Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 24
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Tipo de estudo
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
N Engl J Med ; 380(17): 1628-1637, 2019 04 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31018069

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic-cell neoplasm (BPDCN) is an aggressive hematologic cancer that is caused by transformed plasmacytoid dendritic cells that overexpress interleukin-3 receptor subunit alpha (IL3RA or CD123). Tagraxofusp (SL-401) is a CD123-directed cytotoxin consisting of human interleukin-3 fused to truncated diphtheria toxin. METHODS: In this open-label, multicohort study, we assigned 47 patients with untreated or relapsed BPDCN to receive an intravenous infusion of tagraxofusp at a dose of 7 µg or 12 µg per kilogram of body weight on days 1 to 5 of each 21-day cycle. Treatment continued until disease progression or unacceptable toxic effects. The primary outcome was the combined rate of complete response and clinical complete response among patients who had not received previous treatment for BPDCN. A secondary outcome was the duration of response. RESULTS: Of the 47 patients, 32 were receiving tagraxofusp as first-line treatment and 15 had received previous treatment. The median age of the patients was 70 years (range, 22 to 84). Among the 29 previously untreated patients who received tagraxofusp at a dose of 12 µg per kilogram, the primary outcome occurred in 21 (72%), and the overall response rate was 90%; of these patients, 45% went on to undergo stem-cell transplantation. Survival rates at 18 and 24 months were 59% and 52%, respectively. Among the 15 previously treated patients, the response rate was 67%, and the median overall survival was 8.5 months. The most common adverse events were increased levels of alanine aminotransferase (64%) and aspartate aminotransferase (60%), hypoalbuminemia (55%), peripheral edema (51%), and thrombocytopenia (49%). Capillary leak syndrome was reported in 19% of the patients and was associated with one death in each of the dose subgroups. CONCLUSIONS: In adult patients with untreated or relapsed BPDCN, the use of tagraxofusp led to clinical responses. Serious adverse events included capillary leak syndrome; hepatic dysfunction and thrombocytopenia were common. (Funded by Stemline Therapeutics and the Leukemia and Lymphoma Society Therapy Acceleration Program; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02113982.).


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Células Dendríticas , Leucemia Mieloide/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Síndrome de Vazamento Capilar/induzido quimicamente , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Leucemia Mieloide/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/efeitos adversos , Adulto Jovem
2.
Menopause ; 25(11): 1339-1353, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30358731

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to confirm the local beneficial effects of intravaginal dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA, Prasterone) on moderate to severe dyspareunia or pain at sexual activity, the most frequent symptom of vulvovaginal atrophy due to menopause or genitourinary syndrome of menopause (GSM). METHODS: In a prospective, randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled phase III clinical trial, the effect of daily intravaginal 0.50% DHEA (6.5 mg) (Prasterone, EndoCeutics) was examined on four coprimary objectives, namely percentage of parabasal cells, percentage or superficial cells, vaginal pH, and moderate to severe pain at sexual activity (dyspareunia) identified by the women as their most bothersome vulvovaginal atrophy symptom. The intent-to-treat population included 157 and 325 women in the placebo and DHEA-treated groups, respectively. RESULTS: After daily intravaginal administration of 0.50% DHEA for 12 weeks, when compared to baseline by the analysis of covariance test, the percentage of parabasal cells decreased by 27.7% over placebo (P < 0.0001), whereas the percentage of superficial cells increased by 8.44% over placebo (P < 0.0001), vaginal pH decreased by 0.66 pH unit over placebo (P < 0.0001), and pain at sexual activity decreased by 1.42 severity score unit from baseline or 0.36 unit over placebo (P = 0.0002). On the other hand, moderate to severe vaginal dryness present in 84.0% of women improved at 12 weeks by 1.44 severity score unit compared to baseline, or 0.27 unit over placebo (P = 0.004). At gynecological evaluation, vaginal secretions, epithelial integrity, epithelial surface thickness, and color all improved by 86% to 121% over the placebo effect (P < 0.0001 for all comparisons with placebo). Serum steroid levels remained well within the normal postmenopausal values according to the involved mechanisms of intracrinology. The only side effect reasonably related to treatment is vaginal discharge due to melting of the vehicle at body temperature and this was reported in about 6% of the participants. CONCLUSIONS: The daily intravaginal administration of 0.50% (6.5 mg) DHEA (Prasterone) has shown clinically and highly statistically significant effects on the four coprimary parameters suggested by the US Food and Drug Administration. The strictly local action of Prasterone is in line with the absence of significant drug-related adverse events, thus showing the high benefit-to-risk ratio of this treatment based upon the novel understanding of the physiology of sex steroids in women.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30292747

