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2.
Am Heart J ; 219: 70-77, 2019 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31726422

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Guidelines for managing patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) recommend statin therapy initially. Target levels/goals for low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) were initially included, subsequently de-emphasized in 2013, and then re-introduced as thresholds, leading to confusion in clinical practice. We designed a multicenter, observational registry of patients with ASCVD, to describe and track LDL-C treatment patterns in the United States over time. METHODS: Patients with ASCVD receiving any pharmacologic lipid-lowering therapy were eligible for enrollment in one of three cohorts: 1) currently receiving a proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 inhibitor (PCSK9i), or not receiving PCSK9i with 2) LDL-C 70-99 mg/dL, or 3) LDL-C ≥100 mg/dL. Patients undergo a 1-year retrospective chart review, followed by chart reviews and phone interviews every 6 months for 2 years. RESULTS: A total of 5006 patients were enrolled at 119 centers. Mean age was 68 years, 40% of patients were female, 86% were white, 80% had coronary artery disease, and 33% had type 2 diabetes mellitus. Among those not on a PCSK9i, high-intensity statins and ezetimibe were utilized in only 44% and 9%, respectively. Among women vs men, only 36.6% vs 48.2% received high-intensity statins (P < .001). Among patients on a PCSK9i, only one-third were receiving a statin, suggesting statin intolerance is a driver of PCSK9i use at present. CONCLUSION: Our data on current practice in the US continue to illustrate that high-intensity statins and ezetimibe are underutilized in at-risk patients outside of clinical trials, particularly women. This study will track temporal changes in treatment patterns and identify opportunities for improvement in lipid management in patients with ASCVD.

3.
Diabetes Care ; 2019 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31776141

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Diabetes in older age is heterogeneous, and the treatment approach varies by patient characteristics. We characterized the short-term all-cause and cardiovascular mortality risk associated with hyperglycemia in older age. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We included 5,791 older adults in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study who attended visit 5 (2011-2013; ages 66-90). We compared prediabetes (HbA1c 5.7% to <6.5%), newly diagnosed diabetes (HbA1c ≥6.5%, prior diagnosis <1 year, or taking antihyperglycemic medications <1 year), short-duration diabetes (duration ≥1 year but <10 years [median]), and long-standing diabetes (duration ≥10 years). Outcomes were all-cause and cardiovascular mortality (median follow-up of 5.6 years). RESULTS: Participants were 58% female, and 24% had prevalent cardiovascular disease. All-cause mortality rates, per 1,000 person-years, were 21.2 (95% CI 18.7, 24.1) among those without diabetes, 23.7 (95% CI 20.8, 27.1) for those with prediabetes, 33.8 (95% CI 25.2, 45.5) among those with recently diagnosed diabetes, 29.6 (95% CI 25.0, 35.1) for those with diabetes of short duration, and 48.6 (95% CI 42.4, 55.7) for those with long-standing diabetes. Cardiovascular mortality rates, per 1,000 person-years, were 5.8 (95% CI 4.6, 7.4) among those without diabetes, 6.6 (95% CI 5.2, 8.5) for those with prediabetes, 11.5 (95% CI 7.0, 19.1) among those with recently diagnosed diabetes, 8.2 (95% CI 5.9, 11.3) for those with diabetes of short duration, and 17.3 (95% CI 13.8, 21.7) for those with long-standing diabetes. After adjustment for other cardiovascular risk factors, prediabetes and newly diagnosed diabetes were not significantly associated with a higher risk of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio [HR] 1.03 [95% CI 0.85, 1.23] and HR 1.31 [95% CI 0.94, 1.82], respectively) or cardiovascular mortality (HR 1.00 [95% CI 0.70, 1.43] and HR 1.35 [95% CI 0.74, 2.49], respectively). Excess mortality risk was primarily concentrated among those with long-standing diabetes (all-cause: HR 1.71 [95% CI 1.40, 2.10]; cardiovascular: HR 1.72 [95% CI 1.18, 2.51]). CONCLUSIONS: In older adults, long-standing diabetes has a substantial and independent effect on short-term mortality. Older individuals with prediabetes remained at low mortality risk over a median 5.6 years of follow-up.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31678992

