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1.
EBioMedicine ; 51: 102584, 2020 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31901861

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genetic risk factors for dengue hemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome (DHF/DSS) and dengue fever (DF) are limited, in particular there are sparse data on genetic risk across diverse populations. METHODS: We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in a derivation and validation sample of 7, 460 participants of Latin American, South Asian, and South East Asian ancestries. We then developed a weighted polygenic risk score (PRS) for each participant in each of the validation cohorts of the three ancestries to predict the risk of DHF/DSS compared to DF, DHF/DSS compared to controls, and, DF compared to controls. FINDINGS: The risk of DHF/DSS was significantly increased, odds ratio [OR] 1.84 (95%CI 1.47 to 2.31) (195 SNPs), compared to DF, fourth PRS quartile versus first quartile, in the validation cohort. The risk of DHF/DSS compared to controls was increased (OR=3.94; 95% CI 2.84 to 5.45) (278 SNPs), as was the risk of DF compared to controls (OR=1.97; 95%CI 1.63 to 2.39) (251 SNPs). Risk increased in a dose-dependent manner with increase in quartiles of PRS across comparisons. Significant associations persisted for PRS built within ancestries and applied to the same or different ancestries as well as for PRS built for one outcome (DHF/DSS or DF) and applied to the other. INTERPRETATION: There is a strong genetic effect that predisposes to risk of DHF/DSS and DF. The genetic risk for DHF/DSS is higher than that for DF when compared to controls, and this effect persists across multiple ancestries.

2.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 2019 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31870907

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Paedeatric Zika remains an understudied topic. WHO and the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) Zika case definitions have not been assessed in children. We aimed to characterise clinical profiles and evaluate the diagnostic performance of the WHO and PAHO case definitions in a large cohort of paediatric Zika cases. METHODS: From January, 2016 to February, 2017, encompassing the major 2016 Zika epidemic, participants in the Pediatric Dengue Cohort Study (PDCS) in Managua, Nicaragua, were encouraged to visit the study health centre at first indication of any illness. PDCS participants were aged 2-14 years, healthy at enrolment, and recruited before the initiation of the present study. Molecular and serological assays were used to test participants exhibiting any of four broad clinical profiles suspected of resulting from a symptomatic Zika virus infection. These clinical profiles were: fever and at least two of headache, retro-orbital pain, myalgia, arthralgia, rash, haemorrhagic manifestations, and leukopenia; fever and at least two of nausea or vomiting, rash, aches and pains, positive tourniquet test, leukopenia, and any dengue warning sign; undifferentiated fever without evident cause, with or without any other clinical finding; and afebrile rash with or without any other clinical finding. We characterised acute clinical findings (signs, symptoms, and complete blood counts) in both Zika cases and non-Zika cases. FINDINGS: We prospectively followed a cohort of about 3700 children, of which 1110 were deemed eligible for inclusion. Four participants with laboratory-confirmed Zika (three co-infections with dengue virus, one missing complete blood count data) and two participants who were non-Zika cases (missing complete blood count data) were excluded from analysis. We analysed 556 laboratory-confirmed Zika and 548 non-Zika cases. The WHO case definition captured 176 confirmed Zika cases, and the PAHO definition 109 confirmed Zika cases, who presented with the most clinical findings and a dengue-like clinical profile. The remaining two thirds of Zika cases, principally characterised by undifferentiated fever or afebrile rash, were missed. Among Zika cases, rash (n=440)-particularly generalised erythematous rash (n=334)-fever (n=333), leukopenia (n=217), and headache (n=203) were most common and peaked within 3 days of illness onset. The most common Zika presentation over the first week of illness was rash only (n=80). The sensitivity of Zika case definitions increased across paediatric age (from 11·3% to 56·1% for the WHO case definition and from 6·0% to 36·6% for the PAHO case definition), as the prevalence of most clinical findings (particularly arthralgia) increased with age, irrespective of previous dengue virus infection. Consequently, Zika manifested differently across paediatric age; older Zika cases presented with a dengue-like clinical profile while younger Zika cases presented with undifferentiated fever or afebrile rash. INTERPRETATION: We provide the most thorough description of paediatric Zika to date. Most paediatric Zika cases go undetected under the WHO and PAHO case definitions, suggesting that current standards for Zika case ascertainment require revision. Zika manifests with mild but differing clinical profiles across paediatric age, presenting major challenges to diagnosis, surveillance, and efforts to control future Zika epidemics. FUNDING: US National Institutes of Health.

3.
Cell Rep ; 29(13): 4482-4495.e4, 2019 Dec 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31875555

RESUMO

Dengue virus (DENV) can cause diseases ranging from dengue fever (DF) to more severe dengue hemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome (DHF/DSS). Whether antiviral T cells contribute to the protection against or pathogenesis of severe disease is not well defined. Here, we identified antigen-specific IL-10+IFN-γ+ double-positive (DP) CD4 T cells during acute DENV infection. While the transcriptomic signatures of DP cells partially overlapped with those of cytotoxic and type 1 regulatory CD4 T cells, the majority of them were non-cytotoxic/Tr1 and included IL21, IL22, CD109, and CCR1. Although we observed a higher frequency of DP cells in DHF, the transcriptomic profile of DP cells was similar in DF and DHF, suggesting that DHF is not associated with the altered phenotypic or functional attributes of DP cells. Overall, this study revealed a DENV-specific DP cell subset in patients with acute dengue disease and argues against altered DP cells as a determinant of DHF.

4.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 16258, 2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31700029

RESUMO

The four dengue virus serotypes (DENV1-4) cause major public health problems worldwide. Highly neutralizing type-specific human monoclonal antibodies (hmAbs) target conformation-dependent epitopes on the DENV envelope protein, including 1F4, a DENV1 type-specific hmAb. Using a recombinant DENV2 virus displaying the DENV1 1F4 epitope (rDENV2/1), we measured the proportion and kinetics of DENV1 neutralizing antibodies targeting the 1F4 epitope in individuals living in Asia and the Americas where different DENV1 genotypes were circulating. Samples from 20 individuals were analyzed 3 and 18 months post-primary DENV1 infection, alongside samples from 4 individuals collected annually for four years post-primary DENV1 infection, from two studies in Nicaragua. We also analyzed convalescent post-primary DENV1 plasma samples from Sri Lankan individuals. We found that neutralizing antibodies recognizing the 1F4 epitope vary in prevalence across both populations and were detected from 20 days to four years post-infection. Additionally, both populations displayed substantial variability, with a range of high to low proportions of DENV1 type-specific neutralizing antibodies recognizing the 1F4 epitope seen across individuals. Thus, the 1F4 epitope is a major but not exclusive target of type-specific neutralizing antibodies post-primary infection with different DENV1 genotypes in Asia and Latin America, and additional epitopes likely contribute to type-specific neutralization of DENV1.

6.
Lancet Child Adolesc Health ; 3(11): 781-794, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31492594

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Since influenza often presents non-specifically in infancy, we aimed to assess the extent to which existing respiratory surveillance platforms might underestimate the frequency of severe influenza disease among infants. METHODS: The Influenza and Respiratory Syncytial Virus in Infants (IRIS) study was a prospective observational study done at four hospitals in Albania, Jordan, Nicaragua, and the Philippines. We included acutely ill infants aged younger than 1 year admitted to hospital within 10 days or less of illness onset during two influenza seasons (2015-16 and 2016-17) in Albania, Jordan, and Nicaragua, and over a continuous 34 week period (2015-16) in the Philippines. We assessed the frequency of influenza virus infections by real-time RT-PCR (rRT-PCR) and serology. The main study outcome was seroconversion, defined as convalescent antibody titres more than or equal to four-fold higher than acute sera antibody titres, and convalescent antibody titres of 40 or higher. Seroconverison was confirmed by haemagglutination inhibition assay for influenza A viruses, and by hemagglutination inhibition assay and microneutralisation for influenza B viruses. FINDINGS: Between June 27, 2015, and April 21, 2017, 3634 acutely ill infants were enrolled, of whom 1943 were enrolled during influenza seasons and had complete acute-convalescent pairs and thus were included in the final analytical sample. Of the 1943 infants, 94 (5%) were influenza-positive by both rRT-PCR and serology, 58 (3%) were positive by rRT-PCR-only, and 102 (5%) were positive by serology only. Seroconversion to at least one of the influenza A or B viruses was observed among 196 (77%) of 254 influenza-positive infants. Of the 254 infants with influenza virus, 84 (33%) only had non-respiratory clinical discharge diagnoses (eg, sepsis, febrile seizures, dehydration, or other non-respiratory viral illness). A focus on respiratory diagnoses and rRT-PCR-confirmed influenza underdetects influenza-associated hospital admissions among infants by a factor of 2·6 (95% CI 2·0-3·6). Findings were unchanged when syndromic severe acute respiratory infection criteria were applied instead of clinical diagnosis. INTERPRETATION: If the true incidence of laboratory-confirmed influenza-associated hospital admissions among infants is at least twice that of previous estimates, this substantially increases the global burden of severe influenza and expands our estimates of the preventive value of maternal and infant influenza vaccination programmes. FUNDING: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

7.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2019 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31562814

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies suggest that the nose/throat microbiome may play an important role in shaping host immunity and modifying the risk of respiratory infection. Our aim is to quantify the association between the nose/throat microbiome and susceptibility to influenza virus infection. METHODS: In this household transmission study, index cases with confirmed influenza virus infection and their household contacts were followed for 9-12 days to identify secondary influenza infections. Respiratory swabs were collected at enrollment to identify and quantify bacterial species via high- performance sequencing. Data were analyzed by an individual hazard-based transmission model that was adjusted for age, vaccination, and household size. RESULTS: We recruited 115 index cases with influenza A(H3N2) or B infection, and 436 household contacts. We estimated that a 10-fold increase in the abundance in Streptococcus spp. and Prevotella salivae was associated with 48% (95% CI: 9%, 69%) and 25% (95% CI: 0.5%, 42%) lower susceptibility to influenza A(H3N2) infection, respectively. By contrast, for influenza B infection, a 10-fold increase in the abundance in Streptococcus vestibularis and Prevotella spp. was associated with 63% (95% CI: 17%, 83%) lower and 83% (95% CI: 15%, 210%) higher susceptibility, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Susceptibility to influenza infection is associated with the nose/throat microbiome at the time of exposure. The effects of oligotypes on susceptibility differ between influenza A(H3N2) and B viruses. Our results suggest that microbiome may be a useful predictor of susceptibility, with the implication that microbiome could be modulated to reduce influenza infection risk, should these associations be causal.

8.
PLoS One ; 14(9): e0222381, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31513690

RESUMO

We describe the epidemiological characteristics, pattern of circulation, and geographical distribution of influenza B viruses and its lineages using data from the Global Influenza B Study. We included over 1.8 million influenza cases occurred in thirty-one countries during 2000-2018. We calculated the proportion of cases caused by influenza B and its lineages; determined the timing of influenza A and B epidemics; compared the age distribution of B/Victoria and B/Yamagata cases; and evaluated the frequency of lineage-level mismatch for the trivalent vaccine. The median proportion of influenza cases caused by influenza B virus was 23.4%, with a tendency (borderline statistical significance, p = 0.060) to be higher in tropical vs. temperate countries. Influenza B was the dominant virus type in about one every seven seasons. In temperate countries, influenza B epidemics occurred on average three weeks later than influenza A epidemics; no consistent pattern emerged in the tropics. The two B lineages caused a comparable proportion of influenza B cases globally, however the B/Yamagata was more frequent in temperate countries, and the B/Victoria in the tropics (p = 0.048). B/Yamagata patients were significantly older than B/Victoria patients in almost all countries. A lineage-level vaccine mismatch was observed in over 40% of seasons in temperate countries and in 30% of seasons in the tropics. The type B virus caused a substantial proportion of influenza infections globally in the 21st century, and its two virus lineages differed in terms of age and geographical distribution of patients. These findings will help inform health policy decisions aiming to reduce disease burden associated with seasonal influenza.

9.
Ann Epidemiol ; 37: 51-56.e6, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31451313

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Manifestations of infection and the degree of influenza virus vary. We hypothesized that the nose/throat microbiota modifies the duration of influenza symptoms and viral shedding. Exploring these relationships may help identify additional methods for reducing influenza severity and transmission. METHODS: Using a household transmission study in Nicaragua, we identified secondary cases of influenza virus infection, defined as contacts with detectable virus or a greater than 4-fold change in hemagglutinin inhibition antibody titer. We characterized the nose/throat microbiota of secondary cases before infection and explored whether the duration of symptoms and shedding differed by bacterial community characteristics. RESULTS: Among 124 secondary cases of influenza, higher bacterial community diversity before infection was associated with longer shedding duration (Shannon acceleration factor [AF]: 1.61, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.24, 2.10) and earlier time to infection (Shannon AF: 0.72, 95% CI: 0.53, 0.97; Chao1 AF: 0.992, 95% CI: 0.986, 0.998). Neisseria and multiple other oligotypes were significantly associated with symptom and shedding durations and time to infection. CONCLUSIONS: The nose/throat microbiota before influenza virus infection was associated with influenza symptoms and shedding durations. Further studies are needed to determine if the nose/throat microbiota is a viable target for reducing influenza symptoms and transmission.

10.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 19(1): 282, 2019 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31391005

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Until recently, Zika virus (ZIKV) infections were considered mild and self-limiting. Since 2015, they have been associated with an increase in microcephaly and other birth defects in newborns. While this association has been observed in case reports and epidemiological studies, the nature and extent of the relationship between ZIKV and adverse pregnancy and pediatric health outcomes is not well understood. With the unique opportunity to prospectively explore the full spectrum of issues related to ZIKV exposure during pregnancy, we undertook a multi-country, prospective cohort study to evaluate the association between ZIKV and pregnancy, neonatal, and infant outcomes. METHODS: At research sites in ZIKV endemic regions of Brazil (4 sites), Colombia, Guatemala, Nicaragua, Puerto Rico (2 sites), and Peru, up to 10,000 pregnant women will be recruited and consented in the first and early second trimesters of pregnancy and then followed through delivery up to 6 weeks post-partum; their infants will be followed until at least 1 year of age. Pregnant women with symptomatic ZIKV infection confirmed by presence of ZIKV RNA and/or IgM for ZIKV will also be enrolled, regardless of gestational age. Participants will be tested monthly for ZIKV infection; additional demographic, physical, laboratory and environmental data will be collected to assess the potential interaction of these variables with ZIKV infection. Delivery outcomes and detailed infant assessments, including physical and neurological outcomes, will be obtained. DISCUSSION: With the emergence of ZIKV in the Americas and its association with adverse pregnancy outcomes in this region, a much better understanding of the spectrum of clinical outcomes associated with exposure to ZIKV during pregnancy is needed. This cohort study will provide information about maternal, fetal, and infant outcomes related to ZIKV infection, including congenital ZIKV syndrome, and manifestations that are not detectable at birth but may appear during the first year of life. In addition, the flexibility of the study design has provided an opportunity to modify study parameters in real time to provide rigorous research data to answer the most critical questions about the impact of congenital ZIKV exposure. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT02856984 . Registered August 5, 2016. Retrospectively registered.

11.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2019 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31257406

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) causes substantial morbidity and mortality among children worldwide, commonly through acute lower respiratory tract infections (ALRI). To assess the incidence of symptomatic RSV illness among young children, we conducted a prospective birth cohort study following children from 0-2 years of age in Managua, Nicaragua. METHODS: Children meeting the testing criteria (fever, history of fever, or severe respiratory symptoms [apnea, stridor, nasal flaring, wheezing, chest indrawing, and/or central cyanosis]), were tested for RSV infection using real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Acute lower respiratory infection was defined as diagnosis of pneumonia, bronchiolitis, bronchitis, or bronchial hyper-reactivity. Incidence was calculated, and 95% confidence intervals estimated using a Poisson distribution. RESULTS: A total of 833 children participated in the cohort, 289 (34.7%) had at least one episode of laboratory-confirmed RSV, and 156 (18.7%) of RSV-associated ALRI (RSV-ALRI). The incidence of symptomatic RSV was 248.1 cases per 1000 person-years (95% confidence interval [CI]: 223.2, 275.7). While infants aged 6-11 months had the highest incidence of symptomatic RSV (361.3/1000 person-years, 95% CI: 304.4, 428.8), infants <3 months had the highest incidence of severe RSV (RSV-associated hospitalizations and/or severe ALRI). RSV was also associated with 25.0-37.5% of deaths from medical causes (n=8). CONCLUSIONS: A substantial burden of RSV exists among children aged <2 years in Nicaraguan communities. RSV was also a leading cause of infant mortality among study participants. Development and implementation of effective RSV prevention and treatment measures represent an opportunity to substantially reduce severe illness and death among children worldwide.

12.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2019 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31300819

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Influenza causes a substantial burden worldwide, and current seasonal influenza vaccine has suboptimal effectiveness. To develop better, more broadly protective vaccines, a more thorough understanding is needed of how antibodies that target the influenza virus surface antigens, hemagglutinin (HA; including head and stalk regions), and neuraminidase (NA), impact influenza illness and virus transmission. METHODS: We used a case-ascertained, community-based study of household influenza virus transmission set in Managua, Nicaragua. Using data from 170 RT-PCR-confirmed influenza virus A(H1N1)pdm infections and 45 household members with serologically-confirmed infection, we examined the association of pre-existing NA, hemagglutination inhibiting (HAI), and HA stalk antibody levels and influenza viral shedding and disease duration using accelerated failure time (AFT) models. RESULTS: Among RT-PCR-confirmed infections in adults, pre-existing anti-NA antibody levels of ≥40 were associated with a 69% (95%CI: 34%, 85%) shortened shedding duration (mean: 1.0 vs 3.2 days). NA antibody levels of ≥80 were associated with further shortened shedding and significantly shortened symptom duration (ILI: 82%, 95%CI: 39%, 95%). Among RT-PCR-confirmed infections in children, HAI titers of ≥1:20 were associated with a 32% (95%CI: 13%, 47%) shortened shedding duration (mean: 3.9 vs 6.0 days). CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that anti-NA antibodies play a large role in reducing influenza illness duration in adults and may impact transmission, most clearly among adults. Neuraminidase should be considered as an additional target in next-generation influenza virus vaccine development.

13.
Nat Med ; 25(6): 962-967, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31160818

RESUMO

Influenza viruses remain a severe threat to human health, causing up to 650,000 deaths annually1,2. Seasonal influenza virus vaccines can prevent infection, but are rendered ineffective by antigenic drift. To provide improved protection from infection, novel influenza virus vaccines that target the conserved epitopes of influenza viruses, specifically those in the hemagglutinin stalk and neuraminidase, are currently being developed3. Antibodies against the hemagglutinin stalk confer protection in animal studies4-6. However, no data exist on natural infections in humans, and these antibodies do not show activity in the hemagglutination inhibition assay, the hemagglutination inhibition titer being the current correlate of protection against influenza virus infection7-9. While previous studies have investigated the protective effect of cellular immune responses and neuraminidase-inhibiting antibodies, additional serological correlates of protection from infection could aid the development of broadly protective or universal influenza virus vaccines10-13. To address this gap, we performed a household transmission study to identify alternative correlates of protection from infection and disease in naturally exposed individuals. Using this study, we determined 50% protective titers and levels for hemagglutination inhibition, full-length hemagglutinin, neuraminidase and hemagglutinin stalk-specific antibodies. Further, we found that hemagglutinin stalk antibodies independently correlated with protection from influenza virus infection.


Assuntos
Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/imunologia , Influenza Humana/imunologia , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Testes de Inibição da Hemaglutinação , Glicoproteínas de Hemaglutininação de Vírus da Influenza/imunologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nicarágua/epidemiologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Adulto Jovem
14.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 1246, 2019 03 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30886145

RESUMO

The understanding of immunological interactions among the four dengue virus (DENV) serotypes and their epidemiological implications is often hampered by the lack of individual-level infection history. Using a statistical framework that infers full infection history, we analyze a prospective pediatric cohort in Nicaragua to characterize how infection history modulates the risks of DENV infection and subsequent clinical disease. After controlling for age, one prior infection is associated with 54% lower, while two or more are associated with 91% higher, risk of a new infection, compared to DENV-naive children. Children >8 years old have 55% and 120% higher risks of infection and subsequent disease, respectively, than their younger peers. Among children with ≥1 prior infection, intermediate antibody titers increase, whereas high titers lower, the risk of subsequent infection, compared with undetectable titers. Such complex dependency needs to be considered in the design of dengue vaccines and vaccination strategies.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Vírus da Dengue/patogenicidade , Dengue/imunologia , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos/imunologia , Vacinação/métodos , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Reações Cruzadas/genética , Reações Cruzadas/imunologia , Dengue/sangue , Dengue/epidemiologia , Dengue/virologia , Vírus da Dengue/genética , Vírus da Dengue/imunologia , Vírus da Dengue/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Nicarágua/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Sorogrupo , Virulência/genética , Virulência/imunologia
15.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 938, 2019 02 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30808875

RESUMO

Little is known about enduring memory B cell (MBC) responses to Zika virus (ZIKV) and their relationship with circulating antibodies. Here we comprehensively assess MBC frequency and specificity alongside serum binding and neutralizing antibody responses to ZIKV ~2 weeks and ~8 months postinfection in 31 pediatric subjects with 0, 1 or >1 prior infections with the related dengue virus (DENV). ZIKV infection elicits a robust type-specific MBC response, and the majority of late convalescent anti-ZIKV serum neutralizing activity is attributable to ZIKV-specific antibodies. The number of prior DENV infections does not influence type-specific or cross-reactive MBC responses, although ZIKV has the highest cross-reactivity with DENV3. DENV cross-reactive MBCs expanded by ZIKV infection decline in number and proportion by late convalescence. Finally, ZIKV induces greater cross-reactivity in the MBC pool than in serum antibodies. Our data suggest immunity to DENV only modestly shapes breadth and magnitude of enduring ZIKV antibody responses.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Dengue/imunologia , Infecção por Zika virus/imunologia , Adolescente , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Criança , Reações Cruzadas , Dengue/complicações , Vírus da Dengue/classificação , Vírus da Dengue/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Memória Imunológica , Masculino , Zika virus/imunologia , Infecção por Zika virus/complicações
16.
Science ; 363(6427): 607-610, 2019 02 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30733412

RESUMO

The clinical outcomes associated with Zika virus (ZIKV) in the Americas have been well documented, but other aspects of the pandemic, such as attack rates and risk factors, are poorly understood. We prospectively followed a cohort of 1453 urban residents in Salvador, Brazil, and, using an assay that measured immunoglobulin G3 (IgG3) responses against ZIKV NS1 antigen, we estimated that 73% of individuals were infected during the 2015 outbreak. Attack rates were spatially heterogeneous, varying by a factor of 3 within a community spanning 0.17 square kilometers. Preexisting high antibody titers to dengue virus were associated with reduced risk of ZIKV infection and symptoms. The landscape of ZIKV immunity that now exists may affect the risk for future transmission.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Reações Cruzadas , Dengue/imunologia , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/imunologia , Infecção por Zika virus/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Número Básico de Reprodução , Brasil , Criança , Surtos de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , População Urbana , Adulto Jovem , Zika virus
17.
Nat Biotechnol ; 37(2): 160-168, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30718881

RESUMO

Metagenomic sequencing has the potential to transform microbial detection and characterization, but new tools are needed to improve its sensitivity. Here we present CATCH, a computational method to enhance nucleic acid capture for enrichment of diverse microbial taxa. CATCH designs optimal probe sets, with a specified number of oligonucleotides, that achieve full coverage of, and scale well with, known sequence diversity. We focus on applying CATCH to capture viral genomes in complex metagenomic samples. We design, synthesize, and validate multiple probe sets, including one that targets the whole genomes of the 356 viral species known to infect humans. Capture with these probe sets enriches unique viral content on average 18-fold, allowing us to assemble genomes that could not be recovered without enrichment, and accurately preserves within-sample diversity. We also use these probe sets to recover genomes from the 2018 Lassa fever outbreak in Nigeria and to improve detection of uncharacterized viral infections in human and mosquito samples. The results demonstrate that CATCH enables more sensitive and cost-effective metagenomic sequencing.


Assuntos
Biologia Computacional/métodos , Genoma Viral , Metagenoma , Metagenômica , Animais , Culicidae/virologia , Surtos de Doenças , Biblioteca Gênica , Variação Genética , Genômica , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Febre Lassa/virologia , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Sondas de Oligonucleotídeos , Oligonucleotídeos/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Viroses
18.
PLoS One ; 14(1): e0207898, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30625134

RESUMO

Influenza is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. However, vaccine effectiveness has been low to moderate in recent years and vaccine coverage remains low, especially in low- and middle-income countries. Supplementary methods of prevention should be explored to reduce the high burden of influenza. A potential target is the respiratory tract microbiome, complex microbial communities which envelop the respiratory epithelium and play an important role in shaping host immunity. Using a household transmission study, we examined whether the nose/throat microbiota was associated with influenza susceptibility among participants exposed to influenza virus in the household. Further, we characterized changes in the nose/throat microbiota to explore whether community stability was influenced by influenza virus infection. Using a generalized linear mixed effects model, we found a nasal/oropharyngeal community state type (CST) associated with decreased susceptibility to influenza. The CST was rare and transitory among young children but a prevalent and stable CST among adults. Using boosting and linear mixed effects models, we found associations between the nose/throat microbiota and influenza also existed at the taxa level, specifically with the relative abundance of Alloprevotella, Prevotella, and Bacteroides oligotypes. We found high rates of change between bacterial community states among both secondary cases and household contacts who were not infected during follow up. Further work is needed to separate the effect of influenza virus infection from the considerable short-term changes that occur even in the absence of virus. Lastly, age was strongly associated with susceptibility to influenza and the nose/throat bacterial community structure. Although additional studies are needed to determine causality, our results suggest the nose/throat microbiome may be a potential target for reducing the burden of influenza.


Assuntos
Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Influenza Humana/microbiologia , Influenza Humana/virologia , Microbiota , Orthomyxoviridae/fisiologia , Sistema Respiratório/microbiologia , Sistema Respiratório/virologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Biodiversidade , Criança , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
19.
PLoS Med ; 16(1): e1002726, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30668565

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Zika virus (ZIKV) emerged in northeast Brazil in 2015 and spread rapidly across the Americas, in populations that have been largely exposed to dengue virus (DENV). The impact of prior DENV infection on ZIKV infection outcome remains unclear. To study this potential impact, we analyzed the large 2016 Zika epidemic in Managua, Nicaragua, in a pediatric cohort with well-characterized DENV infection histories. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Symptomatic ZIKV infections (Zika cases) were identified by real-time reverse transcription PCR and serology in a community-based cohort study that follows approximately 3,700 children aged 2-14 years old. Annual blood samples were used to identify clinically inapparent ZIKV infections using a novel, well-characterized serological assay. Multivariable Poisson regression was used to examine the relation between prior DENV infection and incidence of symptomatic and inapparent ZIKV infection. The generalized-growth method was used to estimate the effective reproduction number. From January 1, 2016, to February 28, 2017, 560 symptomatic ZIKV infections and 1,356 total ZIKV infections (symptomatic and inapparent) were identified, for an overall incidence of 14.0 symptomatic infections (95% CI: 12.9, 15.2) and 36.5 total infections (95% CI: 34.7, 38.6) per 100 person-years. Effective reproduction number estimates ranged from 3.3 to 3.4, depending on the ascending wave period. Incidence of symptomatic and total ZIKV infections was higher in females and older children. Analysis of the effect of prior DENV infection was performed on 3,027 participants with documented DENV infection histories, of which 743 (24.5%) had experienced at least 1 prior DENV infection during cohort follow-up. Prior DENV infection was inversely associated with risk of symptomatic ZIKV infection in the total cohort population (incidence rate ratio [IRR]: 0.63; 95% CI: 0.48, 0.81; p < 0.005) and with risk of symptomatic presentation given ZIKV infection (IRR: 0.62; 95% CI: 0.44, 0.86) when adjusted for age, sex, and recent DENV infection (1-2 years before ZIKV infection). Recent DENV infection was significantly associated with decreased risk of symptomatic ZIKV infection when adjusted for age and sex, but not when adjusted for prior DENV infection. Prior or recent DENV infection did not affect the rate of total ZIKV infections. Our findings are limited to a pediatric population and constrained by the epidemiology of the site. CONCLUSIONS: These findings support that prior DENV infection may protect individuals from symptomatic Zika. More research is needed to address the possible immunological mechanism(s) of cross-protection between ZIKV and DENV and whether DENV immunity also modulates other ZIKV infection outcomes such as neurological or congenital syndromes.


Assuntos
Dengue/epidemiologia , Infecção por Zika virus/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Dengue/complicações , Vírus da Dengue , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Nicarágua/epidemiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Fatores de Risco , Zika virus , Infecção por Zika virus/etiologia
20.
J Virol ; 93(4)2019 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30463967

RESUMO

In late 2013, chikungunya virus (CHIKV) was introduced into the Americas, leading to widespread epidemics. A large epidemic caused by the Asian chikungunya virus (CHIKV) lineage occurred in Managua, Nicaragua, in 2015. Literature reviews commonly state that the proportion of inapparent CHIKV infections ranges from 3 to 28%. This study estimates the ratio of symptomatic to asymptomatic CHIKV infections and identifies risk factors of infection. In October to November 2015, 60 symptomatic CHIKV-infected children were enrolled as index cases and prospectively monitored, alongside 236 household contacts, in an index cluster study. Samples were collected upon enrollment and on day 14 or 35 and tested by real-time reverse transcription-PCR (rRT-PCR), IgM capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (IgM-ELISAs), and inhibition ELISAs to detect pre- and postenrollment CHIKV infections. Of 236 household contacts, 55 (23%) had experienced previous or very recent infections, 41 (17%) had active infections at enrollment, and 21 (9%) experienced incident infections. Vehicle ownership (multivariable-adjusted risk ratio [aRR], 1.58) increased the risk of CHIKV infection, whereas ≥4 municipal trash collections/week (aRR, 0.38) and having externally piped water (aRR, 0.52) protected against CHIKV infection. Among 63 active and incident infections, 31 (49% [95% confidence interval {CI}, 36%, 62%]) were asymptomatic, yielding a ratio of symptomatic to asymptomatic infections of 1:0.97 (95% CI, 1:0.56, 1:1.60). Although our estimate is outside the 3% to 28% range reported previously, Bayesian and simulation analyses, informed by a systematic literature search, suggested that the proportion of inapparent CHIKV infections is lineage dependent and that more inapparent infections are associated with the Asian lineage than the East/Central/South African (ECSA) lineage. Overall, these data substantially improve knowledge regarding chikungunya epidemics.IMPORTANCE Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an understudied threat to human health. During the 2015 chikungunya epidemic in Managua, Nicaragua, we estimated the ratio of symptomatic to asymptomatic CHIKV infections, which is important for understanding transmission dynamics and the public health impact of CHIKV. This index cluster study identified and monitored persons at risk of infection, enabling capture of asymptomatic infections. We estimated that 31 (49%) of 63 at-risk participants had asymptomatic CHIKV infections, which is significantly outside the 3% to 28% range reported in literature reviews. However, recent seroprevalence studies, including two large pediatric cohort studies in the same setting, had also found percentages of inapparent infections outside the 3% to 28% range. Bayesian and simulation analyses, informed by a systematic literature search, revealed that the percentage of inapparent infections in epidemic settings varies by CHIKV phylogenetic lineage. Our study quantifies and provides the first epidemiological evidence that chikungunya epidemic characteristics are strongly influenced by CHIKV lineage.

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