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1.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 78(15): 1525-1537, 2021 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34620410

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: REDUCE-IT (Reduction of Cardiovascular Events With Icosapent Ethyl-Intervention Trial) randomized statin-treated patients with elevated triglycerides to icosapent ethyl (IPE) or placebo. There was a significant reduction in adjudicated events, including the primary endpoint (cardiovascular [CV] death, myocardial infarction [MI], stroke, coronary revascularization, unstable angina requiring hospitalization) and key secondary endpoint (CV death, MI, stroke) with IPE. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of IPE on investigator-reported events. METHODS: Potential endpoints were collected by blinded site investigators and subsequently adjudicated by a blinded Clinical Endpoint Committee (CEC) according to a prespecified charter. Investigator-reported events were compared with adjudicated events for concordance. RESULTS: There was a high degree of concordance between investigator-reported and adjudicated endpoints. The simple Kappa statistic between CEC-adjudicated vs site-reported events for the primary endpoint was 0.89 and for the key secondary endpoint was 0.90. Based on investigator-reported events in 8,179 randomized patients, IPE significantly reduced the rate of the primary endpoint (19.1% vs 24.6%; HR: 0.74 [95% CI: 0.67-0.81]; P < 0.0001) and the key secondary endpoint (10.5% vs 13.6%; HR: 0.75 [95% CI: 0.66-0.85]; P < 0.0001). Among adjudicated events, IPE similarly reduced the rate of the primary and key secondary endpoints. CONCLUSIONS: IPE led to consistent, significant reductions in CV events, including MI and coronary revascularization, as determined by independent, blinded CEC adjudication as well as by blinded investigator-reported assessment. These results highlight the robust evidence for the substantial CV benefits of IPE seen in REDUCE-IT and further raise the question of whether adjudication of CV outcome trial endpoints is routinely required in blinded, placebo-controlled trials. (Evaluation of the Effect of AMR101 on Cardiovascular Health and Mortality in Hypertriglyceridemic Patients With Cardiovascular Disease or at High Risk for Cardiovascular Disease: REDUCE-IT [Reduction of Cardiovascular Events With EPA - Intervention Trial]; NCT01492361).

2.
J Clin Lipidol ; 2021 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34666951

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Statin associated side effects (SASE) are a leading cause of statin discontinuation. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated patient, provider, and facility characteristics associated with SASEs and whether these characteristics impact statin utilization. METHODS: Patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) receiving care across the Veterans Affairs healthcare system from October 1, 2014 to September 30, 2015 were included. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to determine (a) factors associated with SASE and (b) factors associated with statin use in those with SASE. RESULTS: Our cohort included 1,225,576 patients with ASCVD. Of these, 171,189 (13.7%) had at least 1 reported SASE since year 2000. The most significant odds for SASEs were observed with female sex (odds ratio [OR] 1.40, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.36, 1.45), White race (OR 1.43, 95% CI 1.41, 1.45), hypertension (OR 1.37, 95% CI 1.33, 1.41) and ischemic heart disease (IHD: OR 1.45, 95% CI 1.43, 1.47). Lower odds were noted with care at a teaching facility (OR 0.89, 95% CI 0.88, 0.90). Factors most associated with being on a statin among patients with SASE included having diabetes (OR 1.18, 95% CI 1.15, 1.20), IHD (OR 1.39, 95% CI 1.35, 1.43) and a higher number of cardiology visits (OR 1.08, 95% CI 1.07, 1.09), while female sex was associated with lower odds (OR 0.65, 95% CI 0.61, 0.69). CONCLUSION: There are significant disparities in statin use by sex, ASCVD type, and comorbidities among secondary prevention patients with SASE, which represent areas for improvement in optimizing statin utilization.