RESUMO

CONTEXT: The effects of dietary intake of different fatty acids and pharmacological use of fatty acids, specifically long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFAs), on cardiovascular health and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) prevention have been examined in a large number of observational studies and clinical trials. This review summarizes recent data and discusses potential mechanisms. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: The review is based on the authors' knowledge of the field supplemented by a PubMed search using the terms "seafood," "fish oil," "saturated fatty acids," "omega-3 fatty acids," "eicosapentaenoic acid," "docosahexaenoic acid," "polyunsaturated fatty acids," "monounsaturated fatty acids," and "ASCVD." EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: We mainly discuss the recent clinical trials that examine the effects of different types of dietary fatty acids and pharmacological use of n-3 PUFA products on ASCVD prevention and the potential mechanisms. CONCLUSIONS: While replacement of dietary saturated fat with unsaturated fat, polyunsaturated fat in particular, or intake of LC n-3 PUFA-rich seafood has generally shown benefit for ASCVD prevention and is recommended for cardiovascular benefits, data on effects of n-3 PUFA products on ASCVD health are inconsistent. However, recent clinical trials support benefits of prescription EPA in ASCVD prevention. n-3 PUFAs may contribute to ASCVD prevention through multiple mechanisms, including lowering plasma triglyceride levels, anti-inflammatory effects, and other effects.

7.
Circulation ; 2019 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31707829

RESUMO

Background: Some trials have found patients from the United States of America (USA) derive less benefit than patients enrolled outside the USA. This prespecified subgroup analysis of Reduction of Cardiovascular Events with Icosapent Ethyl - Intervention Trial (REDUCE-IT) was conducted to determine the degree of benefit of icosapent ethyl in the USA. Methods: REDUCE-IT randomized 8,179 statin-treated patients with qualifying triglycerides ≥135 and <500 mg/dL and low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol >40 and ≤100 mg/dL and a history of atherosclerosis or diabetes to icosapent ethyl 4 grams/day or placebo. The primary endpoint was cardiovascular death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, non-fatal stroke, coronary revascularization, or hospitalization for unstable angina. The key secondary endpoint was cardiovascular death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, or non-fatal stroke. A prespecified hierarchy examined individual and composite endpoints. Results: A total of 3,146 USA patients (38.5% of the trial) were randomized and followed for a median of 4.9 years; 32.3% were women, 9.7% Hispanic. The primary endpoint occurred in 24.7% of placebo versus 18.2% of icosapent ethyl patients [hazard ratio (HR) 0.69, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.59-0.80, p=0.000001]; the key secondary endpoint occurred in 16.6% versus 12.1% (HR 0.69, 95% CI 0.57-0.83, p=0.00008). All prespecified hierarchy endpoints were meaningfully and significantly reduced, including cardiovascular death (6.7% to 4.7%, HR 0.66, 95% CI 0.49-0.90, p=0.007), myocardial infarction (8.8% to 6.7%, HR 0.72, 95% CI 0.56-0.93, p=0.01), stroke (4.1% to 2.6%, HR 0.63, 95% CI 0.43-0.93, p=0.02), and all-cause mortality (9.8% to 7.2%, HR 0.70, 95% CI 0.55-0.90, p=0.004); for all-cause mortality for the USA versus non-USA patients, pinteraction=0.02. Safety and tolerability findings were consistent with the full study cohort. Conclusions: While the non-USA subgroup showed significant reductions in the primary and key secondary endpoints, the USA subgroup demonstrated particularly robust risk reductions across a variety of composite and individual endpoints, including all-cause mortality. Clinical Trial Registration: URL: https://clinicaltrials.gov Unique Identifier: NCT01492361.

