Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 266
Filtrar
1.
Elife ; 102021 11 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34787080

RESUMO

Pollution from landscape fires, which are increasing with climate change, leads to babies being born with lower birthweights in low- and middle-income countries.


Assuntos
Incêndios , Fumaça , Mudança Climática
3.
Int J Epidemiol ; 2021 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34664072

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Objective tracking of asthma medication use and exposure in real-time and space has not been feasible previously. Exposure assessments have typically been tied to residential locations, which ignore exposure within patterns of daily activities. METHODS: We investigated the associations of exposure to multiple air pollutants, derived from nearest air quality monitors, with space-time asthma rescue inhaler use captured by digital sensors, in Jefferson County, Kentucky. A generalized linear mixed model, capable of accounting for repeated measures, over-dispersion and excessive zeros, was used in our analysis. A secondary analysis was done through the random forest machine learning technique. RESULTS: The 1039 participants enrolled were 63.4% female, 77.3% adult (>18) and 46.8% White. Digital sensors monitored the time and location of over 286 980 asthma rescue medication uses and associated air pollution exposures over 193 697 patient-days, creating a rich spatiotemporal dataset of over 10 905 240 data elements. In the generalized linear mixed model, an interquartile range (IQR) increase in pollutant exposure was associated with a mean rescue medication use increase per person per day of 0.201 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.189-0.214], 0.153 (95% CI: 0.136-0.171), 0.131 (95% CI: 0.115-0.147) and 0.113 (95% CI: 0.097-0.129), for sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and ozone (O3), respectively. Similar effect sizes were identified with the random forest model. Time-lagged exposure effects of 0-3 days were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Daily exposure to multiple pollutants was associated with increases in daily asthma rescue medication use for same day and lagged exposures up to 3 days. Associations were consistent when evaluated with the random forest modelling approach.

4.
EClinicalMedicine ; 41: 101166, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34712931

RESUMO

Background: In Sub-Saharan Africa cross-sectional studies report a high prevalence of abnormal lung function indicative of chronic respiratory disease. The natural history and health impact of this abnormal lung function in low-and middle-income countries is largely unknown. Methods: A cohort of 1481 adults representative of rural Chikwawa in Malawi were recruited in 2014 and followed-up in 2019. Respiratory symptoms and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) were quantified. Lung function was measured by spirometry. Findings: 1232 (83%) adults participated; spirometry was available for 1082 (73%). Mean (SD) age 49.5 (17.0) years, 278(23%) had ever smoked, and 724 (59%) were women. Forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) declined by 53.4 ml/year (95% CI: 49.0, 57.8) and forced vital capacity (FVC) by 45.2 ml/year (95% CI: 39.2, 50.5) . Chronic airflow obstruction increased from 9.5% (7.6, 11.6%) in 2014 to 17.5% (15.3, 19.9%) in 2019. There was no change in diagnosed asthma or in spirometry consistent with asthma or restriction. Rate of FEV1 decline was not associated with diagnosed Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, or spirometry consistent with asthma, COPD, or restriction. HRQoL was adversely associated with respiratory symptoms (dyspnoea, wheeze, cough), previous tuberculosis, declining FEV1 and spirometry consistent with asthma or restriction. These differences exceeded the minimally important difference. Interpretation: In this cohort, the increasing prevalence of COPD is associated with the high rate of FEV1 decline and lung function deficits present before recruitment. Respiratory symptoms and sub-optimal lung function are independently associated with reduced HRQoL.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34417545

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous research has revealed links between air pollution exposure and metabolic syndrome in adults; however, these associations are less explored in children. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to investigate the association between traffic-related air pollutants (TRAP) and biomarkers of metabolic dysregulation, oxidative stress, and lung epithelial damage in children. METHODS: We conducted cross-sectional analyses in a sample of predominantly Latinx, low-income children (n = 218) to examine associations between air pollutants (nitrogen dioxide (NO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), elemental carbon, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide (CO), fine particulates (PM2.5)) and biomarkers of metabolic function (high-density lipoprotein (HDL), hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), oxidative stress (8-isoprostane), and lung epithelial damage (club cell protein 16 (CC16)). RESULTS: HDL cholesterol showed an inverse association with NO2 and NOx, with the strongest relationship between HDL and 3-month exposure to NO2 (-15.4 mg/dL per IQR increase in 3-month NO2, 95% CI = -27.4, -3.4). 8-isoprostane showed a consistent pattern of increasing values with 1-day and 1-week exposure across all pollutants. Non-significant increases in % HbA1c were found during 1-month time frames and decreasing CC16 in 3-month exposure time frames. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that TRAP is significantly associated with decreased HDL cholesterol in longer-term time frames and elevated 8-isoprostane in shorter-term time frames. TRAP could have the potential to influence lifelong metabolic patterns, through metabolic effects in childhood.

6.
Chest ; 2021 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34389296

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ozone effects on lung function are particularly important to understand in the context of the air pollution-health outcomes epidemiologic literature, given the complex relationships between ozone and other air pollutants with known lung function effects. RESEARCH QUESTION: What has been learned about the association between ozone exposures and lung function from epidemiology studies published from 2013 through 2020? STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: On March 18, 2018, and September 8, 2020, PubMed was searched using the terms health AND ozone, filtering to articles in English and about humans, from 2013 or later. An additional focused review searching for ozone AND (lung function OR FEV1OR FVC) was performed June 26, 2021. Articles were selected for this review if they reported a specific relationship between a lung function outcome and ozone exposure. RESULTS: Of 3,271 articles screened, 53 ultimately met criteria for inclusion. A systematic review with assessment of potential for bias was conducted, but a meta-analysis was not carried out because of differences in exposure duration and outcome quantification. Consistent evidence exists of small decreases in children's lung function, even associated with very low levels of short-term ozone exposure. The effects on adult lung function from exposure to low-level, short-term ozone are less clear, although ozone-associated decrements may occur in the elderly. Finally, long-term ozone exposure decreases both lung function and lung function growth in children, although few new studies have examined long-term ozone and lung function in adults. INTERPRETATION: Much of this literature involves concentrations below the current US Environmental Protection Agency's National Ambient Air Quality Standard of 70 parts per billion over an 8-h averaging time, suggesting that this current standard may not protect children adequately from ozone-related decrements in lung function.

7.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 204(10): 1211-1221, 2021 11 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34343025

RESUMO

Rationale: The Southeast Asian tuberculosis burden is high, and it remains unclear if urban indoor air pollution in this setting is exacerbating the epidemic. Objectives: To determine the associations of latent tuberculosis with common urban indoor air pollution sources (secondhand smoke, indoor motorcycle emissions, and cooking) in Southeast Asia. Methods: We enrolled child household contacts of patients with microbiologically confirmed active tuberculosis in Vietnam, from July 2017 to December 2019. We tested children for latent tuberculosis and evaluated air pollution exposures with questionnaires and personal aerosol sampling. We tested hypotheses using generalized estimating equations. Measurements and Main Results: We enrolled 72 patients with tuberculosis (27% with cavitary disease) and 109 of their child household contacts. Latent tuberculosis was diagnosed in 58 (53%) household contacts at baseline visit. Children experienced a 2.56-fold increased odds of latent tuberculosis for each additional household member who smoked (95% confidence interval, 1.27-5.16). Odds were highest among children exposed to indoor smokers and children <5 years old exposed to household smokers. Each residential floor above street-level pollution decreased the odds of latent tuberculosis by 36% (adjusted odds ratio, 0.64; 95% confidence interval, 0.42-0.96). Motorcycles parked inside children's homes and cooking with liquid petroleum gas compared with electricity increased the odds of latent tuberculosis, whereas kitchen ventilation decreased the effect, but these findings were not statistically significant. Conclusions: Common urban indoor air pollution sources were associated with increased odds of latent tuberculosis infection in child household contacts of patients with active tuberculosis.

9.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0252454, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34086762

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Though SARS-CoV-2 outbreaks have been documented in occupational settings and in-person essential work has been suspected as a risk factor for COVID-19, occupational differences in excess mortality have, to date, not been examined. Such information could point to opportunities for intervention, such as vaccine prioritization or regulations to enforce safer work environments. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Using autoregressive integrated moving average models and California Department of Public Health data representing 356,188 decedents 18-65 years of age who died between January 1, 2016 and November 30, 2020, we estimated pandemic-related excess mortality by occupational sector and occupation, with additional stratification of the sector analysis by race/ethnicity. During these first 9 months of the COVID-19 pandemic, working-age adults experienced 11,628 more deaths than expected, corresponding to 22% relative excess and 46 excess deaths per 100,000 living individuals. Sectors with the highest relative and per-capita excess mortality were food/agriculture (39% relative excess; 75 excess deaths per 100,000), transportation/logistics (31%; 91 per 100,000), manufacturing (24%; 61 per 100,000), and facilities (23%; 83 per 100,000). Across racial and ethnic groups, Latino working-age Californians experienced the highest relative excess mortality (37%) with the highest excess mortality among Latino workers in food and agriculture (59%; 97 per 100,000). Black working-age Californians had the highest per-capita excess mortality (110 per 100,000), with relative excess mortality highest among transportation/logistics workers (36%). Asian working-age Californians had lower excess mortality overall, but notable relative excess mortality among health/emergency workers (37%), while White Californians had high per-capita excess deaths among facilities workers (70 per 100,000). CONCLUSIONS: Certain occupational sectors are associated with high excess mortality during the pandemic, particularly among racial and ethnic groups also disproportionately affected by COVID-19. In-person essential work is a likely venue of transmission of coronavirus infection and must be addressed through vaccination and strict enforcement of health orders in workplace settings.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Grupos de Populações Continentais , Grupos Étnicos , Ocupações , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , COVID-19/etnologia , COVID-19/mortalidade , California/epidemiologia , California/etnologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
11.
Ann Am Thorac Soc ; 18(6): 921-930, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33938390

RESUMO

Wildland fires are diminishing air quality on a seasonal and regional basis, raising concerns about respiratory health risks to the public and occupational groups. This American Thoracic Society (ATS) workshop was convened in 2019 to meet the growing health threat of wildland fire smoke. The workshop brought together a multidisciplinary group of 19 experts, including wildland fire managers, public health officials, epidemiologists, toxicologists, and pediatric and adult pulmonologists. The workshop examined the following four major topics: 1) the science of wildland fire incidence and fire management, 2) the respiratory and cardiovascular health effects of wildland fire smoke exposure, 3) communication strategies to address these health risks, and 4) actions to address wildland fire health impacts. Through formal presentations followed by group discussion, workshop participants identified top priorities for fire management, research, communication, and public policy to address health risks of wildland fires. The workshop concluded that short-term exposure to wildland smoke causes acute respiratory health effects, especially among those with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Research is needed to understand long-term health effects of repeated smoke exposures across fire seasons for children, adults, and highly exposed occupational groups (especially firefighters). Other research priorities include fire data collection and modeling, toxicology of different fire fuel sources, and the efficacy of health protective measures to prevent respiratory effects of smoke exposure. The workshop committee recommends a unified federal response to the growing problem of wildland fires, including investment in fire behavior and smoke air quality modeling, research on the health impacts of smoke, and development of robust clinical and public health communication tools.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar , Incêndios , Incêndios Florestais , Adulto , Criança , Humanos , Políticas , Fumaça/efeitos adversos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
12.
J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol ; 31(3): 503-513, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33859340

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Preterm birth is the leading cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality in the U.S. and disparities among racial and ethnic groups persist. While etiologies of preterm birth have not been fully elucidated, it is probable that environmental and social factors play a role. OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that there is an interactive association between exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) or ozone (O3) and neighborhood socioeconomic factors that increase the risk of preterm birth. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study using geocoded birth certificate data between 2007 and 2011, daily ambient air quality data on PM2.5 and O3, and American Community Survey (2007-2011 5-year estimates) data to assess census tract-level socioeconomic factors in California urban counties. RESULTS: Our study found a small positive association between maternal exposures to PM2.5 and O3 and preterm birth that varied by gestational exposure period. In mixed-effects models, we found an increase in the risk of preterm birth for a one-unit change in PM2.5 averaged across the entire pregnancy (AOR = 1.02, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.02) and O3 during 3-months pre-pregnancy (AOR = 1.03, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.04). Interaction between census tract-level factors and air pollutants showed an increase in the risk of preterm birth among mothers living in higher socioeconomic areas, though, a fixed cohort bias sensitivity analysis showed these associations were not significant. SIGNIFICANCE: These findings substantiate previous studies that showed associations between air pollution and preterm birth, even as pollution levels have decreased. This study has important implications for policy decisions and may help inform research on potential mechanisms of preterm birth.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Nascimento Prematuro , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , California/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/induzido quimicamente , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores Socioeconômicos
13.
JAMA Dermatol ; 157(6): 658-666, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33881450

RESUMO

Importance: Air pollution is a worldwide public health issue that has been exacerbated by recent wildfires, but the relationship between wildfire-associated air pollution and inflammatory skin diseases is unknown. Objective: To assess the associations between wildfire-associated air pollution and clinic visits for atopic dermatitis (AD) or itch and prescribed medications for AD management. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional time-series study assessed the associations of air pollution resulting from the California Camp Fire in November 2018 and 8049 dermatology clinic visits (4147 patients) at an academic tertiary care hospital system in San Francisco, 175 miles from the wildfire source. Participants included pediatric and adult patients with AD or itch from before, during, and after the time of the fire (October 2018 through February 2019), compared with those with visits in the same time frame of 2015 and 2016, when no large wildfires were near San Francisco. Data analysis was conducted from November 1, 2019, to May 30, 2020. Exposures: Wildfire-associated air pollution was characterized using 3 metrics: fire status, concentration of particulate matter less than 2.5 µm in diameter (PM2.5), and satellite-based smoke plume density scores. Main Outcomes and Measures: Weekly clinic visit counts for AD or itch were the primary outcomes. Secondary outcomes were weekly numbers of topical and systemic medications prescribed for AD in adults. Results: Visits corresponding to a total of 4147 patients (mean [SD] age, 44.6 [21.1] years; 2322 [56%] female) were analyzed. The rates of visits for AD during the Camp Fire for pediatric patients were 1.49 (95% CI, 1.07-2.07) and for adult patients were 1.15 (95% CI, 1.02-1.30) times the rate for nonfire weeks at lag 0, adjusted for temperature, relative humidity, patient age, and total patient volume at the clinics for pediatric patients. The adjusted rate ratios for itch clinic visits during the wildfire weeks were 1.82 (95% CI, 1.20-2.78) for the pediatric patients and 1.29 (95% CI, 0.96-1.75) for adult patients. A 10-µg/m3 increase in weekly mean PM2.5 concentration was associated with a 7.7% (95% CI, 1.9%-13.7%) increase in weekly pediatric itch clinic visits. The adjusted rate ratio for prescribed systemic medications in adults during the Camp Fire at lag 0 was 1.45 (95% CI, 1.03-2.05). Conclusions and Relevance: This cross-sectional study found that short-term exposure to air pollution due to the wildfire was associated with increased health care use for patients with AD and itch. These results may provide a better understanding of the association between poor air quality and skin health and guide health care professionals' counseling of patients with skin disease and public health practice.

15.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(5): 1266-1273, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33755007

RESUMO

We review the interaction between coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and coccidioidomycosis, a respiratory infection caused by inhalation of Coccidioides fungal spores in dust. We examine risk for co-infection among construction and agricultural workers, incarcerated persons, Black and Latino populations, and persons living in high dust areas. We further identify common risk factors for co-infection, including older age, diabetes, immunosuppression, racial or ethnic minority status, and smoking. Because these diseases cause similar symptoms, the COVID-19 pandemic might exacerbate delays in coccidioidomycosis diagnosis, potentially interfering with prompt administration of antifungal therapies. Finally, we examine the clinical implications of co-infection, including severe COVID-19 and reactivation of latent coccidioidomycosis. Physicians should consider coccidioidomycosis as a possible diagnosis when treating patients with respiratory symptoms. Preventive measures such as wearing face masks might mitigate exposure to dust and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, thereby protecting against both infections.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Coccidioidomicose , Coinfecção , Idoso , Coccidioidomicose/epidemiologia , Grupos Étnicos , Humanos , Grupos Minoritários , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
16.
Science ; 371(6536): 1314-1316, 2021 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33766877
17.
Environ Res ; 195: 110870, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33587949

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome increases the risk of cardiovascular disease in adults. Antecedents likely begin in childhood and whether childhood exposure to air pollution plays a contributory role is not well understood. OBJECTIVES: To assess whether children's exposure to air pollution is associated with markers of risk for metabolic syndrome and oxidative stress, a hypothesized mediator of air pollution-related health effects. METHODS: We studied 299 children (ages 6-8) living in the Fresno, CA area. At a study center visit, questionnaire and biomarker data were collected. Outcomes included hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), urinary 8-isoprostane, systolic blood pressure (SBP), and BMI. Individual-level exposure estimates for a set of four pollutants that are constituents of traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) - the sum of 4-, 5-, and 6-ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon compounds (PAH456), NO2, elemental carbon, and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) - were modeled at the primary residential location for 1-day lag, and 1-week, 1-month, 3-month, 6-month, and 1-year averages prior to each participant's visit date. Generalized additive models were used to estimate associations between each air pollutant exposure and outcome. RESULTS: The study population was 53% male, 80% Latinx, 11% Black and largely low-income (6% were White and 3% were Asian/Pacific Islander). HbA1c percentage was associated with longer-term increases in TRAP; for example a 4.42 ng/m3 increase in 6-month average PAH456 was associated with a 0.07% increase (95% CI: 0.01, 0.14) and a 3.62 µg/m3 increase in 6-month average PM2.5 was associated with a 0.06% increase (95% CI: 0.01, 0.10). The influence of air pollutants on blood pressure was strongest at 3 months; for example, a 6.2 ppb increase in 3-month average NO2 was associated with a 9.4 mmHg increase in SBP (95% CI: 2.8, 15.9). TRAP concentrations were not significantly associated with anthropometric or adipokine measures. Short-term TRAP exposure averages were significantly associated with creatinine-adjusted urinary 8-isoprostane. DISCUSSION: Our results suggest that both short- and longer-term estimated individual-level outdoor residential exposures to several traffic-related air pollutants, including ambient PAHs, are associated with biomarkers of risk for metabolic syndrome and oxidative stress in children.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Adulto , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Pressão Sanguínea , Criança , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Feminino , Glucose , Humanos , Masculino , Estresse Oxidativo , Material Particulado/análise , Material Particulado/toxicidade
18.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 4067, 2021 02 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33603036

RESUMO

Ambient air pollution exposure is associated with cardiovascular dysregulation and immune system alterations, yet no study has investigated both simultaneously in children. Understanding the multifaceted impacts may provide early clues for clinical intervention prior to actual disease presentation. We therefore determined the associations between exposure to multiple air pollutants and both immunological outcomes (methylation and protein expression of immune cell types associated with immune regulation) and cardiovascular outcomes (blood pressure) in a cohort of school-aged children (6-8 years; n = 221) living in a city with known elevated pollution levels. Exposure to fine particular matter (PM2.5), carbon monoxide (CO), and ozone (O3) was linked to altered methylation of most CpG sites for genes Foxp3, IL-4, IL-10 and IFN-g, all involved in immune regulation (e.g. higher PM2.5 exposure 1 month prior to the study visit was independently associated with methylation of the IL-4 CpG24 site (est = 0.16; P = 0.0095). Also, immune T helper cell types (Th1, Th2 and Th17) were associated with short-term exposure to PM2.5, O3 and CO (e.g. Th1 cells associated with PM2.5 at 30 days: est = - 0.34, P < 0.0001). Both B cells (est = - 0.19) and CD4+ cells (est = 0.16) were associated with 1 day NO2 exposure (P ≤ 0.031), whereas CD4+ and CD8+ cells were associated with chronic exposure to PAH456, NOx and/or NO2 (P ≤ 0.038 for all). Finally, diastolic BP (DBP) was inversely associated with long-term exposures to both CO and PAH456, and both systolic and pulse pressure were associated with short-term NO2 and chronic NOx exposure. Our findings demonstrate links between air pollution exposure and methylation of immunoregulatory genes, immune cell profiles and blood pressure, suggesting that even at a young age, the immune and cardiovascular systems are negatively impacted by exposure to air pollution.

19.
Environ Int ; 146: 106254, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33221594

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exposure to household air pollution from solid fuel combustion for cooking and heating is an important risk factor for premature death and disability worldwide. Current evidence supports an association of ambient air pollution with cardiovascular disease but is limited for household air pollution and for cardiac function. Controlled exposure studies can complement evidence provided by field studies. OBJECTIVES: To investigate effects of short-term, controlled exposures to emissions from five cookstoves on measures of cardiac function. METHODS: Forty-eight healthy adults (46% female; 20-36 years) participated in six, 2-h exposures ('treatments'), including emissions from five cookstoves and a filtered-air control. Target fine particulate matter (PM2.5) exposure-concentrations per treatment were: control, 0 µg/m3; liquefied petroleum gas, 10 µg/m3; gasifier, 35 µg/m3; fan rocket, 100 µg/m3; rocket elbow, 250 µg/m3; and three stone fire, 500 µg/m3. Participants were treated in a set (pre-randomized) sequence as groups of 4 to minimize order bias and time-varying confounders. Heart rate variability (HRV) and cardiac repolarization metrics were calculated as 5-min means immediately and at 3 h following treatment, for analysis in linear mixed-effects models comparing cookstove to control. RESULTS: Short-term differences in SDNN (standard deviation of duration of all NN intervals) and VLF (very-low frequency power) existed for several cookstoves compared to control. While all cookstoves compared to control followed a similar trend for SDNN, the greatest effect was seen immediately following three stone fire (ß = -0.13 ms {%}; 95% confidence interval = -0.22, -0.03%), which reversed in direction at 3 h (0.03%; -0.06, 0.13%). VLF results were similar in direction and timing to SDNN; however, other HRV or cardiac repolarization results were not similar to those for SDNN. DISCUSSION: We observed some evidence of short-term, effects on HRV immediately following cookstove treatments compared to control. Our results suggest that cookstoves with lower PM2.5 emissions are potentially capable of affecting cardiac function, similar to stoves emitting higher PM2.5 emissions.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Poluição do Ar , Utensílios Domésticos , Adulto , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Culinária , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Material Particulado/análise , Fumaça/efeitos adversos , Voluntários
20.
J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol ; 31(1): 1-20, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32952154

RESUMO

Wildfire smoke is an increasing environmental health threat to which children are particularly vulnerable, for both physiologic and behavioral reasons. To address the need for improved public health messaging this review summarizes current knowledge and knowledge gaps in the health effects of wildfire smoke in children, as well as tools for public health response aimed at children, including consideration of low-cost sensor data, respirators, and exposures in school environments. There is an established literature of health effects in children from components of ambient air pollution, which are also present in wildfire smoke, and an emerging literature on the effects of wildfire smoke, particularly for respiratory outcomes. Low-cost particulate sensors demonstrate the spatial variability of pollution, including wildfire smoke, where children live and play. Surgical masks and respirators can provide limited protection for children during wildfire events, with expected decreases of roughly 20%  and 80% for surgical masks and N95 respirators, respectively. Schools should improve filtration to reduce exposure of our nation's children to smoke during wildfire events. The evidence base described may help clinical and public health authorities provide accurate information to families to improve their decision making.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar , Incêndios Florestais , Criança , Exposição Ambiental , Humanos , Saúde Pública , Fumaça/efeitos adversos
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...