Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 117
Filtrar
1.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(11)2020 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33167498

RESUMO

Hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer syndrome (HLRCC) is a very rare hereditary disorder characterized by cutaneous leiomyomas (CLMs), uterine leiomyomas (ULMs), renal cysts (RCys) and renal cell cancers (RCCs). We aimed to describe the genetics, clinical features and potential genotype-phenotype associations in the largest cohort of fumarate hydratase enzyme mutation carriers known from Spain using a multicentre, retrospective study of individuals with a genetic or clinical diagnosis of HLRCC. We collected clinical information from medical records, analysed genetic variants and looked for genotype-phenotype associations. Analyses were performed using R 3.6.0. software. We included 197 individuals: 74 index cases and 123 relatives. CLMs were diagnosed in 65% of patients, ULMs in 90% of women, RCys in 37% and RCC in 10.9%. Twenty-seven different pathogenic variants were detected, 12 (44%) of them not reported previously. Patients with missense pathogenic variants showed higher frequencies of CLMs, ULMs and RCys, than those with loss-of-function variants (p = 0.0380, p = 0.0015 and p = 0.024, respectively). This is the first report of patients with HLRCC from Spain. The frequency of RCCs was lower than those reported in the previously published series. Individuals with missense pathogenic variants had higher frequencies of CLMs, ULMs and RCys.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33157315

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Colonoscopy reduces colorectal (CRC) incidence and mortality in Lynch syndrome (LS) carriers. However, a high incidence of post-colonoscopy CRC (PCCRC) has been reported. Colonoscopy is highly dependent on operator skill and subject to quality variability. We aimed to evaluate the impact of key colonoscopy quality indicators on adenoma detection and prevention of PCCRC in LS. METHODS: We conducted a multicenter study focused on LS carriers without previous colorectal cancer undergoing colonoscopy surveillance (n=893). Incident colorectal neoplasia during surveillance and quality indicators of all colonoscopies were analyzed. We performed an emulated target trial comparing the results from first and second surveillance colonoscopies to assess the effect of colonoscopy quality indicators on adenoma detection and PCCRC incidence. Risk analyses were conducted using a multivariable logistic regression model. RESULTS: The 10-year cumulative incidence of adenoma and PCCRC was 60.6% (95%CI;55.5-65.2%) and 7.9% (95%CI:5.2-10.6%), respectively. Adequate bowel preparation (OR=2.07; 95%CI:1.06- 4.3) complete colonoscopies (20% vs. 0%; p=.01), and pan-chromoendoscopy use (OR=2.14; 95%CI:1.15-3.95) were associated with significant improvement in adenoma detection). PCCRC risk was significantly lower when colonoscopies were performed in a time interval of less than 3-year (OR=0.35; 95%CI: 0.14-0.97). We observed a consistent but not significant reduction in PCCRC risk for previous complete examination (OR=0.16; 95%CI: 0.03-1.28); adequate bowel preparation (OR=0.64; 95%CI:0.17-3.24) or previous use of high-definition colonoscopy (OR=0.37; 95%CI:0.02-2.33). CONCLUSIONS: Complete colonoscopies with adequate bowel preparation and chromoendoscopy use are associated with improved adenoma detection, while surveillance intervals less than 3 years are associated with reduction of PCCRC incidence. In Lynch syndrome, high-quality colonoscopy surveillance is of utmost importance for CRC prevention.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32923891

