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1.
Chemphyschem ; 2020 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32725859

RESUMO

We present a theoretical study of chalcogen bonded container capsules (AX +AX ) where X=O, S, Se, and Te, and their encapsulation complexes with n-C9 H20 (n-C9 H20 @AX +AX ). Both Se and Te encapsulation complexes have significant experimental and computed binding energies, analogous to the hydrogen bonded counterparts, while the S and O capsules and their encapsulation complexes show only weak binding energies, which are attributed to different types of bonding: chalcogen S⋅⋅⋅N bonds for S-capsules and π-π stacking and weak hydrogen bonds for the O case. All AX +AX and C9 H20 @AX +AX present unusually high magnetic anisotropies in their interiors. The 1 H NMR spectra of the encapsulation complexes display the proton signals of the encapsulated n-nonane highly upfield shifted, in agreement with the available experimental data for the Se capsule. We found that different factors contribute to the observed magnetic anisotropy of the capsule's interior: for the Te capsule the most important factor is Te's large polarizability; for the O analogue the inductive effects produced by the electronegative nature of the O and N heteroatoms; and for the S and Se capsules, the polarizability of the heteroatoms combines with electric field effects.

2.
Chemistry ; 26(37): 8220-8225, 2020 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32167599

RESUMO

A deep cavitand binds long-chain trans,trans- and trans,cis-bis-formamide isomers in water solution giving a pair of caviplexes in a ca. 60:40 ratio. Both caviplexes display in/out guest exchange dynamics that are slow on the 1 H NMR chemical shift timescale, but fast on the EXSY timescale. We apply diffusion-ordered NMR spectroscopy (DOSY) to characterize the caviplexes. On the diffusion timescale, the guest in/out exchange processes feature intermediate dynamics allowing the assessment of their kinetic stabilities. We found that the trans,cis-bis-formamide isomers form kinetically more stable caviplexes than the trans,trans-counterparts. We also show that the kinetic stabilities of the bis-formamide caviplexes relate well with their relative thermodynamic stabilities. Fortunately, the tuning of the DOSY parameters allowed the observation of the exchange dynamics as slow processes on the experiment timescale.

3.
J Am Chem Soc ; 142(12): 5876-5883, 2020 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32125842

RESUMO

Supramolecular capsules are desirable containers for the study of molecular behavior in small spaces and offer applications in transport, catalysis, and material science. We report here the use of chalcogen bonding to form container assemblies that are stable in water. Cavitands 1-3 functionalized with 2,1,3-benzoselenadiazole walls were synthesized in good yield from resorcin[4]arenes. The solid-state single-crystal X-ray structure of 3 showed a dimeric assembly cemented together through multiple Se···N chalcogen bonds. Binding of hydrophobic and amphiphilic guests in D2O was investigated by 1H NMR methods and revealed host-guest assemblies of 1:1, 2:1, and 2:2 stoichiometries. Small guests such as n-hexane or cyclohexane assembled as 2:2 capsular complexes, larger guests like cyclohexane carboxylic acid or cyclodecane formed 1:1 cavitand complexes, and longer linear guests like n-dodecane, cyclohexane carboxylic acid anhydride, and amides created 2:1 capsular complexes. The 2:1 complex of the capsule with cyclohexane carboxylic acid anhydride was stable over 2 weeks, showing that the seam of chalcogen bonds is "waterproof". Selective uptake of cyclohexane over benzene and methyl cyclohexane over toluene was observed in aqueous solution with the capsule. Hydrophobic forces and hydrogen-bonding attractions between guest molecules such as 3-methylbutanoic acid stabilized the assemblies in the presence of the competing effects of water. The high polarizability and modest electronegativity of Se provide a capsule lining complementary to guest C-H bonds. The 2,1,3-benzoselenadiazole walls impart an unusually high magnetic anisotropy to the capsule environment, which is supported by density functional theory calculations.