8.
J Appl Lab Med ; 4(1): 30-39, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31639705

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is growing interest in the use of multiplexed aptamer-based assays for large-scale proteomic studies. However, the analytic, short- and long-term variation of the measured proteins is largely uncharacterized. METHODS: We quantified 4001 plasma protein analytes from 42 participants in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study in split samples and at multiple visits using a multiplexed modified aptamer assay. We calculated the CV, Spearman correlation, and intraclass correlation (ICC) between split samples and evaluated the short-term (4-9 weeks) and long-term (approximately 20 years) variability using paired t-tests with log-transformed protein concentrations and Bonferroni-corrected significance thresholds. We performed principal component (PC) analysis of protein analyte concentrations and evaluated their associations with age, sex, race, and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). RESULTS: The mean baseline age was 57 years at the first visit, 43% of participants were male and 57% were white. Among 3693 protein analytes that passed quality control, half (n = 1846) had CVs < 5.0%, Spearman correlations > 0.89, and ICCs > 0.96 among the split samples. Over the short term, only 1 analyte had a statistically significant difference between the 2 time points, whereas, over approximately 20 years, 866 analytes (23.4%) had statistically significant differences (P < 1.4 × 10-5, 681 increased, 185 decreased). PC1 had high correlations with age (-0.73) and eGFR (0.60). PC2 had moderate correlation with male sex (0.18) and white race (0.31). CONCLUSIONS: Multiplexed modified aptamer technology can assay thousands of proteins with excellent precision. Our results support the potential for large-scale studies of the plasma proteome over the lifespan.

9.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; : ATVBAHA119313078, 2019 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31619061

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: A Mediterranean diet supplemented with olive oil and nuts prevents cardiovascular disease in clinical studies, but the underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. We investigated whether the preventive effect of the diet could be due to inhibition of atherosclerosis and foamy monocyte formation in Ldlr-/- mice fed with a diet in which milkfat in a Western diet (WD) was replaced with extra-virgin olive oil and nuts (EVOND). Approach and Results: Ldlr-/- mice were fed EVOND or a Western diet for 3 (or 6) months. Compared with the Western diet, EVOND decreased triglyceride and cholesterol levels but increased unsaturated fatty acid concentrations in plasma. EVOND also lowered intracellular lipid accumulation in circulating monocytes, indicating less formation of foamy monocytes, compared with the Western diet. In addition, compared with the Western diet, EVOND reduced monocyte expression of inflammatory cytokines, CD36, and CD11c, with decreased monocyte uptake of oxLDL (oxidized LDL [low-density lipoprotein]) ex vivo and reduced CD11c+ foamy monocyte firm arrest on vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and E-selectin-coated slides in an ex vivo shear flow assay. Along with these changes, EVOND compared with the Western diet reduced the number of CD11c+ macrophages in atherosclerotic lesions and lowered atherosclerotic lesion area of the whole aorta and aortic sinus. CONCLUSIONS: A diet enriched in EVOND, compared with a Western diet high in saturated fat, lowered plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels, inhibited foamy monocyte formation, inflammation, and adhesion, and reduced atherosclerosis in Ldlr-/- mice.

11.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 74(15): 1926-1942, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31601373

RESUMO

Although significant progress has been made to reduce the global burden of cardiovascular disease, efforts have focused primarily on treatment of manifest disease rather than on prevention of events. An enormous opportunity exists to transition focus from intervention to providing equal attention to prevention of cardiovascular disease. The nascent specialty of "preventive cardiology" is emerging from the background of long-established services such as lipid, diabetes, hypertension, and general cardiology clinics. It is incumbent on the cardiology community to invest in cardiovascular prevention because past gains are threatened with the rising tide of obesity and diabetes. Now is the time to establish a dedicated preventive cardiology subspecialty to train the clinicians of the future. This American College of Cardiology Council Perspective aims to define the need for preventive cardiology as a unique subspecialty, broaches controversies, provides a structure for future training and education, and identifies possible paths forward to professional certification.

12.
JAMA Cardiol ; 2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31483438

RESUMO

Importance: Cardiac troponin is associated with incident heart failure and greater left ventricular (LV) mass. Its association with LV systolic and diastolic functions is unclear. Objectives: To define the association of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) with LV systolic and diastolic functions in the general population, and to evaluate the extent to which that association accounts for the correlation between hs-cTnT concentration and incident heart failure overall, heart failure with preserved LV ejection fraction (LVEF; HFpEF), and heart failure with LVEF less than 50%. Design, Setting, and Participants: This analysis of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study, an ongoing epidemiologic cohort study in US communities, included participants without cardiovascular disease (n = 4111). Available hs-cTnT measurements for participants who attended ARIC Study visits 2 (1990 to 1992), 4 (1996 to 1998), and 5 (2011 to 2013) were assessed cross-sectionally against echocardiographic measurements taken at visit 5 and against incident health failure after visit 5. Changes in hs-cTnT concentrations from visits 2 and 4 were also examined. Data analyses were performed from August 2017 to July 2018. Main Outcomes and Measures: Cardiac structure and function by echocardiography at visit 5, and incident heart failure during a median 4½ years follow-up after visit 5. Results: Of the 6538 eligible participants, 4111 (62.9%) without cardiovascular disease were included. Among these participants, 2586 (62.9%) were female, and the mean (SD) age was 75 (5) years. Median (interquartile range) hs-cTnT concentration at visit 5 was 9 (7-14) ng/L and was detectable in 3946 participants (96.0%). After adjustment for demographic and clinical covariates, higher hs-cTnT levels were associated with greater LV mass index (adjusted mean [SE] for group 1: 33.8 [0.5] vs group 5: 40.1 [0.4]; P for trend < .001) and with worse diastolic function, including lower tissue Doppler imaging e' (6.00 [0.07] vs 5.54 [0.06]; P for trend < .001), higher E/e' ratio (11.4 [0.2] vs 12.9 [0.1]; P for trend < .001), and greater left atrial volume index (23.4 [0.4] vs 26.4 [0.3]; P for trend < .001), independent of LV mass index; hs-cTnT level was not associated with measures of LV systolic function. Accounting for diastolic function attenuated the association of hs-cTnT concentration with incident HFpEF by 41% and the association with combined heart failure with midrange and reduced ejection fraction combined (LVEF <50) by 17%. Elevated hs-cTnT concentration and diastolic dysfunction were additive risk factors for incident heart failure. For any value of late-life hs-cTnT levels, longer duration of detectable hs-cTnT from midlife to late life was associated with greater LV mass in late life but not with worse LV systolic or diastolic function. Conclusions and Relevance: This study shows that higher hs-cTnT concentrations were associated with worse diastolic function, irrespective of LV mass, but not with systolic function; these findings suggest that high levels of hs-cTnT may serve as an early marker of subclinical alterations in diastolic function that may lead to a predisposition to heart failure.

13.
J Am Geriatr Soc ; 67(9): 1795-1802, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31493355

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Falls are frequent and often devastating events among older adults. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is associated with greater fall risk; however, it is unknown if pathways that contribute to CVD, such as subclinical myocardial damage or wall strain, are related to future falls. We hypothesized that elevations in high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), measured in older adults, would be associated with greater fall risk. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study participants without known coronary heart disease, heart failure, or stroke. MEASUREMENTS: We measured hs-cTnT or NT-proBNP in 2011 to 2013. Falls were identified from hospital discharge International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9), codes or Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services claims. We used Poisson models adjusted for age, sex, and race/study center to quantify fall rates across approximate quartiles of hs-cTnT (less than 8, 8-10, 11-16, and 17 or greater ng/L) and NT-proBNP (less than 75, 75-124, 125-274, and 275 or greater pg/mL). We used Cox models to determine the association of cardiac markers with fall risk, adjusted for age, sex, race/center, and multiple fall risk factors. RESULTS: Among 3973 participants (mean age = 76 ± 5 years, 62% women, 22% black), 457 had a subsequent fall during a median follow-up of 4.5 years. Incidence rates across quartiles of hs-cTnT and NT-proBNP were 17.1, 20.0, 26.2, and 36.4 per 1000 person-years and 12.8, 22.2, 28.7, and 48.4 per 1000 person-years, respectively. Comparing highest vs lowest quartiles of either hs-cTnT or NT-proBNP demonstrated a greater than two-fold higher fall risk, with hazard ratios of 2.17 (95% confidence interval {CI} = 1.60-2.95) and 2.34 (95% CI = 1.73-3.16), respectively. In a joint model, the relationships of hs-cTnT and NT-proBNP with falls were significant and independent. CONCLUSION: Subclinical elevations of cardiac damage and wall strain were each associated with a higher fall risk in older adults. Further research is needed to determine whether interventions that lower hs-cTnT or NT-proBNP also lower fall risk. J Am Geriatr Soc 67:1795-1802, 2019.

14.
J Clin Lipidol ; 2019 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31501043

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Accurate identification of patients with statin-associated side effects (SASEs) is critical for health care systems to institute strategies to improve guideline-concordant statin use. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine whether adverse drug reaction (ADR) entry by clinicians in the electronic medical record can accurately identify SASEs. METHODS: We identified 1,248,214 atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) patients seeking care in the Department of Veterans Affairs. Using an ADR data repository, we identified SASEs in 15 major symptom categories. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) were assessed using a chart review of 256 ASCVD patients with identified SASEs, who were not on high-intensity statin therapy. RESULTS: We identified 171,189 patients (13.71%) with documented SASEs over a 15-year period (9.9%, 2.7%, and 1.1% to 1, 2, or >2 statins, respectively). Statin use, high-intensity statin use, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were 72%, 28.1%, 99 mg/dL, and 129 mg/dL among those with vs 81%, 31.1%, 84 mg/dL, and 111 mg/dL among those without SASEs. Progressively lower statin and high-intensity statin use, and higher low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were noted among those with SASEs to 1, 2, or >2 statins. Two-thirds of SASEs were related to muscle symptoms. Sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV compared with manual chart review were 63.4%, 100%, 100%, and 85.3%, respectively. CONCLUSION: A strategy of using ADR entry in the electronic medical record is feasible to identify SASEs with modest sensitivity and NPV but high specificity and PPV. Health care systems can use this strategy to identify ASCVD patients with SASEs and operationalize efforts to improve guideline-concordant lipid-lowering therapy use in such patients. The sensitivity of this approach can be further enhanced by the use of unstructured text data.

15.
Circ Res ; 125(8): 773-782, 2019 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31476962

RESUMO

Rationale: Proinflammatory cytokines have been identified as potential targets for lowering vascular risk. Experimental evidence and Mendelian randomization suggest a role of MCP-1 (monocyte chemoattractant protein-1) in atherosclerosis and stroke. However, data from large-scale observational studies are lacking. Objective: To determine whether circulating levels of MCP-1 are associated with risk of incident stroke in the general population. Methods and Results: We used previously unpublished data on 17 180 stroke-free individuals (mean age, 56.7±8.1 years; 48.8% men) from 6 population-based prospective cohort studies and explored associations between baseline circulating MCP-1 levels and risk of any stroke, ischemic stroke, and hemorrhagic stroke during a mean follow-up interval of 16.3 years (280 522 person-years at risk; 1435 incident stroke events). We applied Cox proportional-hazards models and pooled hazard ratios (HRs) using random-effects meta-analyses. After adjustments for age, sex, race, and vascular risk factors, higher MCP-1 levels were associated with increased risk of any stroke (HR per 1-SD increment in ln-transformed MCP-1, 1.07; 95% CI, 1.01-1.14). Focusing on stroke subtypes, we found a significant association between baseline MCP-1 levels and higher risk of ischemic stroke (HR, 1.11 [1.02-1.21]) but not hemorrhagic stroke (HR, 1.02 [0.82-1.29]). The results followed a dose-response pattern with a higher risk of ischemic stroke among individuals in the upper quartiles of MCP-1 levels as compared with the first quartile (HRs, second quartile: 1.19 [1.00-1.42]; third quartile: 1.35 [1.14-1.59]; fourth quartile: 1.38 [1.07-1.77]). There was no indication for heterogeneity across studies, and in a subsample of 4 studies (12 516 individuals), the risk estimates were stable after additional adjustments for circulating levels of IL (interleukin)-6 and high-sensitivity CRP (C-reactive protein). Conclusions: Higher circulating levels of MCP-1 are associated with increased long-term risk of stroke. Our findings along with genetic and experimental evidence suggest that MCP-1 signaling might represent a therapeutic target to lower stroke risk.Visual Overview: An online visual overview is available for this article.

18.
Am Heart J ; 216: 62-73, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31404723

RESUMO

High-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) at the time of myocardial infarction (MI) are strong predictors of prognosis. However, whether their premorbid (before MI occurrence) levels are associated with prognosis after incident MI is unknown. METHODS: In 1,054 participants from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study with incident MI, we evaluated premorbid levels of hs-cTnT and NT-proBNP measured on median 5.8 (interquartile interval 3.0-11.5 [mean 5.5]) years prior to incident MI and their associations with subsequent composite and individual outcomes of all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, recurrent MI, heart failure, and stroke. RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 3.0 years after MI, 801 participants developed the composite outcome. Both hs-cTnT and NT-proBNP were independently associated with the composite outcome after incident MI. Among individual outcomes, all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, and heart failure showed significant associations with both cardiac markers. Overall, NT-proBNP demonstrated a more evident relationship than hs-cTnT. Indeed, the addition of premorbid NT-proBNP alone, but not hs-cTnT alone, to conventional predictors at incident MI significantly improved risk prediction of the composite outcome after incident MI (Δc-statistic 0.013 [95% CI 0.005-0.022] from 0.691 with conventional predictors). CONCLUSIONS: Premorbid levels of hs-cTnT and NT-proBNP assessed on average 6 years prior to incident MI were associated with adverse outcomes after incident MI. These results further highlight the importance of cardiac health at an earlier stage of life.

19.
Postgrad Med ; : 1-7, 2019 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31306043

RESUMO

Objective: Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, likely driven by atherogenic and inflammatory markers beyond low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). The objective of this hypothesis-generating post hoc subgroup analysis was to explore the effects of icosapent ethyl at 2 or 4 g/day (prescription pure ethyl ester of the omega-3 fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid [EPA]) on atherogenic lipid, apolipoprotein, inflammatory parameters (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein [hsCRP], lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 [Lp-PLA2]), and oxidative parameters (oxidized-LDL [ox-LDL]) in statin-treated patients from ANCHOR with stage 3 CKD. Methods: The 12-week ANCHOR study evaluated icosapent ethyl in 702 statin-treated patients at increased CVD risk with triglycerides (TG) 200-499 mg/dL despite controlled LDL-C (40-99 mg/dL). This post-hoc analysis included patients from ANCHOR with stage 3 CKD (estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] ≤60 mL/min/1.73 m2 for ≥3 months) randomized to icosapent ethyl 4 g/day (n = 19), 2 g/day (n = 30), or placebo (n = 36). Results: At the prescription dose of 4 g/day, icosapent ethyl significantly reduced TG (-16.9%; P = 0.0074) and other potentially atherogenic lipids/lipoproteins, ox-LDL, hsCRP, and Lp-PLA2, and increased plasma and red blood cell EPA levels (+879% and +579%, respectively; both P < 0.0001) versus placebo. Icosapent ethyl did not significantly alter eGFR or serum creatinine. Safety and tolerability were similar to placebo. Conclusions: In patients with stage 3 CKD at high CVD risk with persistent high TG despite statins, icosapent ethyl 4 g/day reduced potentially atherogenic and other cardiovascular risk factors without raising LDL-C, with safety similar to placebo. These findings suggest prospective investigation may be warranted.

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