RESUMO

Most academic precision oncology programs have been designed to facilitate enrollment of patients in early clinical trials with matched targeted agents. Over the last decade, major changes were seen both in the targetable molecular alteration landscape and in drug development trends. In this article, we describe how the Vall d'Hebron Institute of Oncology molecular prescreening program adapted to a dynamic model of biomarker-drug codevelopment. We started with a tumor-agnostic hotspot mutation panel plus in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry of selected markers and subsequently transitioned to tumor-specific amplicon-based next-generation sequencing (NGS) tests together with custom copy number, fusion, and outlier gene expression panels. All assays are optimized for archived formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumor tissues without matched germline sequencing. In parallel, biomarker-matched trials evolved from a scenario of few targets and large populations (such as PI3K inhibitors in PIK3CA mutants) to a complex situation with many targets and small populations (such as multiple targetable fusion events). Recruitment rates in clinical trials with mandatory biomarkers decreased over the last 3 years. Molecular tumor board meetings proved critical to guide oncologists on emerging biomarkers for clinical testing and interpretation of NGS results. The substantial increase of immunotherapy trials had a major impact in target prioritization and guided clinical implementation of new markers, such as tumor mutational burden, with larger exon-based NGS assays and gene expression signatures to capture microenvironment infiltration patterns. This new multiomics era of precision oncology is expected to increase the opportunities for early clinical trial matching.

4.
Genet Med ; 22(12): 2089-2100, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32792570

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Germline pathogenic variants in the exonuclease domain (ED) of polymerases POLE and POLD1 predispose to adenomatous polyps, colorectal cancer (CRC), endometrial tumors, and other malignancies, and exhibit increased mutation rate and highly specific associated mutational signatures. The tumor spectrum and prevalence of POLE and POLD1 variants in hereditary cancer are evaluated in this study. METHODS: POLE and POLD1 were sequenced in 2813 unrelated probands referred for genetic counseling (2309 hereditary cancer patients subjected to a multigene panel, and 504 patients selected based on phenotypic characteristics). Cosegregation and case-control studies, yeast-based functional assays, and tumor mutational analyses were performed for variant interpretation. RESULTS: Twelve ED missense variants, 6 loss-of-function, and 23 outside-ED predicted-deleterious missense variants, all with population allele frequencies <1%, were identified. One ED variant (POLE p.Met294Arg) was classified as likely pathogenic, four as likely benign, and seven as variants of unknown significance. The most commonly associated tumor types were colorectal, endometrial and ovarian cancers. Loss-of-function and outside-ED variants are likely not pathogenic for this syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: Polymerase proofreading-associated syndrome constitutes 0.1-0.4% of familial cancer cases, reaching 0.3-0.7% when only CRC and polyposis are considered. ED variant interpretation is challenging and should include multiple pieces of evidence.

5.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(7)2020 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32635641

RESUMO

The causal mechanism for cancer predisposition in Lynch-like syndrome (LLS) remains unknown. Our aim was to elucidate the constitutional basis of mismatch repair (MMR) deficiency in LLS patients throughout a comprehensive (epi)genetic analysis. One hundred and fifteen LLS patients harboring MMR-deficient tumors and no germline MMR mutations were included. Mutational analysis of 26 colorectal cancer (CRC)-associated genes was performed. Pathogenicity of MMR variants was assessed by splicing and multifactorial likelihood analyses. Genome-wide methylome analysis was performed by the Infinium Human Methylation 450K Bead Chip. The multigene panel analysis revealed the presence of two MMR gene truncating mutations not previously found. Of a total of 15 additional MMR variants identified, five -present in 6 unrelated individuals- were reclassified as pathogenic. In addition, 13 predicted deleterious variants in other CRC-predisposing genes were found in 12 probands. Methylome analysis detected one constitutional MLH1 epimutation, but no additional differentially methylated regions were identified in LLS compared to LS patients or cancer-free individuals. In conclusion, the use of an ad-hoc designed gene panel combined with pathogenicity assessment of variants allowed the identification of deleterious MMR mutations as well as new LLS candidate causal genes. Constitutional epimutations in non-LS-associated genes are not responsible for LLS.

6.
Genet Med ; 22(10): 1653-1666, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32665703

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We assessed the associations between population-based polygenic risk scores (PRS) for breast (BC) or epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) with cancer risks for BRCA1 and BRCA2 pathogenic variant carriers. METHODS: Retrospective cohort data on 18,935 BRCA1 and 12,339 BRCA2 female pathogenic variant carriers of European ancestry were available. Three versions of a 313 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) BC PRS were evaluated based on whether they predict overall, estrogen receptor (ER)-negative, or ER-positive BC, and two PRS for overall or high-grade serous EOC. Associations were validated in a prospective cohort. RESULTS: The ER-negative PRS showed the strongest association with BC risk for BRCA1 carriers (hazard ratio [HR] per standard deviation = 1.29 [95% CI 1.25-1.33], P = 3×10-72). For BRCA2, the strongest association was with overall BC PRS (HR = 1.31 [95% CI 1.27-1.36], P = 7×10-50). HR estimates decreased significantly with age and there was evidence for differences in associations by predicted variant effects on protein expression. The HR estimates were smaller than general population estimates. The high-grade serous PRS yielded the strongest associations with EOC risk for BRCA1 (HR = 1.32 [95% CI 1.25-1.40], P = 3×10-22) and BRCA2 (HR = 1.44 [95% CI 1.30-1.60], P = 4×10-12) carriers. The associations in the prospective cohort were similar. CONCLUSION: Population-based PRS are strongly associated with BC and EOC risks for BRCA1/2 carriers and predict substantial absolute risk differences for women at PRS distribution extremes.

8.
Eur J Cancer ; 132: 53-60, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32325420

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Whether risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy (RRSO) in BRCA1/2 carriers reduces the breast cancer (BC) risk is conflicting, potentially due to methodological issues of prior analysis. We analysed the association between premenopausal RRSO and BC risk in BRCA1/2 carriers after adjusting for potential biases. METHODS: We analysed data from 444 BRCA1 and 409 BRCA2 carriers under age 51 with no cancer prior to genetic testing or during first 6 months of surveillance (to avoid cancer-induced testing bias and prevalent-cancer bias). Observation started 6 months after genetic testing (to avoid event-free time bias), until BC diagnosis, risk-reducing mastectomy (RRM) or death. A multistate model with four states (non-RRSO, RRSO, RRM and BC) and five transitions was fitted to characterise outcomes and to calculate the BC risk reduction after premenopausal RRSO (before age 51). A systematic review was performed to assess the association between premenopausal RRSO and BC. RESULTS: During a mean follow-up of 4.3 years, 96 women (11.3%) developed BC (54 BRCA1, 42 BRCA2). The risk of BC after premenopausal RRSO decreased significantly in BRCA1 carriers (hazard ratio (HR) = 0.45 [95% confidence interval (CI):0.22-0.92]), but was not conclusive in BRCA2 carriers (HR = 0.77 [95%CI:0.35-1.67]). The systematic review suggested that premenopausal RRSO is associated with a decrease of BC risk in both BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers. CONCLUSIONS: Premenopausal RRSO was associated with BC risk reduction in BRCA1 carriers, which can help guide cancer risk-reducing strategies in this population. Longer follow-up and larger sample size may be needed to estimate the potential benefit in BRCA2 carriers.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/cirurgia , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Pré-Menopausa , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Salpingo-Ooforectomia/métodos , Adulto , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Testes Genéticos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
9.
Genet Epidemiol ; 44(5): 442-468, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32115800

RESUMO

Previous transcriptome-wide association studies (TWAS) have identified breast cancer risk genes by integrating data from expression quantitative loci and genome-wide association studies (GWAS), but analyses of breast cancer subtype-specific associations have been limited. In this study, we conducted a TWAS using gene expression data from GTEx and summary statistics from the hitherto largest GWAS meta-analysis conducted for breast cancer overall, and by estrogen receptor subtypes (ER+ and ER-). We further compared associations with ER+ and ER- subtypes, using a case-only TWAS approach. We also conducted multigene conditional analyses in regions with multiple TWAS associations. Two genes, STXBP4 and HIST2H2BA, were specifically associated with ER+ but not with ER- breast cancer. We further identified 30 TWAS-significant genes associated with overall breast cancer risk, including four that were not identified in previous studies. Conditional analyses identified single independent breast-cancer gene in three of six regions harboring multiple TWAS-significant genes. Our study provides new information on breast cancer genetics and biology, particularly about genomic differences between ER+ and ER- breast cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Receptores Estrogênicos/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Estrogênios/metabolismo , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genômica , Humanos , Medição de Risco , Transcriptoma , Proteínas de Transporte Vesicular/genética
11.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 112(12): 1242-1250, 2020 Dec 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32107557

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to estimate precise age-specific tubo-ovarian carcinoma (TOC) and breast cancer (BC) risks for carriers of pathogenic variants in RAD51C and RAD51D. METHODS: We analyzed data from 6178 families, 125 with pathogenic variants in RAD51C, and 6690 families, 60 with pathogenic variants in RAD51D. TOC and BC relative and cumulative risks were estimated using complex segregation analysis to model the cancer inheritance patterns in families while adjusting for the mode of ascertainment of each family. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: Pathogenic variants in both RAD51C and RAD51D were associated with TOC (RAD51C: relative risk [RR] = 7.55, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 5.60 to 10.19; P = 5 × 10-40; RAD51D: RR = 7.60, 95% CI = 5.61 to 10.30; P = 5 × 10-39) and BC (RAD51C: RR = 1.99, 95% CI = 1.39 to 2.85; P = 1.55 × 10-4; RAD51D: RR = 1.83, 95% CI = 1.24 to 2.72; P = .002). For both RAD51C and RAD51D, there was a suggestion that the TOC relative risks increased with age until around age 60 years and decreased thereafter. The estimated cumulative risks of developing TOC to age 80 years were 11% (95% CI = 6% to 21%) for RAD51C and 13% (95% CI = 7% to 23%) for RAD51D pathogenic variant carriers. The estimated cumulative risks of developing BC to 80 years were 21% (95% CI = 15% to 29%) for RAD51C and 20% (95% CI = 14% to 28%) for RAD51D pathogenic variant carriers. Both TOC and BC risks for RAD51C and RAD51D pathogenic variant carriers varied by cancer family history and could be as high as 32-36% for TOC, for carriers with two first-degree relatives diagnosed with TOC, or 44-46% for BC, for carriers with two first-degree relatives diagnosed with BC. CONCLUSIONS: These estimates will facilitate the genetic counseling of RAD51C and RAD51D pathogenic variant carriers and justify the incorporation of RAD51C and RAD51D into cancer risk prediction models.

12.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(2)2020 01 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31991861

RESUMO

Germline protein truncating variants (PTVs) in the FANCM gene have been associated with a 2-4-fold increased breast cancer risk in case-control studies conducted in different European populations. However, the distribution and the frequency of FANCM PTVs in Europe have never been investigated. In the present study, we collected the data of 114 European female breast cancer cases with FANCM PTVs ascertained in 20 centers from 13 European countries. We identified 27 different FANCM PTVs. The p.Gln1701* PTV is the most common PTV in Northern Europe with a maximum frequency in Finland and a lower relative frequency in Southern Europe. On the contrary, p.Arg1931* seems to be the most common PTV in Southern Europe. We also showed that p.Arg658*, the third most common PTV, is more frequent in Central Europe, and p.Gln498Thrfs*7 is probably a founder variant from Lithuania. Of the 23 rare or unique FANCM PTVs, 15 have not been previously reported. We provide here the initial spectrum of FANCM PTVs in European breast cancer cases.

13.
Nat Genet ; 52(1): 56-73, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31911677

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies have identified breast cancer risk variants in over 150 genomic regions, but the mechanisms underlying risk remain largely unknown. These regions were explored by combining association analysis with in silico genomic feature annotations. We defined 205 independent risk-associated signals with the set of credible causal variants in each one. In parallel, we used a Bayesian approach (PAINTOR) that combines genetic association, linkage disequilibrium and enriched genomic features to determine variants with high posterior probabilities of being causal. Potentially causal variants were significantly over-represented in active gene regulatory regions and transcription factor binding sites. We applied our INQUSIT pipeline for prioritizing genes as targets of those potentially causal variants, using gene expression (expression quantitative trait loci), chromatin interaction and functional annotations. Known cancer drivers, transcription factors and genes in the developmental, apoptosis, immune system and DNA integrity checkpoint gene ontology pathways were over-represented among the highest-confidence target genes.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico/métodos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Teorema de Bayes , Feminino , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Sequências Reguladoras de Ácido Nucleico , Fatores de Risco
14.
J Med Genet ; 57(4): 258-268, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31586946

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Patients with Fanconi anaemia (FA), a rare DNA repair genetic disease, exhibit chromosome fragility, bone marrow failure, malformations and cancer susceptibility. FA molecular diagnosis is challenging since FA is caused by point mutations and large deletions in 22 genes following three heritability patterns. To optimise FA patients' characterisation, we developed a simplified but effective methodology based on whole exome sequencing (WES) and functional studies. METHODS: 68 patients with FA were analysed by commercial WES services. Copy number variations were evaluated by sequencing data analysis with RStudio. To test FANCA missense variants, wt FANCA cDNA was cloned and variants were introduced by site-directed mutagenesis. Vectors were then tested for their ability to complement DNA repair defects of a FANCA-KO human cell line generated by TALEN technologies. RESULTS: We identified 93.3% of mutated alleles including large deletions. We determined the pathogenicity of three FANCA missense variants and demonstrated that two FANCA variants reported in mutations databases as 'affecting functions' are SNPs. Deep analysis of sequencing data revealed patients' true mutations, highlighting the importance of functional analysis. In one patient, no pathogenic variant could be identified in any of the 22 known FA genes, and in seven patients, only one deleterious variant could be identified (three patients each with FANCA and FANCD2 and one patient with FANCE mutations) CONCLUSION: WES and proper bioinformatics analysis are sufficient to effectively characterise patients with FA regardless of the rarity of their complementation group, type of mutations, mosaic condition and DNA source.

15.
Cancer Res ; 80(3): 624-638, 2020 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31723001

RESUMO

Pathogenic sequence variants (PSV) in BRCA1 or BRCA2 (BRCA1/2) are associated with increased risk and severity of prostate cancer. We evaluated whether PSVs in BRCA1/2 were associated with risk of overall prostate cancer or high grade (Gleason 8+) prostate cancer using an international sample of 65 BRCA1 and 171 BRCA2 male PSV carriers with prostate cancer, and 3,388 BRCA1 and 2,880 BRCA2 male PSV carriers without prostate cancer. PSVs in the 3' region of BRCA2 (c.7914+) were significantly associated with elevated risk of prostate cancer compared with reference bin c.1001-c.7913 [HR = 1.78; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.25-2.52; P = 0.001], as well as elevated risk of Gleason 8+ prostate cancer (HR = 3.11; 95% CI, 1.63-5.95; P = 0.001). c.756-c.1000 was also associated with elevated prostate cancer risk (HR = 2.83; 95% CI, 1.71-4.68; P = 0.00004) and elevated risk of Gleason 8+ prostate cancer (HR = 4.95; 95% CI, 2.12-11.54; P = 0.0002). No genotype-phenotype associations were detected for PSVs in BRCA1. These results demonstrate that specific BRCA2 PSVs may be associated with elevated risk of developing aggressive prostate cancer. SIGNIFICANCE: Aggressive prostate cancer risk in BRCA2 mutation carriers may vary according to the specific BRCA2 mutation inherited by the at-risk individual.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genômica/métodos , Mutação , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Associação Genética , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
16.
Cancer Lett ; 472: 1-7, 2020 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31830560

RESUMO

Fanconi anemia (FA) is a rare genome instability syndrome characterized by progressive bone marrow failure and predisposition to cancer, especially head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Surgical resection is the standard of care for solid tumors, as patients with FA do not tolerate genotoxic chemotherapies or radiation, leading to poor prognosis. It is therefore imperative to develop chemoprevention strategies such as the identification of novel biomarkers to detect the formation of the tumor before its emergence and to use them in clinical trials aimed to counteract genome instability of patients with FA in tissues at risk. Micronuclei (MN) are chromosome fragments that are left behind in anaphase and appear in daughter cells as small additional nuclei. In this work, we analyzed MN frequencies in exfoliated buccal cells from 40 patients with FA and 24 controls. We found that MN frequency was significantly increased in the FA cohort indicating that we can detect chromosome fragility in patients with FA in basal conditions and in a tissue that is divided in vivo. Consequently, the MN assay in exfoliated buccal cells of patients with FA could be used in cancer risk studies and clinical trials aimed to identify cancer chemopreventive drugs.


Assuntos
Fragilidade Cromossômica/genética , Anemia de Fanconi/genética , Micronúcleos com Defeito Cromossômico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Dano ao DNA/genética , Epitélio/metabolismo , Epitélio/patologia , Anemia de Fanconi/tratamento farmacológico , Anemia de Fanconi/patologia , Feminino , Instabilidade Genômica/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Testes para Micronúcleos/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mucosa Bucal/metabolismo , Mucosa Bucal/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/patologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 5661, 2019 12 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31827092

RESUMO

BRCA1 mutant carcinomas are sensitive to PARP inhibitor (PARPi) therapy; however, resistance arises. BRCA1 BRCT domain mutant proteins do not fold correctly and are subject to proteasomal degradation, resulting in PARPi sensitivity. In this study, we show that cell lines and patient-derived tumors, with highly disruptive BRCT domain mutations, have readily detectable BRCA1 protein expression, and are able to proliferate in the presence of PARPi. Peptide analyses reveal that chemo-resistant cancers contain residues encoded by BRCA1 intron 15. Mechanistically, cancers with BRCT domain mutations harbor BRCA1 gene breakpoints within or adjacent to Alu elements in intron 15; producing partial gene duplications, inversions and translocations, and terminating transcription prior to the mutation-containing BRCT domain. BRCA1 BRCT domain-deficient protein isoforms avoid mutation-induced proteasomal degradation, support homology-dependent DNA repair, and promote PARPi resistance. Taken together, Alu-mediated BRCA1 gene rearrangements are responsible for generating hypomorphic proteins, and may represent a biomarker of PARPi resistance.


Assuntos
Elementos Alu , Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Rearranjo Gênico , Íntrons , Inibidores de Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/administração & dosagem , Animais , Proteína BRCA1/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Inversão Cromossômica , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Feminino , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Translocação Genética
18.
NPJ Breast Cancer ; 5: 38, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31700994

RESUMO

Breast cancer is a common disease partially caused by genetic risk factors. Germline pathogenic variants in DNA repair genes BRCA1, BRCA2, PALB2, ATM, and CHEK2 are associated with breast cancer risk. FANCM, which encodes for a DNA translocase, has been proposed as a breast cancer predisposition gene, with greater effects for the ER-negative and triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) subtypes. We tested the three recurrent protein-truncating variants FANCM:p.Arg658*, p.Gln1701*, and p.Arg1931* for association with breast cancer risk in 67,112 cases, 53,766 controls, and 26,662 carriers of pathogenic variants of BRCA1 or BRCA2. These three variants were also studied functionally by measuring survival and chromosome fragility in FANCM -/- patient-derived immortalized fibroblasts treated with diepoxybutane or olaparib. We observed that FANCM:p.Arg658* was associated with increased risk of ER-negative disease and TNBC (OR = 2.44, P = 0.034 and OR = 3.79; P = 0.009, respectively). In a country-restricted analysis, we confirmed the associations detected for FANCM:p.Arg658* and found that also FANCM:p.Arg1931* was associated with ER-negative breast cancer risk (OR = 1.96; P = 0.006). The functional results indicated that all three variants were deleterious affecting cell survival and chromosome stability with FANCM:p.Arg658* causing more severe phenotypes. In conclusion, we confirmed that the two rare FANCM deleterious variants p.Arg658* and p.Arg1931* are risk factors for ER-negative and TNBC subtypes. Overall our data suggest that the effect of truncating variants on breast cancer risk may depend on their position in the gene. Cell sensitivity to olaparib exposure, identifies a possible therapeutic option to treat FANCM-associated tumors.

19.
Int J Gynecol Cancer ; 29(9): 1396-1404, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31685558

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To report results from an integrated efficacy and safety analysis supporting the European Commission's approval of the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitor rucaparib as monotherapy treatment for relapsed, platinum-sensitive, BRCA-mutated ovarian cancer. METHODS: Efficacy was analyzed in platinum-sensitive patients from Study 10 (NCT01482715) and ARIEL2 (NCT01891344) who had high-grade serous or endometrioid epithelial ovarian, fallopian tube, or primary peritoneal cancer and a deleterious BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation and received two or more prior chemotherapies (including two or more platinum-based therapies). The primary end point was investigator-assessed, confirmed objective response rate (visit cut-off: April 10, 2017). Safety was analyzed in patients with ovarian cancer, regardless of BRCA mutation status or lines of prior chemotherapies, who received at least one dose of rucaparib 600 mg in either study (visit cut-off: December 31, 2017). RESULTS: In the integrated platinum-sensitive efficacy population (n=79), objective response rate was 64.6% (95% CI, 53.0 to 75.0); 10.1% (8/79) of patients had a complete response and 54.4% (43/79) had a partial response. Median duration of response was 294 days (95% CI, 224 to 393). In the integrated safety population (n=565), the most common any-grade treatment-emergent adverse events were nausea (77.7%, 439/565), asthenia/fatigue (74.7%, 422/565), vomiting (45.8%, 259/565), and hemoglobin decreased (44.2%, 250/565). Treatment-emergent adverse events led to treatment interruption, dose reduction, or discontinuation in 60.2% (340/565), 46.0% (260/565), and 16.8% (95/565) of patients. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with platinum-sensitive, BRCA-mutated ovarian cancer, rucaparib demonstrated antitumor activity and is the first and currently the only poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitor approved by the European Commission as treatment for this population. The safety analysis used a more recent visit cut-off date and larger population than previously published, was consistent with prior reports, and was the basis for the treatment-indication safety population in rucaparib's recently updated European Union label.


Assuntos
Indóis/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Feminino , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Indóis/efeitos adversos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Compostos Organoplatínicos/farmacologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Inibidores de Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/efeitos adversos , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/genética
20.
Hum Mutat ; 40(12): 2296-2317, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31343793

RESUMO

BRCA1 and BRCA2 (BRCA1/2) genetic variants that disrupt messenger RNA splicing are commonly associated with increased risks of developing breast/ovarian cancer. The majority of splicing studies published to date rely on qualitative methodologies (i.e., Sanger sequencing), but it is necessary to incorporate semi-quantitative or quantitative approaches to accurately interpret the clinical significance of spliceogenic variants. Here, we characterize the splicing impact of 31 BRCA1/2 variants using semi-quantitative capillary electrophoresis of fluorescent amplicons (CE), Sanger sequencing and allele-specific assays. A total of 14 variants were found to disrupt splicing. Allelic-specific assays could be performed for BRCA1 c.302-1G>A and BRCA2 c.516+2T>A, c.1909+1G>A, c.8332-13T>G, c.8332-2A>G, c.8954-2A>T variants, showing a monoallelic contribution to full-length transcript expression that was concordant with semi-quantitative data. The splicing fraction of alternative and aberrant transcripts was also measured by CE, facilitating variant interpretation. Following Evidence-based Network for the Interpretation of Germline Mutant Alleles criteria, we successfully classified eight variants as pathogenic (Class 5), five variants as likely pathogenic (Class 4), and 14 variants as benign (Class 1). We also provide splicing data for four variants classified as uncertain (Class 3), which produced a "leaky" splicing effect or introduced a missense change in the protein sequence, that will require further assessment to determine their clinical significance.


Assuntos
Processamento Alternativo , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Síndrome Hereditária de Câncer de Mama e Ovário/genética , Eletroforese Capilar , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Polimorfismo Genético , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA