzida por Ventilação Mecânica/terapia , Humanos , Ventilação não Invasiva/efeitos adversos , Respiração com Pressão Positiva/efeitos adversos , Insuficiência Respiratória , Mecânica Respiratória
7.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 250, 2021 07 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34271958

RESUMO

A personalized mechanical ventilation approach for patients with adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) based on lung physiology and morphology, ARDS etiology, lung imaging, and biological phenotypes may improve ventilation practice and outcome. However, additional research is warranted before personalized mechanical ventilation strategies can be applied at the bedside. Ventilatory parameters should be titrated based on close monitoring of targeted physiologic variables and individualized goals. Although low tidal volume (VT) is a standard of care, further individualization of VT may necessitate the evaluation of lung volume reserve (e.g., inspiratory capacity). Low driving pressures provide a target for clinicians to adjust VT and possibly to optimize positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP), while maintaining plateau pressures below safety thresholds. Esophageal pressure monitoring allows estimation of transpulmonary pressure, but its use requires technical skill and correct physiologic interpretation for clinical application at the bedside. Mechanical power considers ventilatory parameters as a whole in the optimization of ventilation setting, but further studies are necessary to assess its clinical relevance. The identification of recruitability in patients with ARDS is essential to titrate and individualize PEEP. To define gas-exchange targets for individual patients, clinicians should consider issues related to oxygen transport and dead space. In this review, we discuss the rationale for personalized approaches to mechanical ventilation for patients with ARDS, the role of lung imaging, phenotype identification, physiologically based individualized approaches to ventilation, and a future research agenda.


Assuntos
Medicina de Precisão/métodos , Respiração Artificial/métodos , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/terapia , Humanos , Medicina de Precisão/tendências , Respiração Artificial/tendências , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/diagnóstico por imagem , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/fisiopatologia , Mecânica Respiratória/fisiologia
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(14)2021 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299124

RESUMO

Lung fibrosis has specific computed tomography (CT) findings and represents a common finding in advanced COVID-19 pneumonia whose reversibility has been poorly investigated. The aim of this study was to quantify the extension of collagen deposition and aeration in postmortem cryobiopsies of critically ill COVID-19 patients and to describe the correlations with qualitative and quantitative analyses of lung CT. Postmortem transbronchial cryobiopsy samples were obtained, formalin fixed, paraffin embedded and stained with Sirius red to quantify collagen deposition, defining fibrotic samples as those with collagen deposition above 10%. Lung CT images were analyzed qualitatively with a radiographic score and quantitatively with computer-based analysis at the lobe level. Thirty samples from 10 patients with COVID-19 pneumonia deceased during invasive mechanical ventilation were included in this study. The median [interquartile range] percent collagen extension was 6.8% (4.6-16.2%). In fibrotic compared to nonfibrotic samples, the qualitative score was higher (260 (250-290) vs. 190 (120-270), p = 0.036) while the gas fraction was lower (0.46 (0.32-0.47) vs. 0.59 (0.37-0.68), p = 0.047). A radiographic score above 230 had 100% sensitivity (95% confidence interval, CI: 66.4% to 100%) and 66.7% specificity (95% CI: 41.0% to 92.3%) to detect fibrotic samples, while a gas fraction below 0.57 had 100% sensitivity (95% CI: 66.4% to 100%) and 57.1% specificity (95% CI: 26.3% to 88.0%). In COVID-19 pneumonia, qualitative and quantitative analyses of lung CT images have high sensitivity but moderate to low specificity to detect histopathological fibrosis. Pseudofibrotic CT findings do not always correspond to increased collagen deposition.


Assuntos
COVID-19/complicações , Colágeno/metabolismo , Fibrose Pulmonar/diagnóstico , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Idoso , Autopsia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fibrose Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Fibrose Pulmonar/metabolismo , Fibrose Pulmonar/virologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
9.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 214, 2021 06 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34154635

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Critically ill COVID-19 patients have pathophysiological lung features characterized by perfusion abnormalities. However, to date no study has evaluated whether the changes in the distribution of pulmonary gas and blood volume are associated with the severity of gas-exchange impairment and the type of respiratory support (non-invasive versus invasive) in patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia. METHODS: This was a single-center, retrospective cohort study conducted in a tertiary care hospital in Northern Italy during the first pandemic wave. Pulmonary gas and blood distribution was assessed using a technique for quantitative analysis of dual-energy computed tomography. Lung aeration loss (reflected by percentage of normally aerated lung tissue) and the extent of gas:blood volume mismatch (percentage of non-aerated, perfused lung tissue-shunt; aerated, non-perfused dead space; and non-aerated/non-perfused regions) were evaluated in critically ill COVID-19 patients with different clinical severity as reflected by the need for non-invasive or invasive respiratory support. RESULTS: Thirty-five patients admitted to the intensive care unit between February 29th and May 30th, 2020 were included. Patients requiring invasive versus non-invasive mechanical ventilation had both a lower percentage of normally aerated lung tissue (median [interquartile range] 33% [24-49%] vs. 63% [44-68%], p < 0.001); and a larger extent of gas:blood volume mismatch (43% [30-49%] vs. 25% [14-28%], p = 0.001), due to higher shunt (23% [15-32%] vs. 5% [2-16%], p = 0.001) and non-aerated/non perfused regions (5% [3-10%] vs. 1% [0-2%], p = 0.001). The PaO2/FiO2 ratio correlated positively with normally aerated tissue (ρ = 0.730, p < 0.001) and negatively with the extent of gas-blood volume mismatch (ρ = - 0.633, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: In critically ill patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia, the need for invasive mechanical ventilation and oxygenation impairment were associated with loss of aeration and the extent of gas:blood volume mismatch.


Assuntos
Volume Sanguíneo/fisiologia , COVID-19/diagnóstico por imagem , COVID-19/metabolismo , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Pulmão/metabolismo , Troca Gasosa Pulmonar/fisiologia , Idoso , Gasometria/métodos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Estado Terminal/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Respiração Artificial/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos
10.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 353, 2021 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33858331

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The primary objective of the study is to describe the cellular characteristics of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of COVID-19 patients requiring invasive mechanical ventilation; the secondary outcome is to describe BALF findings between survivors vs non-survivors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients positive for SARS-CoV-2 RT PCR, admitted to ICU between March and April 2020 were enrolled. At ICU admission, BALF were analyzed by flow cytometry. Univariate, multivariate and Spearman correlation analyses were performed. RESULTS: Sixty-four patients were enrolled, median age of 64 years (IQR 58-69). The majority cells in the BALF were neutrophils (70%, IQR 37.5-90.5) and macrophages (27%, IQR 7-49) while a minority were lymphocytes, 1%, TCD3+ 92% (IQR 82-95). The ICU mortality was 32.8%. Non-survivors had a significantly older age (p = 0.033) and peripheral lymphocytes (p = 0.012) were lower compared to the survivors. At multivariate analysis the percentage of macrophages in the BALF correlated with poor outcome (OR 1.336, CI95% 1.014-1.759, p = 0.039). CONCLUSIONS: In critically ill patients, BALF cellularity is mainly composed of neutrophils and macrophages. The macrophages percentage in the BALF at ICU admittance correlated with higher ICU mortality. The lack of lymphocytes in BALF could partly explain a reduced anti-viral response.


Assuntos
Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/citologia , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/imunologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/imunologia , Contagem de Leucócitos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Respiração Artificial , Adulto , Idoso , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/virologia , COVID-19/mortalidade , COVID-19/virologia , Estado Terminal/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Itália/epidemiologia , Linfócitos/citologia , Macrófagos/citologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neutrófilos/citologia , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Sobreviventes/estatística & dados numéricos , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0250432, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33886642

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemics, masking policies have been advocated. While masks are known to prevent transmission towards other individuals, it is unclear if different types of facial masks can protect the user from inhalation. The present study compares in-vitro different commercial and custom-made facial masks at different distances and breathing patterns. METHODS: Masks were placed on a head mannequin connected to a lung simulator, using a collecting filter placed after the mannequin airway. Certified, commercial and custom-made masks were tested at three different distances between the emitter and the mannequin: 40 cm, 80 cm and 120 cm. Two patterns of breathing were used, simulating normal and polypneic respiration. A solution of methylene blue was nebulized with a jet nebulizer and different mask-distance-breathing pattern combinations were tested. The primary endpoint was the inhaled fraction, defined as the amount of methylene blue detected with spectrophotometry expressed as percent of the amount detected in a reference condition of zero distance and no mask. FINDINGS: We observed a significant effect of distance (p < 0.001), pattern of breathing (p = 0.040) and type of mask (p < 0.001) on inhaled fraction. All masks resulted in lower inhaled fraction compared to breathing without mask (p < 0.001 in all comparisons), ranging from 41.1% ± 0.3% obtained with a cotton mask at 40 cm distance with polypneic pattern to <1% for certified FFP3 and the combination of FFP2 + surgical mask at all distances and both breathing pattern conditions. DISCUSSION: Distance, type of device and breathing pattern resulted in highly variable inhaled fraction. While the use of all types of masks resulted relevantly less inhalation compared to distancing alone, only high-grade certified devices (FFP3 and the combination of FFP2 + surgical mask) ensured negligible inhaled fraction in all conditions.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Máscaras , Distanciamento Físico , Desenho de Equipamento , Humanos , Manequins , Respiração , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação
12.
BMC Anesthesiol ; 21(1): 84, 2021 03 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33740885

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is uncertain whether the association of the intraoperative driving pressure (ΔP) with postoperative pulmonary complications (PPCs) depends on the surgical approach during abdominal surgery. Our primary objective was to determine and compare the association of time-weighted average ΔP (ΔPTW) with PPCs. We also tested the association of ΔPTW with intraoperative adverse events. METHODS: Posthoc retrospective propensity score-weighted cohort analysis of patients undergoing open or closed abdominal surgery in the 'Local ASsessment of Ventilatory management during General Anaesthesia for Surgery' (LAS VEGAS) study, that included patients in 146 hospitals across 29 countries. The primary endpoint was a composite of PPCs. The secondary endpoint was a composite of intraoperative adverse events. RESULTS: The analysis included 1128 and 906 patients undergoing open or closed abdominal surgery, respectively. The PPC rate was 5%. ΔP was lower in open abdominal surgery patients, but ΔPTW was not different between groups. The association of ΔPTW with PPCs was significant in both groups and had a higher risk ratio in closed compared to open abdominal surgery patients (1.11 [95%CI 1.10 to 1.20], P <  0.001 versus 1.05 [95%CI 1.05 to 1.05], P <  0.001; risk difference 0.05 [95%CI 0.04 to 0.06], P <  0.001). The association of ΔPTW with intraoperative adverse events was also significant in both groups but had higher odds ratio in closed compared to open abdominal surgery patients (1.13 [95%CI 1.12- to 1.14], P <  0.001 versus 1.07 [95%CI 1.05 to 1.10], P <  0.001; risk difference 0.05 [95%CI 0.030.07], P <  0.001). CONCLUSIONS: ΔP is associated with PPC and intraoperative adverse events in abdominal surgery, both in open and closed abdominal surgery. TRIAL REGISTRATION: LAS VEGAS was registered at clinicaltrials.gov (trial identifier NCT01601223 ).

13.
Expert Rev Respir Med ; 15(10): 1293-1302, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33734900

RESUMO

Introduction: The ongoing pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has posed important challenges for clinicians and health-care systems worldwide.Areas covered: The aim of this manuscript is to provide brief guidance for intensive care unit management of mechanically ventilated patients with COVID-19 based on the literature and our direct experience with this population. PubMed, EBSCO, and the Cochrane Library were searched up until 15th of January 2021 for relevant literature.Expert opinion: Initially, the respiratory management of COVID-19 relied on the general therapeutic principles for acute respiratory distress syndrome; however, recent findings have suggested that the pathophysiology of hypoxemia in patients with COVID-19 presents specific features and changes over time. Several therapies, including antiviral and anti-inflammatory agents, have been proposed recently. The optimal intensive care unit management of patients with COVID-19 remains unclear; therefore, ongoing and future clinical trials are warranted to clarify the optimal strategies to adopt in this cohort of patients.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Pandemias , Respiração Artificial/efeitos adversos , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 111, 2021 03 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33741052

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In COVID-19 patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), the effectiveness of ventilatory rescue strategies remains uncertain, with controversial efficacy on systemic oxygenation and no data available regarding cerebral oxygenation and hemodynamics. METHODS: This is a prospective observational study conducted at San Martino Policlinico Hospital, Genoa, Italy. We included adult COVID-19 patients who underwent at least one of the following rescue therapies: recruitment maneuvers (RMs), prone positioning (PP), inhaled nitric oxide (iNO), and extracorporeal carbon dioxide (CO2) removal (ECCO2R). Arterial blood gas values (oxygen saturation [SpO2], partial pressure of oxygen [PaO2] and of carbon dioxide [PaCO2]) and cerebral oxygenation (rSO2) were analyzed before (T0) and after (T1) the use of any of the aforementioned rescue therapies. The primary aim was to assess the early effects of different ventilatory rescue therapies on systemic and cerebral oxygenation. The secondary aim was to evaluate the correlation between systemic and cerebral oxygenation in COVID-19 patients. RESULTS: Forty-five rescue therapies were performed in 22 patients. The median [interquartile range] age of the population was 62 [57-69] years, and 18/22 [82%] were male. After RMs, no significant changes were observed in systemic PaO2 and PaCO2 values, but cerebral oxygenation decreased significantly (52 [51-54]% vs. 49 [47-50]%, p < 0.001). After PP, a significant increase was observed in PaO2 (from 62 [56-71] to 82 [76-87] mmHg, p = 0.005) and rSO2 (from 53 [52-54]% to 60 [59-64]%, p = 0.005). The use of iNO increased PaO2 (from 65 [67-73] to 72 [67-73] mmHg, p = 0.015) and rSO2 (from 53 [51-56]% to 57 [55-59]%, p = 0.007). The use of ECCO2R decreased PaO2 (from 75 [75-79] to 64 [60-70] mmHg, p = 0.009), with reduction of rSO2 values (59 [56-65]% vs. 56 [53-62]%, p = 0.002). In the whole population, a significant relationship was found between SpO2 and rSO2 (R = 0.62, p < 0.001) and between PaO2 and rSO2 (R0 0.54, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Rescue therapies exert specific pathophysiological mechanisms, resulting in different effects on systemic and cerebral oxygenation in critically ill COVID-19 patients with ARDS. Cerebral and systemic oxygenation are correlated. The choice of rescue strategy to be adopted should take into account both lung and brain needs. Registration The study protocol was approved by the ethics review board (Comitato Etico Regione Liguria, protocol n. CER Liguria: 23/2020).


Assuntos
COVID-19/terapia , Circulação Cerebrovascular , Oxigênio/sangue , Respiração Artificial , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/terapia , Idoso , COVID-19/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/virologia , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
J Fungi (Basel) ; 7(2)2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33672021

RESUMO

Candida auris is an emerging MDR pathogen raising major concerns worldwide. In Italy, it was first and only identified in July 2019 in our hospital (San Martino Hospital, Genoa), where infection or colonization cases have been increasingly recognized during the following months. To gain insights into the introduction, transmission dynamics, and resistance traits of this fungal pathogen, consecutive C. auris isolates collected from July 2019 to May 2020 (n = 10) were subjected to whole-genome sequencing (WGS) and antifungal susceptibility testing (AST); patients' clinical and trace data were also collected. WGS resolved all isolates within the genetic clade I (South Asian) and showed that all but one were part of a cluster likely stemming from the index case. Phylogenetic molecular clock analyses predicted a recent introduction (May 2019) in the hospital setting and suggested that most transmissions were associated with a ward converted to a COVID-19-dedicated ICU during the pandemic. All isolates were resistant to amphotericin B, voriconazole, and fluconazole at high-level, owing to mutations in ERG11(K143R) and TACB1(A640V). Present data demonstrated that the introduction of MDR C. auris in Italy was a recent event and suggested that its spread could have been facilitated by the COVID-19 pandemic. Continued efforts to implement stringent infection prevention and control strategies are warranted to limit the spread of this emerging pathogen within the healthcare system.

16.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 81, 2021 02 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33627160

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is a paucity of data concerning the optimal ventilator management in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia; particularly, the optimal levels of positive-end expiratory pressure (PEEP) are unknown. We aimed to investigate the effects of two levels of PEEP on alveolar recruitment in critically ill patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia. METHODS: A single-center cohort study was conducted in a 39-bed intensive care unit at a university-affiliated hospital in Genoa, Italy. Chest computed tomography (CT) was performed to quantify aeration at 8 and 16 cmH2O PEEP. The primary endpoint was the amount of alveolar recruitment, defined as the change in the non-aerated compartment at the two PEEP levels on CT scan. RESULTS: Forty-two patients were included in this analysis. Alveolar recruitment was median [interquartile range] 2.7 [0.7-4.5] % of lung weight and was not associated with excess lung weight, PaO2/FiO2 ratio, respiratory system compliance, inflammatory and thrombophilia markers. Patients in the upper quartile of recruitment (recruiters), compared to non-recruiters, had comparable clinical characteristics, lung weight and gas volume. Alveolar recruitment was not different in patients with lower versus higher respiratory system compliance. In a subgroup of 20 patients with available gas exchange data, increasing PEEP decreased respiratory system compliance (median difference, MD - 9 ml/cmH2O, 95% CI from - 12 to - 6 ml/cmH2O, p < 0.001) and the ventilatory ratio (MD - 0.1, 95% CI from - 0.3 to - 0.1, p = 0.003), increased PaO2 with FiO2 = 0.5 (MD 24 mmHg, 95% CI from 12 to 51 mmHg, p < 0.001), but did not change PaO2 with FiO2 = 1.0 (MD 7 mmHg, 95% CI from - 12 to 49 mmHg, p = 0.313). Moreover, alveolar recruitment was not correlated with improvement of oxygenation or venous admixture. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia, higher PEEP resulted in limited alveolar recruitment. These findings suggest limiting PEEP strictly to the values necessary to maintain oxygenation, thus avoiding the use of higher PEEP levels.


Assuntos
COVID-19/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Respiração com Pressão Positiva , Alvéolos Pulmonares/fisiologia , Idoso , COVID-19/diagnóstico por imagem , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/fisiopatologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico por imagem , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Alvéolos Pulmonares/diagnóstico por imagem , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
J Clin Med ; 10(4)2021 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33546093

RESUMO

The primary objective of this multicenter, observational, retrospective study was to assess the incidence rate of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients in intensive care units (ICU). The secondary objective was to assess predictors of 30-day case-fatality of VAP. From 15 February to 15 May 2020, 586 COVID-19 patients were admitted to the participating ICU. Of them, 171 developed VAP (29%) and were included in the study. The incidence rate of VAP was of 18 events per 1000 ventilator days (95% confidence intervals [CI] 16-21). Deep respiratory cultures were available and positive in 77/171 patients (45%). The most frequent organisms were Pseudomonas aeruginosa (27/77, 35%) and Staphylococcus aureus (18/77, 23%). The 30-day case-fatality of VAP was 46% (78/171). In multivariable analysis, septic shock at VAP onset (odds ratio [OR] 3.30, 95% CI 1.43-7.61, p = 0.005) and acute respiratory distress syndrome at VAP onset (OR 13.21, 95% CI 3.05-57.26, p < 0.001) were associated with fatality. In conclusion, VAP is frequent in critically ill COVID-19 patients. The related high fatality is likely the sum of the unfavorable prognostic impacts of the underlying viral and the superimposed bacterial diseases.

19.
Infect Dis Ther ; 10(1): 387-398, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33417230

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The goal of this study was to investigate the prevalence and factors associated with persistent viral shedding (PVS) in hospitalized patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. METHODS: This was a prospective observational study including all consecutive adults hospitalized with SARS-CoV-2 infection. When the first nasopharyngeal swab was positive for SARS-CoV-2 RNA (day 0), additional samples were obtained on days + 3, + 5, + 7 and then once every 7 days until virus detection was negative. PVS was defined as the duration of shedding of at least 21 days after diagnosis. The primary endpoint of this study was the prevalence of PVS. RESULTS: Data were obtained regarding 121 consecutive hospitalized patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection (median age 66 years, male sex 65.3%). Overall, the prevalence of PVS was 38% (46/121 patients). According to univariate analysis, factors associated with PVS were immunosuppression (6.7% vs 21.7%, p = 0.02), increased interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels (≥ 35 ng/ml) at the time of diagnosis (43.4% vs 67.3%, p = 0.02), time from onset of symptoms to diagnosis (median days 7.0 vs 3.5, p = 0.001), intensive care unit admission (22.7% vs 43.5%, p = 0.02), and need for invasive mechanical ventilation (20.0% vs 41.3%, p = 0.01). The multivariate analysis indicated that immunosuppression, increased IL-6 levels at the time of diagnosis, time from onset of symptoms to diagnosis, and need for mechanical ventilation were independent factors associated with PVS. CONCLUSIONS: PVS was detected in up to 38% of hospitalized patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection and was strongly associated with immunosuppression, increased IL-6 levels, and the need for mechanical ventilation.

20.
Virchows Arch ; 478(3): 471-485, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32989525

RESUMO

Data on the pathology of COVID-19 are scarce; available studies show diffuse alveolar damage; however, there is scarce information on the chronologic evolution of COVID-19 lung lesions. The primary aim of the study is to describe the chronology of lung pathologic changes in COVID-19 by using a post-mortem transbronchial lung cryobiopsy approach. Our secondary aim is to correlate the histologic findings with computed tomography patterns. SARS-CoV-2-positive patients, who died while intubated and mechanically ventilated, were enrolled. The procedure was performed 30 min after death, and all lung lobes sampled. Histopathologic analysis was performed on thirty-nine adequate samples from eight patients: two patients (illness duration < 14 days) showed early/exudative phase diffuse alveolar damage, while the remaining 6 patients (median illness duration-32 days) showed progressive histologic patterns (3 with mid/proliferative phase; 3 with late/fibrotic phase diffuse alveolar damage, one of which with honeycombing). Immunohistochemistry for SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein was positive predominantly in early-phase lesions. Histologic patterns and tomography categories were correlated: early/exudative phase was associated with ground-glass opacity, mid/proliferative lesions with crazy paving, while late/fibrous phase correlated with the consolidation pattern, more frequently seen in the lower/middle lobes. This study uses an innovative cryobiopsy approach for the post-mortem sampling of lung tissues from COVID-19 patients demonstrating the progression of fibrosis in time and correlation with computed tomography features. These findings may prove to be useful in the correct staging of disease, and this could have implications for treatment and patient follow-up.


Assuntos
COVID-19/patologia , Fibrose/patologia , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Idoso , Autopsia , COVID-19/diagnóstico por imagem , COVID-19/virologia , Feminino , Fibrose/diagnóstico por imagem , Fibrose/virologia , Humanos , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Pulmão/patologia , Pulmão/virologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
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