4.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 78(11): 1114-1123, 2021 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34503680

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although statins reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, only about one-half of eligible patients receive treatment. Safe and appropriate consumer access to statins could have a significant positive public health impact. OBJECTIVES: This study compares the concordance between a participant and clinician assessment of eligibility for statin therapy using a technology-assisted approach. METHODS: A total of 500 participants, 83 with limited literacy, completed an at-home Web-based application to assess appropriateness for treatment with rosuvastatin 5 mg. The Web application is designed to assess eligibility for a moderate-intensity statin based on current guidelines and deny access to individuals with contraindications to rosuvastatin. Subsequently, participants visited a research site where clinicians, blinded to the information the participant entered, performed an independent Web application assessment. The Web application is programmed for 1 of 3 rosuvastatin treatment outcomes: "OK to use," "not right for you," or "ask a doctor." The primary endpoint was the percent of participants whose self-selected eligibility for nonprescription rosuvastatin was concordant with clinician assessment. RESULTS: For the primary endpoint, participant selection for statin therapy was concordant with clinician selection in 481 (96.2%) of 500 participants (95% confidence interval: 94.1%-97.7%), of whom 23 (4.6%) were deemed appropriate and 458 (91.6%) were deemed inappropriate for treatment. Discordance was due to incorrect self-selection ("OK to use") in 3 cases, incorrect rejection ("not right for you") in 14 cases and an incorrect "ask a doctor" outcome in 2 cases. CONCLUSIONS: The use of a technology-assisted approach to consumer self-selection for statin therapy resulted in participant self-selection that showed substantial agreement with clinician selection.

5.
Am J Cardiol ; 158: 45-52, 2021 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465464

RESUMO

We evaluated the association of longitudinal changes in circulating levels of N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and high sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) with the burden of arrhythmias as captured by 2-week ambulatory ECG monitoring. This study included 1,930 Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study participants who wore a leadless, ambulatory ECG monitor (Zio XT Patch) at visit 6 (2016 to 2017) and had cardiac biomarkers measured at visit 6 and visit 4 (median of 19 years earlier). The mean age of participants at V6 was 79 ± 5 years, 41% were men, and 22% were black. Adjusting for demographics, body mass index, smoking, diabetes, hypertension, stroke, left ventricular mass, cardiac medications, patch wear time, visit 4 levels of NT-proBNP and hs-cTnT, and relative change in hs-cTnT, each log-transformed unit relative increase in NT-proBNP was associated with a higher likelihood of nonsustained ventricular tachycardia (odds ratio 1.29, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.12 to 1.48), a higher number of daily atrial tachycardia episodes (geometric mean ratio [GMR] 1.16, 95% CI 1.10 to 1.21), and a higher daily ectopic burden (premature ventricular contractions -GMR 1.42, 95% CI 1.25 to 1.62; premature atrial contractions -GMR 1.40, 95% CI 1.25 to 1.57). In fully adjusted analyses, each log-transformed unit relative increase in hs-cTnT was only found to be weakly associated with a higher daily premature ventricular contraction burden (GMR 1.31, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.70). In conclusion, longitudinal change in NT-proBNP was associated with an increased atrial and ventricular arrhythmia burden.

6.
JAMA Cardiol ; 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468696

RESUMO

Importance: Elevated high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hscTnT) and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NTproBNP) levels are associated with risk of heart failure (HF) and mortality among individuals in the general population. However, it is unknown if this risk is modifiable. Objective: To test the hypothesis that elevated hscTnT and NTproBNP levels would identify individuals with the greatest risk for mortality and HF and the largest benefit associated with intensive systolic blood pressure (SBP) lowering. Design, Setting, and Participants: This is a nonprespecified post hoc analysis of the multicenter, prospective, randomized clinical Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT), conducted from October 20, 2010, to August 20, 2015. A total of 9361 patients without diabetes with increased risk for cardiovascular disease were randomized to receive intensive vs standard SBP lowering. Statistical analysis was performed on an intention-to-treat basis from September 30, 2019, to July 29, 2021. Interventions: Participants were randomized to undergo intensive (<120 mm Hg) or standard (<140 mm Hg) SBP lowering. High-sensitivity cardiac troponin T and NTproBNP levels were measured from stored specimens collected at enrollment, with elevated levels defined as 14 ng/L or more for hscTnT (to convert to micrograms per liter, multiply by 0.001) and 125 pg/mL or more for NTproBNP (to convert to nanograms per liter, multiply by 1.0). Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome of this ancillary study was HF and mortality. Results: Of the 9361 participants enrolled in SPRINT, 8828 (5578 men [63.2%]; mean [SD] age, 68.0 [9.5] years) had measured hscTnT levels and 8836 (5585 men [63.2%]; mean [SD] age, 68.0 [9.5] years) had measured NTproBNP levels; 2262 of 8828 patients (25.6%) had elevated hscTnT levels, 3371 of 8836 patients (38.2%) had elevated NTproBNP, and 1411 of 8828 patients (16.0%) had both levels elevated. Randomization to the intensive SBP group led to a 4.9% (95% CI, 1.7%-7.5%) absolute risk reduction (ARR) over 4 years in death and HF (421 events) for those with elevated hscTnT and a 1.7% (95% CI, 0.7%-2.5%) ARR for those without elevated levels. Similarly, for those with elevated NTproBNP, the ARR for death and HF over 4 years was 4.6% (95% CI, 2.3%-6.5%) vs 1.8% (95% CI, 0.9%-2.5%) in those without elevated levels. For those with elevated levels of both biomarkers, the ARR for death and HF over 4 years was 7.8% (95% CI, 3.3%-11.3%) vs 1.7% (95% CI, 0.8%-2.3%) in those with neither biomarker elevated. No significant treatment group by biomarker category interactions were detected. Conclusions and Relevance: Intensive SBP control led to large absolute differences in death and HF among patients with abnormal hscTnT and NTproBNP levels. These findings demonstrate that risk associated with elevation of these biomarkers is modifiable with intensive BP control. A prospective, randomized clinical trial is needed to evaluate whether these biomarkers may help guide selection of patients for intensive SBP lowering. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01206062.

7.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5296, 2021 09 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34489478

RESUMO

The vascular endothelium is present within metabolic organs and actively regulates energy metabolism. Here we show osteocalcin, recognized as a bone-secreted metabolic hormone, is expressed in mouse primary endothelial cells isolated from heart, lung and liver. In human osteocalcin promoter-driven green fluorescent protein transgenic mice, green fluorescent protein signals are enriched in endothelial cells lining aorta, small vessels and capillaries and abundant in aorta, skeletal muscle and eye of adult mice. The depletion of lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 induces osteocalcin through a Forkhead box O -dependent pathway in endothelial cells. Whereas depletion of osteocalcin abolishes the glucose-lowering effect of low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 depletion, osteocalcin treatment normalizes hyperglycemia in multiple mouse models. Mechanistically, osteocalcin receptor-G protein-coupled receptor family C group 6 member A and insulin-like-growth-factor-1 receptor are in the same complex with osteocalcin and required for osteocalcin-promoted insulin signaling pathway. Therefore, our results reveal an endocrine/paracrine role of endothelial cells in regulating insulin sensitivity, which may have therapeutic implications in treating diabetes and insulin resistance through manipulating vascular endothelium.


Assuntos
Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Glucose/metabolismo , Hiperglicemia/genética , Proteína-1 Relacionada a Receptor de Lipoproteína de Baixa Densidade/genética , Osteocalcina/genética , Animais , Células Endoteliais/patologia , Endotélio Vascular/patologia , Proteína Forkhead Box O1/genética , Proteína Forkhead Box O1/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Genes Reporter , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/genética , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/metabolismo , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Hiperglicemia/metabolismo , Hiperglicemia/patologia , Insulina/metabolismo , Proteínas Substratos do Receptor de Insulina/genética , Proteínas Substratos do Receptor de Insulina/metabolismo , Células Secretoras de Insulina/metabolismo , Células Secretoras de Insulina/patologia , Proteína-1 Relacionada a Receptor de Lipoproteína de Baixa Densidade/deficiência , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Osteoblastos/metabolismo , Osteoblastos/patologia , Osteocalcina/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Receptor IGF Tipo 1/genética , Receptor IGF Tipo 1/metabolismo , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/genética , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
8.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 32(9): 2291-2302, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465608

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Proteomic profiling may allow identification of plasma proteins that associate with subsequent changesin kidney function, elucidating biologic processes underlying the development and progression of CKD. METHODS: We quantified the association between 4877 plasma proteins and a composite outcome of ESKD or decline in eGFR by ≥50% among 9406 participants in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study (visit 3; mean age, 60 years) who were followed for a median of 14.4 years. We performed separate analyses for these proteins in a subset of 4378 participants (visit 5), who were followed at a later time point, for a median of 4.4 years. For validation, we evaluated proteins with significant associations (false discovery rate <5%) in both time periods in 3249 participants in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) and 703 participants in the African American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension (AASK). We also compared the genetic determinants of protein levels with those from a meta-analysis genome-wide association study of eGFR. RESULTS: In models adjusted for multiple covariates, including baseline eGFR and albuminuria, we identified 13 distinct proteins that were significantly associated with the composite end point in both time periods, including TNF receptor superfamily members 1A and 1B, trefoil factor 3, and ß-trace protein. Of these proteins, 12 were also significantly associated in CRIC, and nine were significantly associated in AASK. Higher levels of each protein associated with higher risk of 50% eGFR decline or ESKD. We found genetic evidence for a causal role for one protein, lectin mannose-binding 2 protein (LMAN2). CONCLUSIONS: Large-scale proteomic analysis identified both known and novel proteomic risk factors for eGFR decline.

9.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(17): e020890, 2021 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34431361

RESUMO

Background Black men and women are at higher risk for, and suffer greater morbidity and mortality from, atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) compared with adults of European Ancestry (EA). Black patients with familial hypercholesterolemia are at particularly high risk for ASCVD complications because of lifelong exposure to elevated levels of low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol. Methods and Results This retrospective study analyzed ASCVD prevalence and risk factors in 808 adults with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia from 5 US-based lipid clinics, and compared findings in Black versus EA patients. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to determine the strongest predictors of ASCVD as a function of race. No significant difference was noted in the prevalence of ASCVD in Black versus EA patients with familial hypercholesterolemia (39% versus 32%, respectively; P=0.15). However, Black versus EA patients had significantly greater prevalence of modifiable risk factors, including body mass index (mean, 32±7 kg/m2 versus 29±6 kg/m2; P<0.001), hypertension (82% versus 50%; P<0.001), diabetes (39% versus 15%; P<0.001), and current smoking (16% versus 8%; P=0.006). Black versus EA patients also had significantly lower usage of statins (61% versus 73%; P=0.004) and other lipid-lowering agents. In a fully adjusted multivariate model, race was not independently associated with ASCVD (odds ratio, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.60-1.49; P=0.72). Conclusions The strongest predictors of ASCVD in Black patients with familial hypercholesterolemia were hypertension and cigarette smoking. These data support wider usage of statins and other lipid-lowering therapies and greater attention to modifiable risk, specifically blood pressure management and smoking cessation.

10.
Genet Med ; 2021 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34363016

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in adults in the United States, yet the benefits of genetic testing are not universally accepted. METHODS: We developed the "HeartCare" panel of genes associated with CVD, evaluating high-penetrance Mendelian conditions, coronary artery disease (CAD) polygenic risk, LPA gene polymorphisms, and specific pharmacogenetic (PGx) variants. We enrolled 709 individuals from cardiology clinics at Baylor College of Medicine, and samples were analyzed in a CAP/CLIA-certified laboratory. Results were returned to the ordering physician and uploaded to the electronic medical record. RESULTS: Notably, 32% of patients had a genetic finding with clinical management implications, even after excluding PGx results, including 9% who were molecularly diagnosed with a Mendelian condition. Among surveyed physicians, 84% reported medical management changes based on these results, including specialist referrals, cardiac tests, and medication changes. LPA polymorphisms and high polygenic risk of CAD were found in 20% and 9% of patients, respectively, leading to diet, lifestyle, and other changes. Warfarin and simvastatin pharmacogenetic variants were present in roughly half of the cohort. CONCLUSION: Our results support the use of genetic information in routine cardiovascular health management and provide a roadmap for accompanying research.

12.
Vasa ; 2021 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34346252

RESUMO

Background: Galectin-3 (gal-3) is a ß-galactoside-binding lectin associated tissue fibrosis and inflammation. There is limited understanding of the relationship between gal-3 and vascular health. Our aim was to assess the association between gal-3 and arterial stiffness in older adults. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study of 4275 participants (mean age of 75 years) from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study. Central arterial stiffness was measured by carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV). We evaluated the association of gal-3 with cfPWV using multivariable linear regression. Results: The median (interquartile range) gal-3 concentration was 16.5 (13.8, 19.8) ng/mL and mean cfPWV was 1163±303 cm/s. Higher gal-3 concentration was associated with greater central arterial stiffness after adjustment for age, sex, race-center, heart rate, systolic blood pressure, anti-hypertensive medication use, and current smoking status (ß=36.4 cm/s change in cfPWV per log unit change in gal-3; 95% CI: 7.2, 65.5, p=0.015). The association was attenuated after adjusting for additional cardiovascular risk factors (ß=17.3, 95% CI: -14.4, 49.0). Conclusions: In community-dwelling older adults, gal-3 concentration was associated with central arterial stiffness, likely sharing common pathways with traditional cardiovascular risk factors.

14.
J Clin Lipidol ; 2021 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34393074

RESUMO

Bempedoic acid is an adenosine triphosphate-citrate lyase (ACL) inhibitor that reduces levels of low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) in the plasma by inhibition of cholesterol synthesis in hepatic cells, which leads to up-regulation of hepatic LDL receptors. Bempedoic acid is approved as an adjunct to diet and maximally tolerated statin therapy for the treatment of adults with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HeFH) who require additional lowering of LDL-C. In this case study, we describe a patient with HeFH who had a prior excellent response to statin but unable to take the same, and a less than expected response to PCSK9i, in whom initiation of bempedoic acid led to a substantial reduction of LDL-C. Our findings suggest that patients who are quite responsive to statins may also be quite responsive to bempedoic acid, a medication that works in the same biochemical pathway as HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors. Additionally, this medication may be particularly effective at lowering LDL-C among individuals not on background statin therapy.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34385148

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Community clinics often face pragmatic barriers, hindering program initiation and replication of controlled research trial results. Mentoring is a potential strategy to overcome these barriers. We piloted an in-person and telehealth mentoring strategy to implement the Telehealth-supported, Integrated Community Health Workers (CHWs), Medication-access, group visit Education (TIME) program in a community clinic. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Participants (n=55) were low-income Latino(a)s with type 2 diabetes. The study occurred in two, 6-month phases. Phase I provided proof-of-concept and an observational experience for the clinic team; participants (n=37) were randomized to the intervention (TIME) or control (usual care), and the research team conducted TIME while the clinic team observed. Phase II provided mentorship to implement TIME, and the research team mentored the clinic team as they conducted TIME for a new single-arm cohort of participants (n=18) with no previous exposure to the program. Analyses included baseline to 6-month comparisons of diabetes outcomes (primary outcome: hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c)): phase I intervention versus control, phase II (within group), and research-run (phase I intervention) versus clinic-run (phase II) arms. We also evaluated baseline to 6-month CHW knowledge changes. RESULTS: Phase I: compared with the control, intervention participants had superior baseline to 6-month improvements for HbA1c (mean change: intervention: -0.73% vs control: 0.08%, p=0.016), weight (p=0.044), target HbA1c (p=0.035), hypoglycemia (p=0.021), medication non-adherence (p=0.0003), and five of six American Diabetes Association (ADA) measures (p<0.001-0.002). Phase II: participants had significant reductions in HbA1c (mean change: -0.78%, p=0.006), diastolic blood pressure (p=0.004), body mass index (0.012), weight (p=0.010), medication non-adherence (p<0.001), and six ADA measures (p=0.007-0.005). Phase I intervention versus phase II outcomes were comparable. CHWs improved knowledge from pre-test to post-tests (p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: A novel, mentored approach to implement TIME into a community clinic resulted in improved diabetes outcomes. Larger studies of longer duration are needed to fully evaluate the potential of mentoring community clinics.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Pressão Sanguínea , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Humanos , Mentores , Projetos Piloto
16.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(16): e020893, 2021 08 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34369165

RESUMO

Background Because of an increasing number and complexity of treatment options for lipid-lowering therapy in patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, guidelines recommend greater active involvement of patients in shared decision-making. However, patients' understanding and perceptions of the benefits, risks, and treatment objectives of lipid-lowering therapy are unknown. Methods and Results Structured questionnaires were conducted in 5006 US outpatients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and suboptimal low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) control (LDL-C ≥70 mg/dL) or on a PCSK9 (proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9) inhibitor and in 113 physician providers as a part of the GOULD (Getting to an Improved Understanding of Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol and Dyslipidemia Management) Registry. Mean age of the patients was 68±10 years, 60% were men, and 86% were White race. Across all patients, 63% believed heart disease was the leading cause of death in men and 46% the leading cause of death in women. Only 28% of patients thought the primary reason they were taking lipid-lowering medication was to lower the risk of heart attack or stroke, 68% did not know their approximate LDL-C level, and 69% did not know their LDL-C goal. Patients on PCSK9 inhibitors (versus LDL-C cohort), younger patients (versus age ≥65 years), and men (versus women) were somewhat more knowledgeable about their disease and its management. Most physicians (66%) felt that a lack of understanding of the importance and efficacy of statins was the primary factor contributing to nonadherence, as opposed to costs (9%) or side effects (1%). More education was the most commonly used strategy to address patient-reported side effects. Conclusions A large proportion of patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease remain unaware of their underlying atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk, reasons for taking lipid-lowering medications, current LDL-C levels, or treatment goals. These data highlight a large education gap which, if addressed, may improve shared decision-making and treatment adherence. Registration URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.org; Unique identifier: NCT02993120.

17.
Curr Cardiol Rep ; 23(9): 116, 2021 07 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34269897

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The 2015 American College of Cardiology (ACC)/American Heart Association (AHA) Focused Update of Secondary Prevention Lipid Performance Measures removed low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) assessment as a performance measure. This review discusses the evidence supporting the importance of lipid monitoring in the secondary prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). RECENT FINDINGS: The 2018 AHA/ACC Multisociety cholesterol guideline (as did the 2013 guideline) recommends a lipid panel after initiating lipid-lowering therapy to monitor adherence and medication efficacy. The 2018 guideline also recommends adding nonstatin therapy in very-high-risk ASCVD patients with LDL-C ≥70 mg/dL despite maximally tolerated statin therapy. The removal of LDL-C monitoring as a performance measure is not consistent with the 2018 cholesterol guidelines. Given the importance of monitoring lipid-lowering medication efficacy and adherence and optimally reducing LDL-C in very-high-risk patients with additional evidence-based nonstatin therapy, LDL-C assessment after initiating lipid-lowering therapy should be reinstated as a performance measure for patients with ASCVD.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases , American Heart Association , Colesterol , LDL-Colesterol , Humanos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Lipídeos , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos
18.
Eur Heart J ; 2021 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34293083

RESUMO

AIMS: Emerging evidence suggests that remnant cholesterol (RC) promotes atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). We aimed to estimate RC-related risk beyond low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and apolipoprotein B (apoB) in patients without known ASCVD. METHODS AND RESULTS: We pooled data from 17 532 ASCVD-free individuals from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study (n = 9748), the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (n = 3049), and the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (n = 4735). RC was calculated as non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) minus calculated LDL-C. Adjusted Cox models were used to estimate the risk for incident ASCVD associated with log RC levels. We also performed discordance analyses examining relative ASCVD risk in RC vs. LDL-C discordant/concordant groups using difference in percentile units (>10 units) and clinically relevant LDL-C targets. The mean age of participants was 52.3 ± 17.9 years, 56.7% were women and 34% black. There were 2143 ASCVD events over the median follow-up of 18.7 years. After multivariable adjustment including LDL-C and apoB, log RC was associated with higher ASCVD risk [hazard ratio (HR) 1.65, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.45-1.89]. Moreover, the discordant high RC/low LDL-C group, but not the low RC/high LDL-C group, was associated with increased ASCVD risk compared to the concordant group (HR 1.21, 95% CI 1.08-1.35). Similar results were shown when examining discordance across clinical cutpoints. CONCLUSIONS: In ASCVD-free individuals, elevated RC levels were associated with ASCVD independent of traditional risk factors, LDL-C, and apoB levels. The mechanisms of RC association with ASCVD, surprisingly beyond apoB, and the potential value of targeted RC-lowering in primary prevention need to be further investigated.

19.
JACC Heart Fail ; 9(8): 594-603, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34325890

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study assessed the association of diabetes duration with incident heart failure (HF). BACKGROUND: Diabetes increases HF risk. However, the independent effect of diabetes duration on incident HF is unknown. METHODS: We included 9,734 participants (mean age 63 years, 58% women, 22% Black) at ARIC (Atherosclerosis Risk In Communities) Visit 4 (1996-1998) without HF or coronary heart disease. We calculated diabetes duration at Visit 4 (baseline), utilizing diabetes status at the first 4 ARIC visits spaced 3 years apart, and self-reported diagnosis date for those with diabetes diagnosed before Visit 1. We used Cox regression to estimate associations of diabetes duration with incident HF, accounting for intercurrent coronary heart disease and other risk factors. We performed analyses stratified by age (<65 years or ≥65 years), race, sex, and glycemic control (hemoglobin A1C [HbA1C] consistently <7%, vs HbA1C ≥7%), with tests for interaction. RESULTS: Over 22.5 years of follow-up, there were 1,968 HF events. Compared to those without diabetes, HF risk rose with longer diabetes duration, with the highest risk among those with ≥15 y diabetes duration (HR: 2.82; 95% CI: 2.25-3.63). Each 5-year increase in diabetes duration was associated with a 17% (95% CI: 11-22) relative increase in HF risk. Similar results were observed across HF subtypes. The HF and diabetes duration associations were stronger among those aged <65 years, those with HbA1C ≥7%, those with a body mass index ≥30 kg/m2, women, and Blacks (all P interactions <0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Delaying diabetes onset may augment HF prevention efforts, and therapies to improve HF outcomes might target those with long diabetes duration.

20.
Am J Kidney Dis ; 2021 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34293394

RESUMO

RATIONALE & OBJECTIVE: The utility of conventional upper reference limits (URL) for N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hsTnT) in chronic kidney disease (CKD) remains debated. We analyzed the distribution of hsTnT and NT-proBNP in people with CKD in ambulatory settings to examine the diagnostic value of conventional URL in this population. STUDY DESIGN: Observational study. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS: We studied participants of the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) with CKD and no self-reported history of cardiovascular disease. EXPOSURE: Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). OUTCOME: NT-proBNP and hsTnT at baseline. ANALYTICAL APPROACH: We described the proportion of participants above the conventional URL for NT-proBNP (125pg/mL) and hsTnT (14ng/L) overall and by eGFR. We then estimated 99th percentile URL for NT-proBNP and hsTnT. Using quantile regression of the 99th percentile, we modeled the association of eGFR with NT-proBNP and hsTnT. RESULTS: Among 2,312 CKD participants, 40% and 43% had levels of NT-proBNP and hsTnT above the conventional URL, respectively. In those with eGFR <30mL/min/1.73m2, 71% and 68% of participants had concentrations of NT-proBNP and hsTnT above the conventional URL, respectively. Among all CKD participants, the 99th percentile for NT-proBNP was 3,592 (95% CI, 2,470-4,849) pg/mL and for hsTnT it was 126 (95% CI, 100-144) ng/L. Each 15mL/min/1.73m2 decrement in eGFR was associated with a ~40% higher threshold for the 99th percentile of NT-proBNP (1.43 [95% CI, 1.21-1.69]) and hsTnT (1.45 [95% CI, 1.31-1.60]). LIMITATIONS: Study included ambulatory patients, and we could not test the accuracy of the URL of NT-proBNP and hsTnT in the acute care setting. CONCLUSIONS: In this ambulatory CKD population with no self-reported history of cardiovascular disease, a range of 40%-88% of participants had concentrations of NT-proBNP and hsTnT above the conventional URL, depending on eGFR strata. Developing eGFR-specific thresholds for these commonly used cardiac biomarkers in the setting of CKD may improve their utility for evaluation of suspected heart failure and myocardial infarction.

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