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1.
Rheumatol Ther ; 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31667756

RESUMO

Treat-to-target (T2T) and dose tapering after obtaining the therapeutic objective (called "treat-to-budget"-T2B-in this Commentary) are the two most commonly used therapeutic strategies in rheumatoid arthritis. In theory, both strategies could add value to the healthcare system, although they are focused on different objectives: T2T strategy improves outcomes but increases short-term costs, while the cost savings obtained through T2B are associated with higher relapse rates. The systematic implementation of both strategies must be founded on solid evidence of their effectiveness and efficiency. However, the level of evidence between guidelines and individual studies is inconsistent for both strategies and the number and the quality of cost-effectiveness analyses is scarce. Raising the level of evidence requires a move from generalization to individualization by conducting randomized clinical trials that assess each of the many strategies that fall under the umbrella of the overall T2T and T2B concepts. In addition, such studies should consider the therapeutic goals and impact of the disease from the perspective of individual patients, which is only possible by promoting shared decision-making. FUNDING: Lilly Spain.

2.
Clin Exp Rheumatol ; 2019 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31573477

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To explore the remission concept in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and the implications of the existing definitions when applied to clinical practice among rheumatologists with different profiles. METHODS: A qualitative study through focus groups was conducted. Three focus groups were organised from February to March 2016. Each group was composed of rheumatologists with extensive clinical experience with different profiles; experts in basic research (RBR), experts in imaging techniques research (RIR), and experts in clinical research (RCR). The data was collected with audio recording. Verbatim transcriptions of the audio files were made, and a subsequent reflexive thematic analysis assisted by ATLAS.ti (GmbH, Berlin, v. 7) software was performed. RESULTS: From the reflexive thematic analysis, three main themes were generated: (1) remission limitations, (2) instruments or measures to assess remission, and (3) a new definition of remission. Rheumatologists mentioned frequently that the following variables should be considered when developing a new remission definition: inflammatory activity, calprotectin, psychological variables, sex, disease stage, and sociocultural factors. Contrary to what could be expected, all groups acknowledged that their research field could contribute with domains for a gold standard remission instrument, but not in a hierarchical arrangement of importance. The dissonance existing in the entire remission evaluation process was outlined: remission in clinical practice versus remission in clinical trials, remission following the American College of Rheumatology (ACR)/European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) Boolean versus Musculoskeletal Ultrasound (US) remission, and remission from the rheumatologist's point of view versus the patient's point of view. CONCLUSIONS: Currently, rheumatologists would not accept a domain as more important than others in remission. Our suggestion is, not to generate a universal definition of remission - one that could cover all aspects - but rather to develop definitions of remission for the different settings that could be pondered by the patient's perspective.

8.
Rheumatology (Oxford) ; 58(9): 1662-1673, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31056653

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: A novel population of B helper cells, phenotypically CD4+CXCR5-PD-1hi, has been described in the synovial tissues and peripheral blood of seropositive RA patients, and termed 'peripheral helper T' (Tph) cells. Contrary to CD4+CXCR5+PD-1hi follicular helper T (Tfh), Tph cells are not located in lymphoid organs but accumulate in inflamed tissues. Our objective was to study the frequency of circulating Tph (cTph) and circulating Tfh cell counterparts (cTfh) in patients with early RA (eRA). METHODS: Freshly isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 56 DMARD-naïve eRA patients and 56 healthy controls were examined by flow cytometry. Autologous cocultures of naïve or memory B cells were established with isolated peripheral blood Tph or Tfh cells. RESULTS: Seropositive (RF+ and/or ACPA+, n = 38) but not seronegative eRA patients (n = 18) demonstrated increased frequencies and absolute numbers of cTph and cTfh cells. cTph but not cTfh cells expressed CCR2. Those eRA patients who experienced a significant clinical improvement at 12 months demonstrated a marked decrease of their cTph cell numbers whereas their cTfh cell numbers remained unchanged. Both isolated Tph and isolated Tfh cells were able to induce maturation of memory B cells, whereas only Tfh cells could differentiate naïve B cells. CONCLUSION: Two populations of PD-1hiCD4 T cells with distinct phenotype and B cell helping capacity are increased in the peripheral blood of seropositive eRA patients. Whereas cTph cells are present only in patients with an active disease, cTfh cells seem to be constitutively elevated.

9.
Reumatol. clín. (Barc.) ; 15(2): 102-108, mar.-abr. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: ibc-ET1-3371

RESUMO

Objectives: To describe the prevalence of comorbidities in patients with RA in Spain and discuss their management and implications using data from the Spanish cohort of the multinational study on COMOrbidities in Rheumatoid Arthritis (COMORA). Methods: This is a national sub-analysis of the COMORA study. We studied the demographics and disease characteristics of 200 adults patients diagnosed with RA (1987 ACR), and routine practices for screening and preventing the following selected comorbidities: cardiovascular, infections, cancer, gastrointestinal, pulmonary, osteoporosis and depression. Results: Patients had a mean age of 58 years and a mean RA duration of 10 years. Mean DAS28 score was 3.3 and approximately 25% of patients were in remission (DAS28 <2.6). Forty-four (22%) patients had ≥1 comorbidity, the most frequent being depression (27%) and obesity (26%). A history of myocardial infarction or stroke was observed in 5% and 1% of patients, respectively, and any solid tumor in 6%. Having a Framingham Risk Score >20% (51%), hypercholesterolemia (46%) or hypertension (41%) and smoking (25%) were the most common CV risk factors. For prostate, colon and skin cancers, only 9%, 10% and 18% of patients, respectively, were optimally monitored. Infections were also inadequately managed, with 7% and 17% of patients vaccinated against influenza and pneumococcal, respectively, as was osteoporosis, with 47% of patients supplemented with vitamin D and 56% with a bone densitometry performed. Conclusions: In Spain, the prevalence of comorbidities and CV risk factors in RA patients with established and advanced disease is relatively high, and their management in clinical daily practice remains suboptimal


Objetivos: Describir la prevalencia de comorbilidades en pacientes con AR en España y discutir sobre su manejo en la clínica diaria utilizando los datos de la cohorte española del estudio internacional COMORA. Métodos: Subanálisis nacional del estudio COMORA en el que se analizaron las características demográficas y clínicas de 200 pacientes con AR (1987 ACR) y las prácticas rutinarias para el cribado y la prevención de eventos cardiovasculares (CV), gastrointestinales y pulmonares, infecciones, cáncer, osteoporosis y depresión. Resultados: Los pacientes tenían una edad media de 58 años, una duración media de la enfermedad de 10 años, un DAS28 de 3,3 y el 25% estaba en remisión (DAS28 <2,6). El 22% de los pacientes presentaba al menos una comorbilidad, principalmente depresión (27%) y obesidad (26%). El 5% tenía historia de infarto de miocardio, el 1% de ictus y el 6% de tumor sólido. Una puntuación de Framingham >20% (51%), tener hipercolesterolemia (46%), hipertensión (41%) y fumar (25%) fueron los factores de riesgo CV más comunes. En relación con el cáncer de próstata, colon y piel, solo el 9, 10 y el 18% de los pacientes, respectivamente, estaban óptimamente controlados. Las infecciones tampoco se manejaban de forma óptima, con solo el 7 y el 17% de los pacientes vacunados contra la influenza y neumococo, respectivamente, al igual que la osteoporosis, con el 47% suplementados con la vitamina D y el 56% con una densitometría realizada. Conclusiones: En España, la prevalencia de comorbilidades y factores de riesgo CV en pacientes con AR establecida y avanzada es relativamente alta, y su manejo en la clínica diaria continúa siendo subóptimo

11.
PLoS One ; 14(2): e0213073, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30818333

RESUMO

Research in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is increasingly focused on the discovery of biomarkers that could enable personalized treatments. The genetic biomarkers associated with the response to TNF inhibitors (TNFi) are among the most studied. They include 12 SNPs exhibiting promising results in the three largest genome-wide association studies (GWAS). However, they still require further validation. With this aim, we assessed their association with response to TNFi in a replication study, and a meta-analysis summarizing all non-redundant data. The replication involved 755 patients with RA that were treated for the first time with a biologic drug, which was either infliximab (n = 397), etanercept (n = 155) or adalimumab (n = 203). Their DNA samples were successfully genotyped with a single-base extension multiplex method. Lamentably, none of the 12 SNPs was associated with response to the TNFi in the replication study (p > 0.05). However, a drug-stratified exploratory analysis revealed a significant association of the NUBPL rs2378945 SNP with a poor response to etanercept (B = -0.50, 95% CI = -0.82, -0.17, p = 0.003). In addition, the meta-analysis reinforced the previous association of three SNPs: rs2378945, rs12142623, and rs4651370. In contrast, five of the remaining SNPs were less associated than before, and the other four SNPs were no longer associated with the response to treatment. In summary, our results highlight the complexity of the pharmacogenetics of TNFi in RA showing that it could involve a drug-specific component and clarifying the status of the 12 GWAS-drawn SNPs.

12.
Farm. hosp ; 43(1): 24-30, ene.-feb. 2019. graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-182584

RESUMO

Objective: To calculate the persistence, over a period of eight years, the retention rate of first and second-line of treatment with biological agents in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, spondyloarthritis and psoriatic arthritis and to compare retention rates of the various drugs for each pathology. Method: Retrospective observational study that included patients affected by rheumatoid arthritis, spondyloarthritis and psoriatic arthritis, who started treatment with biological agents between January 2009 and December 2012 and followed until December 2016. Results: 132, 87 and 33 patients were included in rheumatoid arthritis, spondyloarthritis and psoriatic arthritis, respectively. The median retention duration of all biological agents for the first and second-line, was 30.9 months and 14.0 months, respectively for rheumatoid arthritis; 63.06 months and 25.6 months, respectively in spondyloarthritis. Psoriatic arthritis did not reach the median (> 70 months in first-line) (first line p = 0.002). Individual drug survival in first line: the median retention duration of tocilizumab was 58.3 months, followed by etanercept (p = 0.79) in rheumatoid arthritis. For spondyloarthritis, golimumab and etanercept had greater retention than the other drugs (they did not reach the median): adalimumab was 63.0 months and for infliximab was 50.1 months. In psoriatic arthritis, golimumab, infliximab and etanercept not reach the median and they had greater retention than adalimumab (59.4 months). Individual drug survival in second line: tocilizumab was the most persistent drug (median 22.1 months) in rheumatoid arthritis, and golimumab for spondyloarthritis and psoriatic arthritis. Conclusions: Tocilizumab and etanercept in rheumatoid arthritis, and golimumab in spondyloarthritis and psoriatic arthritis also, were the most persistent drugs in first-line and second-line treatment


Objetivo: Calcular y analizar la persistencia global y por medicamento, en primera y segunda línea de tratamiento, en pacientes con artritis reumatoide, espondiloartritis axial radiográfica y no radiográfica y artritis psoriásica durante un periodo de ocho años. Método: Estudio retrospectivo observacional de persistencia en pacientes que iniciaron su terapia con medicamentos biológicos entre enero de 2009 y diciembre de 2012 en seguimiento hasta diciembre de 2016. Resultados: Se analizaron 132, 87 y 33 pacientes con artritis reumatoide, espondiloartritis y artritis psoriásica, respectivamente. La persistencia mediana global para los biológicos en primera y segunda línea fueron: 30,9 meses y 14 meses, respectivamente, en artritis reumatoide; 63,06 meses y 25,6 meses en espondiloartritis. No se alcanzó la persistencia mediana en los ocho años de seguimiento en artritis psoriásica (> 70 meses) (p = 0,002 para la función de supervivencia entre patologías en primera línea). Persistencia mediana alcanzada en primera línea por medicamento: tocilizumab (58,3 meses), seguido de etanercept (44 meses) en artritis reumatoide (p = 0,79); en espondiloartritis golimumab y etanercept fueron los más persistentes (no alcanzaron la mediana), seguidos de adalimumab (44 meses) e infliximab (50,1 meses). En artritis psoriásica, golimumab seguido de infliximab y etanercept fueron los más persistentes (no alcanzaron la mediana), y adalimumab (59,4 meses). Persistencia mediana alcanzada en segunda línea por medicamento: tocilizumab (22,1 meses) en artritis reumatoide. Golimumab fue el más persistente en espondiloartritis y artritis psoriásica (sin alcanzar la mediana). Conclusiones: Tocilizumab y etanercept fueron los medicamentos más persistentes en artritis reumatoide, y golimumab en espondiloartritis y artritis psoriásica en primera y segunda línea de tratamiento


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Fatores Biológicos/uso terapêutico , Espondilartrite/tratamento farmacológico , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Antirreumáticos/uso terapêutico , Artrite Psoriásica/tratamento farmacológico , Fatores Biológicos/efeitos adversos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise de Sobrevida
13.
Arthritis Res Ther ; 21(1): 66, 2019 02 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30786913

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of our study was to investigate the influence of conventional synthetic disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (csDMARDs) and body mass index (BMI) on circulating drug levels and clinical response to tumour necrosis factor inhibitor (TNFi) therapy in axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA) patients. METHODS: Prospective observational study during 1 year with 2 cohorts (Madrid and Amsterdam) including 180 axSpA patients treated with standard doses of infliximab or adalimumab. Patients were stratified by BMI, being 78 (43%) normal weight (18.5-24.9 kg/m2) and 102 (57%) overweight/obese (≥ 25.0 kg/m2). After the first year of treatment, TNFi trough levels were measured by capture ELISA. Clinical response to TNFi was defined as ∆BASDAI ≥ 2 and clinical remission as BASDAI < 2 and CRP ≤ 5 mg/L. Logistic regression models were employed to analyse the association between concomitant csDMARDs and BMI with drug levels and clinical response. RESULTS: Seventy-nine patients (44%) received concomitant csDMARDs. The administration of concomitant csDMARDs (OR 3.82; 95% CI 1.06-13.84) and being normal weight (OR 18.38; 95% CI 2.24-150.63) were independently associated with serum TNFi drug persistence. Additionally, the use of concomitant csDMARDs contributed positively to achieve clinical response (OR 7.86; 95% CI 2.39-25.78) and remission (OR 4.84; 95% CI 1.09-21.36) in overweight/obese patients, but no association was found for normal-weight patients (OR 1.10; 0.33-3.58). CONCLUSIONS: The use of concomitant csDMARDs with TNFi may increase the probability of achieving clinical response in overweight/obese axSpA patients. Further research studies including larger cohorts of patients need to be done to confirm it.

14.
Farm Hosp ; 43(1): 24-30, 2019 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30624170

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To calculate the persistence, over a period of eight years, the retention rate of first and second-line of treatment with biological agents in  patients with rheumatoid arthritis, spondyloarthritis and psoriatic arthritis and to compare retention rates of the various drugs for each pathology. METHOD: Retrospective observational study that included patients affected by  rheumatoid arthritis, spondyloarthritis and psoriatic arthritis, who started  treatment with biological agents between January 2009 and December 2012 and followed until December 2016. RESULTS: 132, 87 and 33 patients were included in rheumatoid arthritis, spondyloarthritis and psoriatic arthritis, respectively. The median  retention duration of all biological agents for the first and second-line, was 30.9 months and 14.0 months, respectively for rheumatoid arthritis; 63.06  months and 25.6 months, respectively in spondyloarthritis. Psoriatic arthritis did  not reach the median (> 70 months in first-line) (first line p = 0.002). Individual drug survival in first line: the median retention duration of tocilizumab was 58.3 months, followed by etanercept (p = 0.79) in rheumatoid arthritis. For spondyloarthritis, golimumab and etanercept had greater retention than the other drugs (they did not reach the median): adalimumab was 63.0 months and for infliximab was 50.1 months. In psoriatic arthritis, golimumab,  infliximab and etanercept not reach the median and they had greater retention than adalimumab (59.4 months). Individual drug survival in second  line: tocilizumab was the most persistent drug (median 22.1 months) in  rheumatoid arthritis, and golimumab for spondyloarthritis and psoriatic arthritis. CONCLUSIONS: Tocilizumab and etanercept in rheumatoid arthritis, and golimumab in spondyloarthritis and psoriatic arthritis also, were the most persistent drugs in first-line and second-line treatment.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Fatores Biológicos/uso terapêutico , Espondilartrite/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Antirreumáticos/uso terapêutico , Artrite Psoriásica/tratamento farmacológico , Fatores Biológicos/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise de Sobrevida
15.
Clin Rheumatol ; 2018 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30402698

RESUMO

To investigate the effect of concomitant conventional synthetic disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (csDMARDs) with adalimumab or infliximab on maintaining serum drug and clinical outcomes after the first year of treatment in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Second, to assess the influence of methotrexate (MTX) dose on these outcomes. Ninety-two patients with RA starting infliximab (n = 67) or adalimumab (n = 25) tumor necrosis factor inhibitor (TNFi) with available drug levels and clinical improvement assessment (European League Against Rheumatism [EULAR] response) after 12 months were included. Patients were grouped according to concomitant csDMARD use: (i) TNFi monotherapy; (ii) TNFi+MTX; (iii) TNFi with csDMARDs other than MTX (TNFi+OD). Patients receiving MTX were also classified by dose as < 15 mg/week (TNFi+MTX<15) and ≥ 15 mg/week (TNFi+MTX≥15). Logistic regression analyses were employed. More TNFi+MTX patients had circulating serum TNFi at 12 months (71% TNFi+MTX vs. 20% TNFi+OD vs. 9% TNFi monotherapy). Of these, the probability of maintaining serum TNFi levels was twice (OR 2.3; p = 0.06) than that of patients without MTX. However, statistically significant results were observed only for the highest MTX dose (OR 4.9; p = 0.02). Most patients achieving good EULAR response were treated with TNFi+MTX (81%). The probability of achieving this response was three times higher in patients within the TNFi+MTX group (OR 3.4; p = 0.03); however, no differences were found with regard to MTX dose. The persistence of serum TNFi and the probability of achieving clinical response are influenced by MTX but not by OD in patients with RA treated with infliximab or adalimumab.

16.
Reumatol Clin ; 2018 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30385295

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Issue recommendations on practical aspects of the monitoring of levels of biological drugs that may be useful for rheumatologists. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of studies in which drug and anti-drug antibody levels were determined in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) or spondyloarthritis (SpA) to study whether they could predict different outcomes. In light of the results of the review, a group of experts discussed under what circumstances testing biological drug levels and their antibodies could be useful. The discussion resulted in a series of clinical questions that were answered with the scientific evidence collected, and in algorithms that facilitate decision making. RESULTS: It was established that the determination of drug levels can be especially useful in two clinical situations, on treatment failure (primary or secondary) and on sustained remission. It is also reviewed which laboratory technique and timing for sample drawing are the most suitable for the measurement. Recommendations are issued on the interpretation of drug levels and on factors to be taken into account (for example, body mass index and disease modifying drugs). CONCLUSIONS: Evidence-based algorithms and guidelines have been established to test drug levels and anti-drug antibodies in patients with RA and SpA, which can help clinical decision making.

17.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 2018 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30277011

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The new RA-specific autoantibodies, the anti-carbamylated protein antibodies (ACarPA), provide an opportunity to improve management and understanding of RA. However, many questions remain about them, including their relationship with HLA-DRB1 alleles. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The samples of 1126 RA patients from three collections were obtained. Serum reactivity against in vitro carbamylated FCS proteins was determined by ELISA. HLA-DRB1 alleles were determined by either hybridization techniques or imputation from HLA dense genotypes. These results were combined by meta-analysis with data from three previously reported cohorts. The carrier frequencies of the common HLA-DRB1 alleles were compared between the antibody-positive subgroups and the double-negative subgroup in ACPA/ACarPA stratified patients, and between the four patient strata and the healthy controls. RESULTS: Meta-analysis was conducted with 3709 RA patients and 2305 healthy subjects. It revealed a significant increase of HLA-DRB1*03 carriers in the ACPA- /ACarPA+ subgroup in comparison with both ACPA- /ACarPA- patients and healthy controls that was consistent in the six sample collections. This association was independent of the SE and the analyzed confounders. No other allele was specifically associated with ACPA- /ACarPA+ patients. In contrast, the SE was significantly increased in the ACPA+ /ACarPA- and ACPA+ /ACarPA+ patient subgroups without distinction between them. Also, some alleles (including HLA-DRB1*03) were associated with protection from ACPA+ RA. CONCLUSION: A specific association of HLA-DRB1*03 with ACPA- /ACarPA+ RA has been identified that suggests preferential presentation of carbamylated peptides as a new mechanism for HLA contribution to RA susceptibility. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

18.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 2018 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30251476

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: A genome-wide association study (GWAS) was conducted to shed light into the genetic background influencing the development of cardiovascular (CV) disease in patients diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: After quality control and imputation, a total of 6,308,944 polymorphisms across the whole genome were analysed in 2,989 RA patients from European origin. Data on subclinical atherosclerosis, obtained by carotid ultrasonography through assessment of carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) and presence/absence of carotid plaques, were available for 1,355 individuals. RESULTS: A genetic variant of the RARB gene (rs116199914) was associated with cIMT values at the genome-wide level of significance (minor allele (G): beta (ß) coefficient=0.142, P=1.86E-08). Interestingly, rs116199914 overlapped with regulatory elements in tissues related to CV pathophysiology and immune cells. In addition, biological pathway enrichment and predictive protein-protein relationship analyses, including suggestive GWAS signals of potential relevance, revealed a functional enrichment of the collagen biosynthesis network related to the presence/absence of carotid plaques (GO:0032964, PFDR =4.01E-03). Furthermore, our data suggest a potential influence of the previously described candidate CV risk loci NFKB1, MSRA and ZC3HC1 (P=8.12E-04, P=5.94E-04 and P=2.46E-04, respectively). CONCLUSION: Our study strongly suggests that genetic variation within RARB contributes to the development of subclinical atherosclerosis in patients with RA. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

19.
Int J Clin Pharm ; 40(6): 1528-1538, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30196515

RESUMO

Background Spending on biological agents has risen dramatically due to the high cost of the drugs and the increased prevalence of spondyloarthritis. Objective To evaluate the annual cost per patient and cost for each biological drug for treating patients with spondyloarthritis from 2009 to 2016, and to calculate factors that affect treatment cost, such as optimizing therapies by monitoring drug serum levels, the use of biosimilar-TNF inhibitors, and official discounts or negotiated rebates in biologicals acquired by the pharmacy department. Method Retrospective, observational study in a Spanish tertiary hospital. Main outcome Annual cost per patient and per drug. Factors that influenced the costs and socio-demographic parameters and disease activity. Results A total of 129, 215, and 224 patients were treated in 2009, 2013, and 2016, respectively. The annual cost per patient decreased: EUR11,604 in 2009, EUR8513 in 2013, and EUR7464 in 2016. The introduction of new drugs drives economic competition, leading to total savings per drug, with discounts reaching 5.8, 12.4, 16.7, 17.7, 13.7, and 24.8% for original infliximab, etanercept, adalimumab, ertolizumab, golimumab, and secukinumab, respectively, while rebates for biosimilar infliximab reached 31.90% in 2016. The number of patients with optimized therapies reached 47.5% in 2016, which led to cost savings of EUR798,614, in addition to savings from official discounts and rebates of EUR252,706 and savings from optimized therapies of EUR545,908 in 2016. Conclusion The cost of biological treatments declined after official discounts, negotiated rebates, and optimized therapies, leading to a significant decrease in the annual cost per patient. The greatest contribution to economic savings in biological therapy according to our study was biological therapy optimization.

20.
Reumatol. clín. (Barc.) ; 14(supl.2): 49-54, jun. 2018.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-176067

RESUMO

Los agentes biológicos han significado un gran avance en el tratamiento de la artritis reumatoide; sin embargo, ningún anti-TNF es eficaz y seguro en todos los pacientes, por lo que el dilema del cambio de un anti-TNF a otro, o el cambio de diana terapéutica, tiene repercusiones clínicas y económicas importantes. Como sucede casi siempre en biología, los motivos del fallo no son únicos y cada uno de ellos despierta interrogantes sobre la fisiopatología de la enfermedad, la farmacocinética o la farmacodinámica del fármaco o su mecanismo de acción. La decisión del clínico en esta situación es incierta. Por una parte, la cantidad de opciones disponibles va aumentando, lo que complica el escenario, y por otra, porque aunque se dispone de una gran información sobre los resultados de casi todas las opciones, todavía existen interrogantes que es de esperar que se vayan aclarando en el futuro. Afortunadamente, casi nunca es un problema tener que elegir la mejor entre diferentes opciones buenas


Biological agents have represented a breakthrough in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis; however, no anti-TNF is safe and effective in all patients, so the dilemma of switching from one anti-TNF to another, or a change of therapeutic target, has important clinical and economic repercussions. As usual in biology, the reasons for failure are not unique and each failure raises important questions about the pathophysiology of the disease, the pharmacokinetics or pharmacodynamics of the drug, or its mechanism of action. It is not easy for clinicians to make decisions in this situation. On the one hand, the number of options available is increasing, which complicates the scenario, and on the other hand, although there is a large amount of information on the results of almost all options, there are still several questions that can be expected to be clarified in the future. Fortunately, it is almost never a problem to have to choose the best among several good options


Assuntos
Humanos , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Terapia Biológica , Interleucina-6/antagonistas & inibidores , Falha de Tratamento , Substituição de Medicamentos/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento
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