RESUMO

Cerebral adrenoleukodystrophy (CALD) is a rapidly progressing, often fatal neurodegenerative disease caused by mutations in the ABCD1 gene, resulting in deficiency of ALD protein. Clinical benefit has been reported following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). We conducted a large multicenter retrospective chart review to characterize the natural history of CALD, to describe outcomes after HSCT, and to identify predictors of treatment outcomes. Major functional disabilities (MFDs) were identified as having the most significant impact on patients' abilities to function independently and were used to assess HSCT outcome. Neurologic function score (NFS) and Loes magnetic resonance imaging score were assessed. Data were collected on 72 patients with CALD who did not undergo HSCT (untreated cohort) and on 65 patients who underwent transplantation (HSCT cohort) at 5 clinical sites. Kaplan-Meier (KM) estimates of 5-year overall survival (OS) from the time of CALD diagnosis were 55% (95% confidence interval [CI], 42.2% to 65.7%) for the untreated cohort and 78% (95% CI, 64% to 86.6%) for the HSCT cohort overall (P = .01). KM estimates of 2-year MFD-free survival for patients with gadolinium-enhanced lesions (GdE+) were 29% (95% CI, 11.7% to 48.2%) for untreated patients (n = 21). For patients who underwent HSCT with GdE+ at baseline, with an NFS ≤1 and Loes score of 0.5 to ≤9 (n = 27), the 2-year MFD-free survival was 84% (95% CI, 62.3% to 93.6%). Mortality rates post-HSCT were 8% (5 of 65) at 100 days and 18% (12 of 65) at 1 year, with disease progression (44%; 7 of 16) and infection (31%; 5 of 16) listed as the most common causes of death. Adverse events post-HSCT included infection (29%; 19 of 65), acute grade II-IV graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) (31%; 18 of 58), and chronic GVHD (7%; 4 of 58). Eighteen percent of the patients (12 of 65) experienced engraftment failure after their first HSCT. Positive predictors of OS in the HSCT cohort may include donor-recipient HLA matching and lack of GVHD, and early disease treatment was predictive of MFD-free survival. GdE+ status is a strong predictor of disease progression in untreated patients. This study confirms HSCT as an effective treatment for CALD when performed early. We propose survival without MFDs as a relevant treatment goal, rather than solely assessing OS as an indicator of treatment success.

4.
Mil Med ; 183(suppl_2): 180-189, 2018 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30189081

RESUMO

There are about 2,500 war and military service dogs in service, with about 700 serving at any given time overseas. Military Working Dogs (MWDs) are critical assets for military police, special operations units, and others operating in today's combat environment. The expectation, given the significant combat multiplier impact of these dogs and the intense bond between the handler and dog, is that injured working dogs will receive the same level of care as any injured U.S. military personnel. Veterinary care is available at multiple locations throughout theater, and the veterinary healthcare team is the MWD's primary provider. Yet, human healthcare providers (HCPs) may be the only medical personnel available to MWDs that are gravely ill or injured. As most HCPs are unfamiliar with medical care of dogs, the Joint Trauma System published a Clinical Practice Guideline (CPG), a set of detailed clinical guidelines for managing life-threatening problems of MWDs encountered in combat operations. The CPG is available at the JTS website. This article is covers the most common urgent MWD care challenges HCPs may face.

5.
N Engl J Med ; 375(22): 2154-2164, 2016 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27717299

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Niraparib is an oral poly(adenosine diphosphate [ADP]-ribose) polymerase (PARP) 1/2 inhibitor that has shown clinical activity in patients with ovarian cancer. We sought to evaluate the efficacy of niraparib versus placebo as maintenance treatment for patients with platinum-sensitive, recurrent ovarian cancer. METHODS: In this randomized, double-blind, phase 3 trial, patients were categorized according to the presence or absence of a germline BRCA mutation (gBRCA cohort and non-gBRCA cohort) and the type of non-gBRCA mutation and were randomly assigned in a 2:1 ratio to receive niraparib (300 mg) or placebo once daily. The primary end point was progression-free survival. RESULTS: Of 553 enrolled patients, 203 were in the gBRCA cohort (with 138 assigned to niraparib and 65 to placebo), and 350 patients were in the non-gBRCA cohort (with 234 assigned to niraparib and 116 to placebo). Patients in the niraparib group had a significantly longer median duration of progression-free survival than did those in the placebo group, including 21.0 vs. 5.5 months in the gBRCA cohort (hazard ratio, 0.27; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.17 to 0.41), as compared with 12.9 months vs. 3.8 months in the non-gBRCA cohort for patients who had tumors with homologous recombination deficiency (HRD) (hazard ratio, 0.38; 95% CI, 0.24 to 0.59) and 9.3 months vs. 3.9 months in the overall non-gBRCA cohort (hazard ratio, 0.45; 95% CI, 0.34 to 0.61; P<0.001 for all three comparisons). The most common grade 3 or 4 adverse events that were reported in the niraparib group were thrombocytopenia (in 33.8%), anemia (in 25.3%), and neutropenia (in 19.6%), which were managed with dose modifications. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with platinum-sensitive, recurrent ovarian cancer, the median duration of progression-free survival was significantly longer among those receiving niraparib than among those receiving placebo, regardless of the presence or absence of gBRCA mutations or HRD status, with moderate bone marrow toxicity. (Funded by Tesaro; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01847274 .).