4.
J Am Chem Soc ; 142(9): 4276-4284, 2020 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32045249

RESUMO

Calix[4]pyrrole phosphonate-cavitands were used as receptors for the design of supramolecular sensors for creatinine and its lipophilic derivative hexylcreatinine. The sensing principle is based on indicator displacement assays of an inherently fluorescent guest dye or a black-hole quencher from the receptor's cavity by means of competition with the creatinine analytes. The systems were thermodynamically and kinetically characterized regarding their 1:1 binding properties by means of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H and 31P NMR), isothermal titration calorimetry, and optical spectroscopies (UV/vis absorption and fluorescence). For the use of the black-hole indicator dye, the calix[4]pyrrole was modified with a dansyl chromophore as a signaling unit that engages in Förster resonance energy transfer with the indicator dye. The 1:1 binding constants of the indicator dyes are in the range of 107 M-1, while hexylcreatinine showed values around (2-4) × 105 M-1. The competitive displacement of the indicators by hexylcreatinine produced supramolecular fluorescence turn-on sensors that work at micromolar analyte concentrations that are compatible with those observed for healthy as well as sick patients. The limit of detection for one of the systems reached submicromolar ranges (110 nM).

5.
Chemistry ; 26(15): 3348-3357, 2020 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31917499

RESUMO

We report the synthesis of an unprecedented mono-gold(I) phosphine complex based on a "two-wall" aryl-ethynyl extended calix[4]pyrrole. We describe and compare the binding properties of the parent 10α,20α-bis-aryl-ethynyl calix[4]pyrrole ligand and the prepared organometallic compound as receptors for tetraalkylammonium chloride salts in dichloromethane and acetone. We describe the results of 1 H NMR, UV-Vis titrations and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) experiments in dichloromethane and acetone, aiming to thermodynamically characterize the formed complexes. The obtained results indicate a noticeable decrease in the binding affinity of the chloride for the mono-gold(I) receptor 1 compared to the parent ligand 2. The increase in the negative value of the electrostatic surface potential at the center of the aromatic ring of the gold(I) meso-aryl-ethynyl substituent serves to explain the observed results and the presence in solution of the chloride complex of 1 as a mixture of two conformers.

6.
Molecules ; 25(2)2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31936802

RESUMO

This manuscript reports the improved synthesis of the α,α,α,α isomer of tetra-p-iodophenyl tetra-methyl calix[4]pyrrole and the X-ray characterization of two solvate polymorphs. In the solid state, the calix[4]pyrrole receptor adopts the cone conformation, including one acetonitrile molecule in its aromatic cavity by establishing four convergent hydrogen bonds between its nitrogen atom and the four pyrrole NHs of the former. The inclusion complexes pack into rods, displaying a unidirectional orientation. In turn, the rods form flat 2D-layers by alternating the orientation of their p-iodo substituents. The 2D layers stack on top of another, resulting in a head-to-head and tail-to-tail orientation of the complexes or their exclusive arrangement in a head-to-tail geometry. The dissimilar stacking of the layers yields two solvate polymorphs that are simultaneously present in the structures of the single crystals. The ratio of the two polymorph phases is regulated by the amount of acetonitrile added to the chloroform solutions from which the crystals grow. Halogen bonding interactions are highly relevant in the crystal lattices of the two polymorphs. We analyzed and characterized these interactions by means of density functional theory (DFT) calculations and several computational tools. Remarkably, single crystals of a solvate containing two acetonitrile molecules per calix[4]pyrrole were obtained from pure acetonitrile solution.


Assuntos
Modelos Moleculares , Pirróis/química , Pirróis/síntese química , Cristalografia por Raios X , Isomerismo , Estrutura Molecular
7.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 58(45): 16105-16109, 2019 11 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31476110

RESUMO

Planar pyridyl N-oxides are encapsulated in mono-metallic PdII /PtII -cages based on a tetra-pyridyl calix[4]pyrrole ligand. The exchange dynamics of the cage complexes are slow on both the NMR chemical shift and EXSY timescales, but encapsulation of the guests by the cages is fast on the human timescale. A "French doors" mechanism, involving the rotation of the meso-phenyl walls of the cages, allows the passage of the planar guests. The encapsulation of quinuclidine N-oxide, a sterically more demanding guest, is slower than pyridyl N-oxides in the PdII -cage, and does not take place in the PtII counterpart. A modification of the encapsulation mechanism for the quinuclidine N-oxide is postulated that requires the partial dissociation of the PdII -cage. The substrate binding selectivity featured by the cages is related to their different guest uptake/release mechanisms.

8.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(40): 19815-19820, 2019 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31527234

RESUMO

Secondary formamides are widely encountered in biology and exist as mixtures of both cis and trans isomers. Here, we assess hydrophilicity differences between isomeric formamides through direct competition experiments. Formamides bearing long aliphatic chains were sequestered in a water-soluble molecular container having a hydrophobic cavity with an end open to the aqueous medium. NMR spectroscopic experiments reveal a modest preference (<1 kcal/mol) for aqueous solvation of the trans formamide terminals over the cis isomers. With diformamides, the supramolecular approach allows staging of intramolecular competition between short-lived species with subtle differences in hydrophobic properties.

9.
Front Chem ; 7: 174, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30972330
10.
Chemistry ; 25(18): 4775-4781, 2019 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30830693

RESUMO

We disclose the results of our investigations on the influence that the insertion method of aryl-extended calix[4]pyrrole into liposomal membranes exerts on their properties as anion carriers. We use the standard HPTS assay to assess the transport properties of the carriers. We show that the post-insertion of the carrier, as DMSO solution, assigns better transport activities to the "two-wall" α,α-aryl-extended calix[4]pyrrole 1 compared to the "four-wall" α,α,α,α-counterpart 2. Notably, opposite results were obtained when the carriers were pre-inserted into the liposomal membranes. We assign this difference to an improved incorporation of carrier 2 into the membrane when delivered by the pre-insertion method. On the other hand, carrier 1 shows comparable levels of transport independently of the method used for its incorporation. Thus, an accurate comparison of the chloride transport activities featured by these two carriers demands their pre-incorporation in the liposomal membranes. In contrast, using the lucigenin assay with the pre-insertion method both carriers displayed similar transport efficiencies.

11.
Chem Asian J ; 14(5): 647-654, 2019 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30644629

RESUMO

The anion-binding properties of three closely related oligoamide foldamers were studied using NMR spectroscopy, isothermal titration calorimetry and mass spectrometry, as well as DFT calculations. The 1 H NMR spectra of the foldamers in [D6 ]acetone solution revealed partial preorganization by intramolecular hydrogen bonding, which creates a suitable cavity for anion binding. The limited size of the cavity, however, enabled efficient binding by the inner amide protons only for the chloride anion resulting in the formation of a thermodynamically stable 1:1 complex. All 1:1 chloride complexes displayed a significant favourable contribution of the entropy term. Most likely, this is due to the release of ordered solvent molecules solvating the free foldamer and the anion to the bulk solution upon complex formation. The introduction of electron-withdrawing substituents in foldamers 2 and 3 had only a slight effect on the thermodynamic constants for chloride binding compared to the parent receptor. Remarkably, the binding of chloride to foldamer 3 not only produced the expected 1:1 complex but also open aggregates with 1:2 (host:anion) stoichiometry.

12.
ACS Sens ; 4(2): 421-426, 2019 02 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30667218

RESUMO

Creatinine is a metabolite present in urine, and its concentration is used to diagnose and monitor kidney performance. For that reason, the development of new sensors to analyze this metabolite and obtain accurate results in a short period of time is necessary. An optical disposable sensor for monitoring creatinine levels in urine is described. The system, based on a new aryl-substituted calix[4]pyrrole synthetic receptor, has an unusual coextraction scheme. Due to the low p Ka values of creatininium (p Ka 4.8), a careful selection of a lipophilic pH indicator that works in acid medium is required. The sensor components were optimized, and the new sensor displays a good response time to creatinine (approximately 3 min) over a wide dynamic range (from 1 × 10-5 to 1 × 10-2 M). Moreover, the optical selectivity coefficients obtained for creatinine over common cations present in urine meet the requirements for real sample measurements. With a good sensor-to-sensor reproducibility (RSD, 5.1-6.9% in the middle of the range), this method provides a simple, quick, cost-effective, and selective alternative to the conventional methodology based on Jaffé's reaction.


Assuntos
Creatinina/urina , Ionóforos/química , Dispositivos Ópticos , Urinálise/instrumentação , Calibragem , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Limite de Detecção , Membranas Artificiais
13.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 55(5): 604-607, 2019 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30565593

RESUMO

The tetra-α isomer of a super aryl-extended tetra-pyridyl calix[4]pyrrole self-assembles into a mono-metallic Pd(ii)-cage featuring two different and converging polar binding sites. Mono- and di-topic polar guests are bound reversibly in the cage. A mechanism for guest exchange in the cage complexes is proposed.

14.
J Org Chem ; 83(21): 13507-13514, 2018 11 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30354102

RESUMO

We report the synthesis of a macrocyclic receptor containing two di- meso-phenylcalix[4]pyrrole units linked by two triazole spacers. The 1,4-substitution of the 1,2,3-triazole spacers conveys different binding affinities to the two heteroditopic binding sites. These features make the receptor an ideal candidate to investigate allosteric cooperativity in the binding of ion-pair dimers. We probed the interaction of tetraalkylammonium salts (TBA·Cl, TBA·OCN, and MTOA·Cl) with the tetra-heterotopic macrocyclic receptor in chloroform solution using 1H NMR spectroscopic titration experiments. The results obtained show that, at millimolar concentration, the addition of 2 equiv of the salt to the receptor's solution induced the quantitative pairwise binding of the ion-pairs. The 2:1 (ion-pair:receptor) complexes feature different binding geometries and binding cooperativities depending on the nature of the alkylammonium cation. The binding geometries assigned to the complexes of the ion-pair dimers in solution are fully supported by X-ray diffraction analyses of single crystals. The thermodynamic features of the binding processes (separate or concomitant formation of 1:1 and 2:1 complexes), derived from isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) experiments, are rationalized by combining the different ion-pair binding modes of the salt dimers with the dissimilar electronic properties of the two nearby heteroditopic binding sites of the receptor.

15.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 20(37): 24192-24200, 2018 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30209451

RESUMO

In an effort to describe π-hole interactions, we undertook accurate high-resolution X-ray diffraction analyses of single crystals of 1,4-dinitrobenzene, a co-crystal of cis-tartaric acid and bis-pyridine N-oxide and the hydrochloride of B-4-pyridinylboronic acid. We selected these three compounds owing to the π-hole accessibility features that the sp2 hybridized B, C and N atoms provide, thus allowing us to compare the fundamental characteristics of π-hole interactions using Bader's Atom in Molecules (AIM) theory. This particular study required extremely accurate experimental diffraction data, because the interaction of interest is weak. As shown by the experimental charge density maps of the -YO2 (Y = B, C, N) units, we assign the depletion of electron-density present in the central boron, carbon and nitrogen atoms (electrophilic π-holes) as the main origin for the establishment of intermolecular Lewis acid-Lewis base attractive interaction with complementary electron-rich regions. Unexpectedly, the Bader's analyses of both experimentally and theoretically calculated charge distribution maps for the solid involving the - BO2H2 group do not show the presence of bond paths, neither of the bond critical points, between the interacting electron rich sites and the boron or carbon atoms featuring the electron hole. In contrast, these topological descriptors of chemical interactions for the AIM theory were easily located in the solid-state structures of the compounds involving the carboxylic and the nitro groups.

16.
Chem Asian J ; 13(12): 1632-1639, 2018 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29660260

RESUMO

We report the synthesis of two 2-(4'-pyridyl-N-oxide)-substituted hemithioindigos (HTIs). We probed their photoisomerization by using UV/Vis and 1 H NMR spectroscopy techniques. Light irradiation at λ=450 nm provoked the isomerization of the HTI Z isomer to the E counterpart to a large extent (≈80 % at the photostationary state). 1 H NMR titration experiments revealed the formation of thermodynamically and kinetically stable 1:1 inclusion complexes of the (Z)-HTI isomers with a super aryl-extended host (association constant>104 m-1 ). Photoirradiation at λ=450 nm of the inclusion complexes induced the isomerization of the bound HTI N-oxide to afford the (E)-HTI⊂calix[4]pyrrole complex. We determined accurate association constant values for the 1:1 inclusion complexes of the (Z)- and (E)-HTI isomers by using isothermal titration calorimetry experiments. The results showed that the stability constants of the (E)-HTI complexes were 2.2-2.8-fold lower than those of the (Z)-HTI counterparts, which explains the lack of light-induced release of the former to the bulk solution.

17.
ACS Omega ; 3(8): 9160-9171, 2018 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31459050

RESUMO

Two novel Cu(II)-based metal-organic frameworks [C40H34Cu2N6O18 (1) and C20H18CuN2O10 (2)] have been synthesized using 2-aminopyrimidine or pyrazine ligands and phthalate ion and characterized spectroscopically and by X-ray single-crystal diffraction. Both 1 and 2 show electrical conductivity and photosensitivity, evidencing their potentiality in optoelectronic device applications. Experimental and theoretical investigations revealed that the electrical conductivity under irradiation of visible light increases compared to that under dark condition (photosensitive Schottky barrier diode behavior), especially in complex 2. Both 1 and 2 have been successfully applied in technologically challenging thin-film active devices.

18.
Chemistry ; 24(9): 2182-2191, 2018 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29243315

RESUMO

We describe the syntheses of the lipophilic aryl-extended α,α,α,α-tetraurea-phenyl-calix[4]pyrrole 1, featuring four appended azo-phenyl groups with two tert-butoxy carbonyl meta-substituents and its photo-inactive counterpart 2. In CD2 Cl2 solutions, both tetraurea-calix[4]pyrroles self-assemble into dimeric capsules by encapsulating one molecule of a suitable bis-N-oxide or two molecules of a mono-N-oxide. The dimeric capsules are mainly stabilized by a cyclic array of sixteen hydrogen bonds established between the eight unidirectionally oriented urea groups. Photoirradiation experiments demonstrated the trans-to-cis isomerization of the azo-phenyl groups and the formation of a plethora of stereo isomeric cis-azo-enriched capsular assemblies. The highly cis-azo enriched capsular assemblies seem to show a reduced stability and their involvement in equilibria with non-capsular counterparts that also bind the N-oxides. The thermally induced cis-to-trans interconversion processes demonstrated the reversibility of the photoisomerization and the photostability of most binding partners. An equimolar mixture of the two tetraureas produced two homodimeric capsules and the heterodimeric counterpart in a ratio close to statistical distribution.

19.
J Am Chem Soc ; 139(35): 12109-12112, 2017 09 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28820939

RESUMO

We report the design, synthesis and characterization of a new RuII metallocavitand that is catalytically active in alkene epoxidation reactions. The elaboration of the resorcin[4]arene's aromatic cavity produced a self-folding, deep hexaamide cavitand featuring a single diverging terpyridine (tpy) group installed at its upper rim. The construction of the metallocavitand involved the initial chelation of a RuIII chloride complex by the tpy ligand followed by the incorporation of 2-(phenylazo)pyridine (azpy) as an ancillary ligand. The resulting RuII chloro complex was converted into the catalytically active aqua counterpart by a ligand exchange process.

20.
Chemistry ; 23(44): 10644-10651, 2017 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28556435

RESUMO

The deprotonation of a corannulene-based bisazolium salt allowed the preparation of a corannulene-based NHC di-AuI complex. The prepared di-AuI -complex was tested in the recognition of fullerene-C60 , demonstrating good binding affinity in toluene solution, and producing a host-guest complex with 3:1 stoichiometry, as evidenced by a combination of NMR spectroscopy and ITC titrations. The experimental results are fully supported by DFT calculations. The binding of C60 with the di-AuI complex in toluene solution is enthalpically and entropically favoured. Remarkably, the entropic term is the dominant parameter in the binding process. The good complementarity that exists between the concave shape of the corannulene-di-gold complex and the convex surface of the fullerene, together with the presence of tBu groups and the AuCl fragment are key factors for the measured high affinity between host and guest. The obtained results indicate that fullerene may be acting as a template for the formation of a self-assembled aggregate involving up to three molecules of the di-AuI complex.

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