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Indazóis/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/tratamento farmacológico , Piperidinas/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Medula Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Genes BRCA1 , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Recombinação Homóloga , Humanos , Indazóis/efeitos adversos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Quimioterapia de Manutenção , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Piperidinas/efeitos adversos , Compostos de Platina/uso terapêutico , Adulto Jovem
6.
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol ; 159: 142-53, 2016 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26972555

RESUMO

This study integrates all data obtained in women aged 40-80years enrolled with moderate to severe symptoms of vulvovaginal atrophy (VVA) who received daily intravaginal administration of 0.50% (6.5mg) dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA; prasterone) for 12weeks (n=723; ITT-S population) as compared with placebo (n=266; ITT-S population). To this end, serum steroid levels (DHEA, DHEA-sulfate (DHEA-S), androst-5-ene-3ß, 17ß-diol (5-diol), testosterone, dihydrotestosterone (DHT), androstenedione (4-dione), estrone (E1), estradiol (E2), estrone sulfate (E1-S), androsterone glucuronide (ADT-G), and androstane-3α, 17ß-diol 17-glucuronide (3α-diol-17G)) were measured at Day 1 and Week 12 by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) following validation performed according to the FDA guidelines [1-6]. In agreement with the mechanisms of intracrinology where DHEA is exclusively transformed intracellularly into active sex steroids which act and are inactivated locally before being released as glucuronided or sulfated metabolites for elimination by the kidneys and liver, all sex steroids remained well within normal postmenopausal values following administration of intravaginal DHEA. Serum estradiol, the most relevant sex steroid, was measured after 12weeks of treatment at 3.36pg/ml (cITT-S population) or 19% below the normal postmenopausal value of 4.17pg/ml. On the other hand, serum E1-S, the best recognized marker of global estrogenic activity, shows an average value of 209pg/ml at 12 weeks compared to 220pg/ml in normal postmenopausal women. Moreover, serum ADT-G, the main metabolite of androgens, also remains well within normal postmenopausal values. The present data shows that a low daily intravaginal dose (6.5mg) of DHEA (prasterone) which is efficacious on the symptoms and signs of VVA, permits to achieve the desired local efficacy without systemic exposure, in agreement with the stringent mechanisms of menopause established after 500 million years of evolution where each cell in each tissue is the master of its sex steroid exposure.


Assuntos
Desidroepiandrosterona/administração & dosagem , Estradiol/sangue , Pós-Menopausa/sangue , Testosterona/sangue , Doenças Vaginais/tratamento farmacológico , Administração Intravaginal , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Atrofia/tratamento farmacológico , Desidroepiandrosterona/farmacocinética , Feminino , Terapia de Reposição Hormonal , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
7.
Menopause ; 23(3): 243-56, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26731686

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to confirm the local beneficial effects of intravaginal dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA, Prasterone) on moderate to severe dyspareunia or pain at sexual activity, the most frequent symptom of vulvovaginal atrophy due to menopause or genitourinary syndrome of menopause (GSM). METHODS: In a prospective, randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled phase III clinical trial, the effect of daily intravaginal 0.50% DHEA (6.5 mg) (Prasterone, EndoCeutics) was examined on four coprimary objectives, namely percentage of parabasal cells, percentage or superficial cells, vaginal pH, and moderate to severe pain at sexual activity (dyspareunia) identified by the women as their most bothersome vulvovaginal atrophy symptom. The intent-to-treat population included 157 and 325 women in the placebo and DHEA-treated groups, respectively. RESULTS: After daily intravaginal administration of 0.50% DHEA for 12 weeks, when compared to baseline by the analysis of covariance test, the percentage of parabasal cells decreased by 27.7% over placebo (P < 0.0001), whereas the percentage of superficial cells increased by 8.44% over placebo (P < 0.0001), vaginal pH decreased by 0.66 pH unit over placebo (P < 0.0001), and pain at sexual activity decreased by 1.42 severity score unit from baseline or 0.36 unit over placebo (P = 0.0002). On the other hand, moderate to severe vaginal dryness present in 84.0% of women improved at 12 weeks by 1.44 severity score unit compared to baseline, or 0.27 unit over placebo (P = 0.004). At gynecological evaluation, vaginal secretions, epithelial integrity, epithelial surface thickness, and color all improved by 86% to 121% over the placebo effect (P < 0.0001 for all comparisons with placebo). Serum steroid levels remained well within the normal postmenopausal values according to the involved mechanisms of intracrinology. The only side effect reasonably related to treatment is vaginal discharge due to melting of the vehicle at body temperature and this was reported in about 6% of the participants. CONCLUSIONS: The daily intravaginal administration of 0.50% (6.5 mg) DHEA (Prasterone) has shown clinically and highly statistically significant effects on the four coprimary parameters suggested by the US Food and Drug Administration. The strictly local action of Prasterone is in line with the absence of significant drug-related adverse events, thus showing the high benefit-to-risk ratio of this treatment based upon the novel understanding of the physiology of sex steroids in women.


Assuntos
Desidroepiandrosterona/uso terapêutico , Dispareunia/tratamento farmacológico , Terapia de Reposição Hormonal , Menopausa , Doenças Vaginais/tratamento farmacológico , Vulva/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças da Vulva/tratamento farmacológico , Administração Intravaginal , Idoso , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pós-Menopausa , Síndrome , Vagina/efeitos dos fármacos , Vagina/patologia , Vulva/patologia , Doenças da Vulva/patologia
8.
Horm Mol Biol Clin Investig ; 25(3): 181-90, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26725467

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Intravaginal DHEA (dehydroepiandrosterone, prasterone), the exclusive precursor of androgens and estrogens in postmenopausal women, has previously been shown to improve all the domains of sexual function by a strictly local action in the vagina. The well recognized female sexual function index (FSFI) questionnaire was used in the present study. DESIGN: The long-term effect of 52-week treatment with daily intravaginal 0.50% (6.5 mg) DHEA was evaluated on the various domains of female sexual function using the FSFI questionnaire at baseline, Week 26 and Week 52. SUBJECTS: One hundred and fifty-four postmenopausal women with at least one mild to severe symptom of vulvovaginal atrophy (VVA) and who have completed the FSFI questionnaire at baseline and at least one post-baseline timepoint were included in the analysis. RESULTS: The FSFI domains desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction and pain were increased by 28%, 49%, 115%, 51%, 41% and 108%, respectively (p<0.0001 for all parameters) at 52 weeks vs. baseline, while the total score was increased from 13.4±0.62 at baseline to 21.5±0.82 (+60%, p<0.0001) at 52 weeks. CONCLUSION: As the serum levels of DHEA and all its metabolites, including estradiol and testosterone, show no meaningful change, the present clinical data indicate a stimulatory effect of intravaginal DHEA through a strictly local action in agreement with the preclinical data showing that the androgens made locally from DHEA in the vagina induce an increase in local nerve density.


Assuntos
Desidroepiandrosterona/uso terapêutico , Pós-Menopausa/efeitos dos fármacos , Disfunções Sexuais Fisiológicas/tratamento farmacológico , Administração Intravaginal , Adulto , Idoso , Desidroepiandrosterona/administração & dosagem , Desidroepiandrosterona/efeitos adversos , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Orgasmo/efeitos dos fármacos , Efeito Placebo , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
Gynecol Endocrinol ; 32(3): 240-5, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26634942

RESUMO

The objective of the study is to evaluate the acceptability of the intravaginal administration of ovules/suppositories of DHEA (dehydroepiandrosterone, prasterone) for the treatment of vulvovaginal atrophy (VVA) in women with moderate to severe dyspareunia who were administered daily for 12 weeks intravaginal 0.50% (6.5 mg) DHEA or placebo. There were a total of 373 women in the per-protocol population who responded to the questionnaire for both treatment groups. While it was planned that the applicator would be evaluated as suitable if at least 80% of participants have a global score ≤ 2 units, 99% and 100% of participants had a score ≤ 2 units in the placebo and DHEA groups, respectively, for the global score (mean of 5 questions). When asked about like and dislike the technique of drug administration, 284 comments were positive, while 114 women gave no comment. About 92-94% of women indicated that they were very confident to be able use the applicator successfully in the future. The survey shows a high degree of satisfaction and of confidence to use the applicator successfully in the future.


Assuntos
Desidroepiandrosterona/administração & dosagem , Dispareunia/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Vaginais/tratamento farmacológico , Administração Intravaginal , Atrofia/tratamento farmacológico , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Estudos Prospectivos , Vagina/patologia
10.
J Sex Med ; 12(12): 2401-12, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26597311

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Previous data have shown that intravaginal dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA, prasterone) improved all the domains of sexual function, an effect most likely related to the local formation of androgens from DHEA. AIMS: To confirm in a placebo-controlled, prospective, double-blind and randomized study the benefits of daily intravaginal DHEA for 12 weeks on sexual function using the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) questionnaire. METHODS: Placebo was administered daily to 157 women while 325 women received 0.50% (6.5 mg) DHEA daily for 12 weeks. All women were postmenopausal meeting the criteria of vulvovaginal atrophy (VVA), namely moderate to severe dyspareunia as their most bothersome symptom of VVA in addition to having ≤5% of vaginal superficial cells and vaginal pH > 5.0. The FSFI questionnaire was filled at baseline (screening and day 1), 6 weeks and 12 weeks. Comparison between DHEA and placebo of the changes from baseline to 12 weeks was made using the analysis of covariance test, with treatment group as the main factor and baseline value as the covariate. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The six domains and total score of the FSFI questionnaire were evaluated. RESULTS: The FSFI domain desire increased over placebo by 0.24 unit (+49.0%, P = 0.0105), arousal by 0.42 unit (+56.8%, P = 0.0022), lubrication by 0.57 unit (+36.1%, P = 0.0005), orgasm by 0.32 unit (+33.0%, P = 0.047), satisfaction by 0.44 unit (+48.3%, P = 0.0012), and pain at sexual activity by 0.62 unit (+39.2%, P = 0.001). The total FSFI score, on the other hand, has shown a superiority of 2.59 units in the DHEA group over placebo or a 41.3% greater change than placebo (P = 0.0006 over placebo). CONCLUSION: The present data show that all the six domains of the FSFI are improved over placebo (from P = 0.047 to 0.0005), thus confirming the previously observed benefits of intravaginal DHEA on female sexual dysfunction by an action exerted exclusively at the level of the vagina, in the absence of biologically significant changes of serum steroids levels.


Assuntos
Desidroepiandrosterona/administração & dosagem , Dispareunia/tratamento farmacológico , Vagina/efeitos dos fármacos , Vagina/patologia , Vulva/efeitos dos fármacos , Vulva/patologia , Administração Intravaginal , Adulto , Idoso , Atrofia , Método Duplo-Cego , Dispareunia/etiologia , Dispareunia/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Orgasmo , Satisfação Pessoal , Pós-Menopausa/efeitos dos fármacos , Estudos Prospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol ; 154: 186-96, 2015 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26291918

RESUMO

The objective of the present phase III, placebo-controlled, double-blind, prospective and randomized study was to confirm the efficacy of daily intravaginal administration of 0.50% dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA; prasterone) ovules for 12 weeks on moderate to severe dyspareunia (or pain at sexual activity) as most bothersome symptom of vulvovaginal atrophy (VVA) while having serum steroid concentrations within normal postmenopausal values. To this end, serum levels of DHEA, DHEA-sulfate (DHEA-S), Androst-5-ene-diol-3ß, 17ß-diol (5-diol), testosterone, dihydrotestosterone (DHT), androstenedione (4-dione), estrone (E1), estradiol (E2), estrone sulfate (E1-S), androsterone glucuronide (ADT-G), and androstane-3α, 17ß-diol 17-glucuronide (3α-diol-17G) were measured by validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). In agreement with the mechanisms of intracrinology, all serum sex steroids and metabolites concentrations after 12 weeks of daily intravaginal administration of 0.50% DHEA remain well within the limits of normal postmenopausal women. More specifically, the 12-week serum E2 concentration was measured at 22% below the average normal postmenopausal value (3.26 versus 4.17 pg/ml), thus eliminating any fear of E2 exposure outside the vagina. In addition, serum E1-S, a particularly reliable indicator of global estrogenic activity, shows serum levels practically superimposable to the value observed in normal postmenopausal women (219 versus 220 pg/ml). Similarly, serum ADT-G, the major metabolite of androgens, remains within normal postmenopausal values. The present data confirm the intracellular transformation of DHEA in the vagina resulting in local efficacy without any systemic exposure to sex steroids, observations which are in agreement with the physiological mechanisms of menopause.


Assuntos
Desidroepiandrosterona/administração & dosagem , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/sangue , Vagina , Idoso , Método Duplo-Cego , Vias de Administração de Medicamentos , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Placebos , Pós-Menopausa , Estudos Prospectivos
12.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 192(3): 367-73, 2015 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26017193

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Interferon-γ release assays have significant advantages over tuberculin skin testing in many clinical situations. However, recent studies have called into question their reliability in serial testing of healthcare workers because of reportedly high rates of positivity and high conversion/reversion rates on retesting. OBJECTIVES: To define the performance characteristics of the T-SPOT.TB test, an interferon-γ release assay, during serial screening programs of healthcare workers at 19 U.S. hospitals. METHODS: A total of 42,155 T-SPOT.TB test results from healthcare workers at 19 geographically diverse hospitals obtained for routine tuberculosis screening programs were analyzed to determine the rates of positivity, reversion, and conversion in serial testing data. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: In 19,630 evaluable serial pairs from 16,076 healthcare workers, the mean test positivity rate was 2.3% (range, 0.0-27.4%). The mean conversion rate was 0.8% (range, 0.0-2.5%), and the mean reversion rate was 17.6%. Positivity and conversion rates correlated with known tuberculosis risk factors including age and sex. The observed specificity of the T-SPOT.TB test was at least 98.6%. CONCLUSIONS: The high concordance and test completion rates in this study suggest that the T-SPOT.TB test is a reliable tool for healthcare worker serial screening. As expected, the observed positivity rates were lower compared with the tuberculin skin test, likely reflecting the higher specificity of this test. Furthermore, the observed rates of conversion were low and significantly correlated with the geographic incidence of tuberculosis. Our findings suggest that the T-SPOT.TB test is an accurate and reliable way to screen healthcare workers.


Assuntos
Testes de Liberação de Interferon-gama/estatística & dados numéricos , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Recursos Humanos em Hospital/estatística & dados numéricos , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Hospitais , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Teste Tuberculínico/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
13.
Maturitas ; 81(1): 46-56, 2015 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25771041

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: An objective was to analyze the time course of efficacy of daily intravaginal administration of 0.5% (6.5mg) DHEA (prasterone) for 52 weeks on the moderate to severe (MS) symptoms and signs of vulvovaginal atrophy (VVA). METHOD: Five hundred twenty-one postmenopausal women were enrolled and received daily intravaginal administration of 0.5% DHEA in an open-label phase III study. The severity of the VVA symptoms examined in detail in the different groups. RESULTS: A parallel improvement of pain at sexual activity was observed in women who had moderate to severe (MS) dyspareunia as their most bothersome symptom (MBS) (n=183) or not MBS (n=240) and MS without being MBS (n=57) with a 1.70 severity unit change in the MBS group for a decrease of 66.1% from baseline (p<0.0001 versus baseline) over 52 weeks. A further improvement of dyspareunia, namely 0.33 severity unit (19.4%), was observed with continuing treatment from 12 weeks to 52 weeks. Similar results were observed on vaginal dryness and irritation/itching. Highly significant beneficial effects (p<0.0001 versus baseline for all) were observed at gynecological examination on vaginal secretions, color, epithelial integrity and epithelial surface thickness. CONCLUSION: The present study shows, in addition to the parallel benefits on the three symptoms of VVA, that the choice of any of the MS symptoms as being or not being MBS by women has no influence on the observed therapeutic effect (NCT01256671).


Assuntos
Desidroepiandrosterona/administração & dosagem , Hormônios/administração & dosagem , Vagina/patologia , Doenças Vaginais/tratamento farmacológico , Vulva/patologia , Doenças da Vulva/tratamento farmacológico , Administração Intravaginal , Adulto , Idoso , Atrofia/complicações , Atrofia/tratamento farmacológico , Método Duplo-Cego , Dispareunia/tratamento farmacológico , Dispareunia/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pós-Menopausa , Prurido/tratamento farmacológico , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Comportamento Sexual , Doenças Vaginais/complicações , Doenças da Vulva/complicações
14.
Menopause ; 22(9): 950-63, 2015 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25734980

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aims to confirm the local effects of intravaginal prasterone on moderate to severe dyspareunia, a symptom of vulvovaginal atrophy (VVA) associated with menopause. METHODS: In a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase III clinical trial, we examined the effects of daily intravaginal prasterone (6.5 mg) on four co-primary objectives, namely, percentage of vaginal parabasal cells, percentage of vaginal superficial cells, vaginal pH, and moderate to severe dyspareunia identified by women as the most bothersome VVA symptom. RESULTS: After daily intravaginal prasterone administration for 12 weeks, the percentage of parabasal cells decreased by 45.8% compared with placebo (P < 0.0001), the percentage of superficial cells increased by 4.7% over placebo (P < 0.0001), and vaginal pH decreased by 0.83 pH units compared with placebo (P < 0.0001). The severity of most bothersome dyspareunia decreased by 46% over placebo (P = 0.013) at 12 weeks, whereas moderate to severe vaginal dryness decreased by 0.43 severity score units (or 42%) compared with placebo (P = 0.013). On gynecologic evaluation, a 14.4% to 21.1% improvement in vaginal secretions, epithelial integrity, epithelial surface thickness, and color over placebo (P = 0.0002 to P < 0.0001) was observed. Serum steroids, in agreement with the physiology of intracrinology and menopause, remained well within reference postmenopausal concentrations. All endometrial biopsies at 12 weeks have shown atrophy. CONCLUSIONS: Daily intravaginal prasterone (0.50%; 6.5 mg) treatment has clinically and statistically significant beneficial effects on the four co-primary objectives of VVA, according to US Food and Drug Administration guidelines. No significant drug-related adverse effect in line with the strictly local action of treatment has been reported, thus providing a high benefit-to-risk ratio for intravaginal prasterone.


Assuntos
Desidroepiandrosterona/uso terapêutico , Dispareunia/tratamento farmacológico , Menopausa , Administração Intravaginal , Adulto , Idoso , Desidroepiandrosterona/administração & dosagem , Método Duplo-Cego , Dispareunia/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição da Dor , Estudos Prospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
J Sex Med ; 11(7): 1766-85, 2014 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24774442

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: We have previously observed that intravaginal prasterone (dehydroepiandrosterone, DHEA) improved all domains of female sexual dysfunction (FSD). AIM: Investigate the influence of moderate/severe pain at sexual activity (dyspareunia) (MSD) at baseline on FSD following prasterone administration. METHODS: The effect of daily administration of prasterone (0, 3.25 mg, 6.5 mg or 13 mg) for 12 weeks on FSD in 215 postmenopausal women with or without MSD at baseline was evaluated in a prospective, randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled phase III clinical trial. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Differences were examined on desire, arousal and orgasm. RESULTS: Comparable benefits were observed in women not having MSD (n = 56) vs. those having MSD (n = 159). The benefits over placebo in prasterone-treated women for desire, avoiding intimacy and vaginal dryness as well as for the total sexual domain of the MENQOL (Menopause Specific Quality of Life) questionnaire, ranged between 18.0% and 38.2% with P values of <0.05 or <0.01 except in one out of 12 subgroups. For the arousal/sensation, arousal/lubrication and summary score of the ASF (Abbreviated Sexual Function) questionnaire, in the MSD+ group, improvements of 64.2% (P = 0.01), 118% (P = 0.001) and 31.1% (P = 0.03) were observed over placebo, respectively, while similar differences (58.0%, 67.6% and 32.1%) did not reach statistical significance in the MSD- group having up to only 44 prasterone-treated women compared with 119 in the MSD+ group. CONCLUSIONS: No MSD at baseline does not apparently affect the effects of intravaginal prasterone on sexual dysfunction. Knowing the absence of significant effects of estrogens on FSD, the present data suggest that vulvovaginal atrophy (VVA) and vulvovaginal sexual dysfunction (VVSD) are two different consequences of sex steroid deficiency at menopause which can respond independently. In addition, the present data seriously question the justification of pain being part of FSD as well as the separation of FSD into separate domains.


Assuntos
Androgênios/administração & dosagem , Desidroepiandrosterona/administração & dosagem , Dispareunia/complicações , Disfunções Sexuais Psicogênicas/tratamento farmacológico , Administração Intravaginal , Adulto , Idoso , Nível de Alerta/efeitos dos fármacos , Método Duplo-Cego , Estrogênios/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Menopausa , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fibras Nervosas/efeitos dos fármacos , Orgasmo/efeitos dos fármacos , Pós-Menopausa/efeitos dos fármacos , Estudos Prospectivos , Qualidade de Vida , Comportamento Sexual/efeitos dos fármacos , Supositórios , Inquéritos e Questionários , Vagina/inervação , Doenças Vaginais/tratamento farmacológico
16.
J Clin Oncol ; 30(6): 631-6, 2012 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22271479

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Romidepsin is a structurally unique, potent class 1 selective histone deacetylase inhibitor. The primary objective of this international, pivotal, single-arm, phase II trial was to confirm the efficacy of romidepsin in patients with relapsed or refractory peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients who were refractory to at least one prior systemic therapy or for whom at least one prior systemic therapy failed received romidepsin at 14 mg/m(2) as a 4-hour intravenous infusion on days 1, 8, and 15 every 28 days. The primary end point was the rate of complete response/unconfirmed complete response (CR/CRu) as assessed by an independent review committee. RESULTS: Of the 131 patients enrolled, 130 had histologically confirmed PTCL by central review. The median number of prior systemic therapies was two (range, one to eight). The objective response rate was 25% (33 of 130), including 15% (19 of 130) with CR/CRu. Patient characteristics, prior stem-cell transplantation, number or type of prior therapies, or response to last prior therapy did not have an impact on response rate. The median duration of response was 17 months, with the longest response ongoing at 34+ months. Of the 19 patients who achieved CR/CRu, 17 (89%) had not experienced disease progression at a median follow-up of 13.4 months. The most common grade ≥ 3 adverse events were thrombocytopenia (24%), neutropenia (20%), and infections (all types, 19%). CONCLUSION: Single-agent romidepsin induced complete and durable responses with manageable toxicity in patients with relapsed or refractory PTCL across all major PTCL subtypes, regardless of the number or type of prior therapies. Results led to US Food and Drug Administration approval of romidepsin in this indication.


Assuntos
Depsipeptídeos/uso terapêutico , Linfoma de Células T Periférico/tratamento farmacológico , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antibióticos Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Depsipeptídeos/efeitos adversos , Diarreia/induzido quimicamente , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia/induzido quimicamente , Resultado do Tratamento , Doenças Vasculares/induzido quimicamente , Vômito/induzido quimicamente , Adulto Jovem
17.
N Engl J Med ; 364(14): 1326-33, 2011 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21470010

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Yellow fever is a lethal viral hemorrhagic fever occurring in Africa and South America. A highly effective live vaccine (17D) is widely used for travelers to and residents of areas in which yellow fever is endemic, but the vaccine can cause serious adverse events, including viscerotropic disease, which is associated with a high rate of death. A safer, nonreplicating vaccine is needed. METHODS: In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-escalation, phase 1 study of 60 healthy subjects between 18 and 49 years of age, we investigated the safety and immunogenicity of XRX-001 purified whole-virus, ß-propiolactone-inactivated yellow fever vaccine produced in Vero cell cultures and adsorbed to aluminum hydroxide (alum) adjuvant. On two visits 21 days apart, subjects received intramuscular injections of vaccine that contained 0.48 µg or 4.8 µg of antigen. Levels of neutralizing antibodies were measured at baseline and on days 21, 31, and 42. RESULTS: The vaccine induced the development of neutralizing antibodies in 100% of subjects receiving 4.8 µg of antigen in each injection and in 88% of subjects receiving 0.48 µg of antigen in each injection. Antibody levels increased by day 10 after the second injection, at which time levels were significantly higher with the 4.8-µg formulation than with the 0.48-µg formulation (geometric mean titer, 146 vs. 39; P<0.001). Three adverse events occurred at a higher incidence in the two vaccine groups than in the placebo group: mild pain, tenderness, and (much less frequently) itching at the injection site. One case of urticaria was observed on day 3 after the second dose of 4.8 µg of vaccine. CONCLUSIONS: A two-dose regimen of the XRX-001 vaccine, containing inactivated yellow fever antigen with an alum adjuvant, induced neutralizing antibodies in a high percentage of subjects. XRX-001 has the potential to be a safer alternative to live attenuated 17D vaccine. (Funded by Xcellerex; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00995865.).


Assuntos
Vacina contra Febre Amarela , Febre Amarela/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Cercopithecus aethiops , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Injeções Intramusculares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados/administração & dosagem , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados/efeitos adversos , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados/imunologia , Células Vero , Febre Amarela/imunologia , Vacina contra Febre Amarela/administração & dosagem , Vacina contra Febre Amarela/efeitos adversos , Vacina contra Febre Amarela/imunologia , Vírus da Febre Amarela/imunologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
Menopause ; 18(1): 30-43, 2011 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20683211

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Because the exclusive source of sex steroids (at least estrogens) after menopause is recognized to be dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), this study examines the interindividual variability of serum DHEA and its metabolites as well as the contribution of the ovary to global sex steroid physiology in postmenopausal women. METHODS: Serum levels of DHEA and 11 of its metabolites were measured by gas or liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry in 442 intact and 71 ovariectomized postmenopausal women aged 42 to 74 years. RESULTS: With a mean ± SD concentration of 2.03 ± 1.33 ng/mL, serum DHEA in intact postmenopausal women is highly variable with 5th and 95th centiles at 0.55 and 4.34 ng/mL, respectively, for a 7.9-fold difference. A comparable variability is observed for the 11 metabolites of DHEA. The 22.3% higher serum DHEA in intact compared with ovariectomized women is accompanied by parallel differences for all the other steroids, thus indicating that all sex steroids originate from circulating DHEA in postmenopausal women with no direct secretion of active estrogens or androgens by the postmenopausal ovary. CONCLUSIONS: The 7.9-fold difference between low and high serum DHEA levels provides an explanation for the lack of signs of hormone deficiency in some women, whereas most of them have symptoms or signs. The approximately 20% contribution of the ovary to the total pool of DHEA with no direct secretion of estrogens or androgens in the circulation could possibly explain the reported negative effect of oophorectomy on longevity, especially from coronary heart disease events.


Assuntos
Desidroepiandrosterona/sangue , Ovário/metabolismo , Pós-Menopausa/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Androstano-3,17-diol/análogos & derivados , Androstano-3,17-diol/sangue , Androstenodiol/sangue , Androstenodiona/sangue , Androsterona/análogos & derivados , Androsterona/sangue , Desidroepiandrosterona/metabolismo , Sulfato de Desidroepiandrosterona/sangue , Di-Hidrotestosterona/sangue , Estradiol/sangue , Estrona/análogos & derivados , Estrona/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ovariectomia , Pós-Menopausa/fisiologia , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Testosterona/sangue
19.
Gynecol Endocrinol ; 26(7): 524-32, 2010 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20459349

RESUMO

Following the compelling data obtained in a pivotal phase III clinical trial performed in 218 postmenopausal women suffering from vaginal atrophy who received daily intravaginal 0.25, 0.5 or 1.0% DHEA (dehydroepiandrosterone) ovules for 12 weeks, we have performed analysis of the four co-primary objectives at each site of that multicentre U.S. and Canadian trial. Comparison was made of the change in percentage of parabasal and superficial cells, vaginal pH and severity of the most bothersome symptom. The site-by-site (seven sites) analysis has shown that 10-13 women per group are generally sufficient to obtain a significant or highly statistically significant decrease in vaginal pH and percentage of parabasal cells and increased percentage of superficial cells at p values ranging from 0.02 to <0.0001. For vaginal pain as the most bothersome symptom, a statistically significant difference from baseline was found at six out of seven sites. The exceptionally high consistency between all sites in this phase III study and high potency of the compound permit to obtain a clinically and statistically significant to highly significant effect of treatment on all parameters of vaginal atrophy with the 0.5% DHEA daily intravaginal dose which does not significantly affect the serum levels of oestrogens, thus avoiding systemic risks.


Assuntos
Desidroepiandrosterona/uso terapêutico , Vagina/efeitos dos fármacos , Vagina/patologia , Doenças Vaginais/tratamento farmacológico , Administração Intravaginal , Atrofia/tratamento farmacológico , Atrofia/patologia , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Análise de Intenção de Tratamento , Pós-Menopausa/efeitos dos fármacos , Resultado do Tratamento , Doenças Vaginais/patologia
20.
BMC Infect Dis ; 10: 71, 2010 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20236548

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Seasonal influenza imposes a substantial personal morbidity and societal cost burden. Vaccination is the major strategy for influenza prevention; however, because antigenically drifted influenza A and B viruses circulate annually, influenza vaccines must be updated to provide protection against the predicted prevalent strains for the next influenza season. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy, safety, reactogenicity, and immunogenicity of a trivalent inactivated split virion influenza vaccine (TIV) in healthy adults over two influenza seasons in the US. METHODS: The primary endpoint of this double-blind, randomized study was the average efficacy of TIV versus placebo for the prevention of vaccine-matched, culture-confirmed influenza (VMCCI) across the 2005-2006 and 2006-2007 influenza seasons. Secondary endpoints included the prevention of laboratory-confirmed (defined by culture and/or serology) influenza, as well as safety, reactogenicity, immunogenicity, and consistency between three consecutive vaccine lots. Participants were assessed actively during both influenza seasons, and nasopharyngeal swabs were collected for viral culture from individuals with influenza-like illness. Blood specimens were obtained for serology one month after vaccination and at the end of each influenza season's surveillance period. RESULTS: Although the point estimate for efficacy in the prevention of all laboratory-confirmed influenza was 63.2% (97.5% confidence interval [CI] lower bound of 48.2%), the point estimate for the primary endpoint, efficacy of TIV against VMCCI across both influenza seasons, was 46.3% with a 97.5% CI lower bound of 9.8%. This did not satisfy the pre-specified success criterion of a one-sided 97.5% CI lower bound of >35% for vaccine efficacy. The VMCCI attack rates were very low overall at 0.6% and 1.2% in the TIV and placebo groups, respectively. Apart from a mismatch for influenza B virus lineage in 2005-2006, there was a good match between TIV and the circulating strains. TIV was highly immunogenic, and immune responses were consistent between three different TIV lots. The most common reactogenicity events and spontaneous adverse events were associated with the injection site, and were mild in severity. CONCLUSIONS: Despite a good immune response, and an average efficacy over two influenza seasons against laboratory-confirmed influenza of 63.2%, the pre-specified target (lower one-sided 97.5% confidence bound for efficacy > 35%) for the primary efficacy endpoint, the prevention of VMCCI, was not met. However, the results should be interpreted with caution in view of the very low attack rates we observed at the study sites in the 2005-2006 and 2006-2007, which corresponded to relatively mild influenza seasons in the US. Overall, the results showed that TIV has an acceptable safety profile and offered clinical benefit that exceeded risk. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT00216242.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra Influenza/efeitos adversos , Vacinas contra Influenza/imunologia , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Método Duplo-Cego , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nasofaringe/virologia , Orthomyxoviridae/classificação , Orthomyxoviridae/isolamento & purificação , Placebos/administração & dosagem , Dermatopatias/induzido quimicamente , Dermatopatias/patologia , Estados Unidos , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados/efeitos adversos , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados/imunologia , Vacinas de Subunidades/efeitos adversos , Vacinas de Subunidades/imunologia , Adulto Jovem
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA