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1.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(11): e32264, 2021 11 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34730547

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The role of telemedicine in intensive care has been increasing steadily. Tele-intensive care unit (ICU) interventions are varied and can be used in different levels of treatment, often with direct implications for the intensive care processes. Although a substantial body of primary and secondary literature has been published on the topic, there is a need for broadening the understanding of the organizational factors influencing the effectiveness of telemedical interventions in the ICU. OBJECTIVE: This scoping review aims to provide a map of existing evidence on tele-ICU interventions, focusing on the analysis of the implementation context and identifying areas for further technological research. METHODS: A research protocol outlining the method has been published in JMIR Research Protocols. This review follows the PRISMA-ScR (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses Extension for Scoping Reviews). A core research team was assembled to provide feedback and discuss findings. RESULTS: A total of 3019 results were retrieved. After screening, 25 studies were included in the final analysis. We were able to characterize the context of tele-ICU studies and identify three use cases for tele-ICU interventions. The first use case is extending coverage, which describes interventions aimed at extending the availability of intensive care capabilities. The second use case is improving compliance, which includes interventions targeted at improving patient safety, intensive care best practices, and quality of care. The third use case, facilitating transfer, describes telemedicine interventions targeted toward the management of patient transfers to or from the ICU. CONCLUSIONS: The benefits of tele-ICU interventions have been well documented for centralized systems aimed at extending critical care capabilities in a community setting and improving care compliance in tertiary hospitals. No strong evidence has been found on the reduction of patient transfers following tele-ICU intervention. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): RR2-10.2196/19695.


Assuntos
Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Telemedicina , Cuidados Críticos , Humanos , Segurança do Paciente
2.
Soc Sci Med ; 289: 114420, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34607053

RESUMO

The literature on healthcare management has noted that shared decision-making (SDM) - a practice of organizing joint decisions between healthcare professionals and patients - should improve healthcare outcomes through patient engagement and autonomy, fostering patient-centeredness. While SDM projects are implemented across Europe and the US, the diffusion of the practice remains partial, and its' conceptualization scattered. Healthcare management literature explores SDM on the underlying assumption that its limited diffusion results from an information problem, implying objective criteria and rational behavior. The purpose of this research is to study the social construction of SDM within the clinical setting and the underlying rationales using the case of one of the largest healthcare markets worldwide - Germany. To capture the complexity of SDM, a frame analysis is conducted on its medial representations. News media is both influential in shaping public opinion, as well as in generating public discourse. This analysis enables one to elaborate different facets of the construct of SDM, to capture inherent patterns of facilitating and obstructing aspects and to explore consequences for the diffusion of SDM. Three facilitating and three obstructive frames on the implementation of SDM were identified. The polarities of these frames range from the questioning of one's decision-making authority to the perception of individual competence and decision-making agency. Moreover, this study reflects on how physicians' and patients' role for SDM is conceived.

3.
J Clin Med ; 10(18)2021 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34575204

RESUMO

The benzodiazepine, midazolam, is one of the most frequently used sedatives in intensive care medicine, but it has an unfavorable pharmacokinetic profile when continuously applied. As a consequence, patients are frequently prolonged and more deeply sedated than intended. Due to its distinct pharmacological features, including a cytochrome P450-independent metabolization, intravenous lormetazepam might be clinically advantageous compared to midazolam. In this retrospective cohort study, we compared patients who received either intravenous lormetazepam or midazolam with respect to their survival and sedation characteristics. The cohort included 3314 mechanically ventilated, critically ill patients that received one of the two drugs in a tertiary medical center in Germany between 2006 and 2018. A Cox proportional hazards model with mortality as outcome and APACHE II, age, gender, and admission mode as covariates revealed a hazard ratio of 1.75 [95% CI 1.46-2.09; p < 0.001] for in-hospital mortality associated with the use of midazolam. After additionally adjusting for sedation intensity, the HR became 1.04 [95% CI 0.83-1.31; p = 0.97]. Thus, we concluded that excessive sedation occurs more frequently in critically ill patients treated with midazolam than in patients treated with lormetazepam. These findings require further investigation in prospective trials to assess if lormetazepam, due to its ability to maintain light sedation, might be favorable over other benzodiazepines for sedation in the ICU.

4.
J Clin Med ; 10(17)2021 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34501376

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to synthesize quantitative research that identified ranking lists of the most severe stressors of patients in the intensive care unit, as perceived by patients, relatives, and health care professionals (HCP). We conducted a systematic literature search in PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycInfo, CINAHL, and Cochrane Library from 1989 to 15 May 2020. Data were analyzed with descriptive and semi-quantitative methods to yield summarizing ranking lists of the most severe stressors. We synthesized the results of 42 prospective cross-sectional observational studies from different international regions. All investigations had assessed patient ratings. Thirteen studies also measured HCP ratings, and four studies included ratings of relatives. Data indicated that patients rate the severity of stressors lower than HCPs and relatives do. Out of all ranking lists, we extracted 137 stressor items that were most frequently ranked among the most severe stressors. After allocation to four domains, a group of clinical ICU experts sorted these stressors with good to excellent agreement according to their stress levels. Our results may contribute to improve HCPs' and relatives' understanding of patients' perceptions of stressors in the ICU. The synthesized stressor rankings can be used for the development of new assessment instruments of stressors.

5.
J Clin Med ; 10(17)2021 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34501390

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiac surgery patients represent a high-risk cohort in intensive care units (ICUs). Central venous pressure (CVP) measurement seems to remain an integral part in hemodynamic monitoring, especially in cardio-surgical ICUs. However, its value as a prognostic marker for organ failure is still unclear. Therefore, we analyzed postoperative CVP values after adult cardiac surgery in a large cohort with regard to its prognostic value for morbidity and mortality. METHODS: All adult patients admitted to our ICUs between 2006 and 2019 after cardiac surgery were eligible for inclusion in the study (n = 11,198). We calculated the median initial CVP (miCVP) after admission to the ICU, which returned valid values for 9802 patients. An ROC curve analysis for optimal cut-off miCVP to predict ICU mortality was conducted with consecutive patient allocation into a (a) low miCVP (LCVP) group (≤11 mmHg) and (b) high miCVP (HCVP) group (>11 mmHg). We analyzed the impact of high miCVP on morbidity and mortality by propensity score matching (PSM) and logistic regression. RESULTS: ICU mortality was increased in HCVP patients. In addition, patients in the HCVP group required longer mechanical ventilation, had a higher incidence of acute kidney injury, were more frequently treated with renal replacement therapy, and showed a higher risk for postoperative liver dysfunction, parametrized by a postoperative rise of ≥ 10 in MELD Score. Multiple regression analysis confirmed HCVP has an effect on postoperative ICU-mortality and intrahospital mortality, which seems to be independent. CONCLUSIONS: A high initial CVP in the early postoperative ICU course after cardiac surgery is associated with worse patient outcome. Whether or not CVP, as a readily and constantly available hemodynamic parameter, should promote clinical efforts regarding diagnostics and/or treatment, warrants further investigations.

6.
Health Info Libr J ; 38(3): 224-230, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34549514

RESUMO

The impact of algorithms on everyday life is ever increasing. Medicine and public health are not excluded from this development - algorithms in medicine do not only challenge, change and inform research (methods) but also clinical situations. Given this development, questions arise concerning the competency level of prospective physicians, thus medical students, on algorithm related topics. This paper, based on a master's thesis in library and information science written at Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, gives an insight into this topic by presenting and analysing the results of a knowledge test conducted among medical students in Germany. F. J.


Assuntos
Estudantes de Medicina , Alemanha , Humanos , Alfabetização , Estudos Prospectivos
7.
J Clin Med ; 10(13)2021 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34209919

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Etomidate is typically used as an induction agent in cardiac surgery because it has little impact on hemodynamics. It is a known suppressor of adrenocortical function and may increase the risk for post-operative infections, sepsis, and mortality. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether etomidate increases the risk of postoperative sepsis (primary outcome) and infections (secondary outcome) compared to propofol. METHODS: This was a retrospective before-after trial (IRB EA1/143/20) performed at a tertiary medical center in Berlin, Germany, between 10/2012 and 01/2015. Patients undergoing cardiac surgery were investigated within two observation intervals, during which etomidate and propofol were the sole induction agents. RESULTS: One-thousand, four-hundred, and sixty-two patients, and 622 matched pairs, after caliper propensity-score matching, were included in the final analysis. Sepsis rates did not differ in the matched cohort (etomidate: 11.5% vs. propofol: 8.2%, p = 0.052). Patients in the etomidate interval were more likely to develop hospital-acquired pneumonia (etomidate: 18.6% vs. propofol: 14.0%, p = 0.031). CONCLUSION: Our study showed that a single-dose of etomidate is not statistically associated with higher postoperative sepsis rates after cardiac surgery, but is associated with a higher incidence of hospital-acquired pneumonia. However, there is a notable trend towards a higher sepsis rate.

8.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 13205, 2021 06 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34168198

RESUMO

In a pandemic with a novel disease, disease-specific prognosis models are available only with a delay. To bridge the critical early phase, models built for similar diseases might be applied. To test the accuracy of such a knowledge transfer, we investigated how precise lethal courses in critically ill COVID-19 patients can be predicted by a model trained on critically ill non-COVID-19 viral pneumonia patients. We trained gradient boosted decision tree models on 718 (245 deceased) non-COVID-19 viral pneumonia patients to predict individual ICU mortality and applied it to 1054 (369 deceased) COVID-19 patients. Our model showed a significantly better predictive performance (AUROC 0.86 [95% CI 0.86-0.87]) than the clinical scores APACHE2 (0.63 [95% CI 0.61-0.65]), SAPS2 (0.72 [95% CI 0.71-0.74]) and SOFA (0.76 [95% CI 0.75-0.77]), the COVID-19-specific mortality prediction models of Zhou (0.76 [95% CI 0.73-0.78]) and Wang (laboratory: 0.62 [95% CI 0.59-0.65]; clinical: 0.56 [95% CI 0.55-0.58]) and the 4C COVID-19 Mortality score (0.71 [95% CI 0.70-0.72]). We conclude that lethal courses in critically ill COVID-19 patients can be predicted by a machine learning model trained on non-COVID-19 patients. Our results suggest that in a pandemic with a novel disease, prognosis models built for similar diseases can be applied, even when the diseases differ in time courses and in rates of critical and lethal courses.


Assuntos
COVID-19/diagnóstico , Aprendizado de Máquina , Modelos Teóricos , Idoso , COVID-19/terapia , Estado Terminal , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
9.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(5): e26494, 2021 05 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34047701

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As one of the most essential technical components of the intensive care unit (ICU), continuous monitoring of patients' vital parameters has significantly improved patient safety by alerting staff through an alarm when a parameter deviates from the normal range. However, the vast number of alarms regularly overwhelms staff and may induce alarm fatigue, a condition recently exacerbated by COVID-19 and potentially endangering patients. OBJECTIVE: This study focused on providing a complete and repeatable analysis of the alarm data of an ICU's patient monitoring system. We aimed to develop do-it-yourself (DIY) instructions for technically versed ICU staff to analyze their monitoring data themselves, which is an essential element for developing efficient and effective alarm optimization strategies. METHODS: This observational study was conducted using alarm log data extracted from the patient monitoring system of a 21-bed surgical ICU in 2019. DIY instructions were iteratively developed in informal interdisciplinary team meetings. The data analysis was grounded in a framework consisting of 5 dimensions, each with specific metrics: alarm load (eg, alarms per bed per day, alarm flood conditions, alarm per device and per criticality), avoidable alarms, (eg, the number of technical alarms), responsiveness and alarm handling (eg alarm duration), sensing (eg, usage of the alarm pause function), and exposure (eg, alarms per room type). Results were visualized using the R package ggplot2 to provide detailed insights into the ICU's alarm situation. RESULTS: We developed 6 DIY instructions that should be followed iteratively step by step. Alarm load metrics should be (re)defined before alarm log data are collected and analyzed. Intuitive visualizations of the alarm metrics should be created next and presented to staff in order to help identify patterns in the alarm data for designing and implementing effective alarm management interventions. We provide the script we used for the data preparation and an R-Markdown file to create comprehensive alarm reports. The alarm load in the respective ICU was quantified by 152.5 (SD 42.2) alarms per bed per day on average and alarm flood conditions with, on average, 69.55 (SD 31.12) per day that both occurred mostly in the morning shifts. Most alarms were issued by the ventilator, invasive blood pressure device, and electrocardiogram (ie, high and low blood pressure, high respiratory rate, low heart rate). The exposure to alarms per bed per day was higher in single rooms (26%, mean 172.9/137.2 alarms per day per bed). CONCLUSIONS: Analyzing ICU alarm log data provides valuable insights into the current alarm situation. Our results call for alarm management interventions that effectively reduce the number of alarms in order to ensure patient safety and ICU staff's work satisfaction. We hope our DIY instructions encourage others to follow suit in analyzing and publishing their ICU alarm data.


Assuntos
COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/fisiopatologia , Alarmes Clínicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Monitorização Fisiológica/métodos , Recursos Humanos em Hospital/educação , Humanos , Monitorização Fisiológica/instrumentação , Segurança do Paciente , Linguagens de Programação
10.
11.
Infection ; 49(4): 703-714, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33890243

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Adequate patient allocation is pivotal for optimal resource management in strained healthcare systems, and requires detailed knowledge of clinical and virological disease trajectories. The purpose of this work was to identify risk factors associated with need for invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV), to analyse viral kinetics in patients with and without IMV and to provide a comprehensive description of clinical course. METHODS: A cohort of 168 hospitalised adult COVID-19 patients enrolled in a prospective observational study at a large European tertiary care centre was analysed. RESULTS: Forty-four per cent (71/161) of patients required invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV). Shorter duration of symptoms before admission (aOR 1.22 per day less, 95% CI 1.10-1.37, p < 0.01) and history of hypertension (aOR 5.55, 95% CI 2.00-16.82, p < 0.01) were associated with need for IMV. Patients on IMV had higher maximal concentrations, slower decline rates, and longer shedding of SARS-CoV-2 than non-IMV patients (33 days, IQR 26-46.75, vs 18 days, IQR 16-46.75, respectively, p < 0.01). Median duration of hospitalisation was 9 days (IQR 6-15.5) for non-IMV and 49.5 days (IQR 36.8-82.5) for IMV patients. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate a short duration of symptoms before admission as a risk factor for severe disease that merits further investigation and different viral load kinetics in severely affected patients. Median duration of hospitalisation of IMV patients was longer than described for acute respiratory distress syndrome unrelated to COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/virologia , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , COVID-19/terapia , Estudos de Coortes , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Hospitalização , Humanos , Hipertensão/complicações , Cinética , Estudos Prospectivos , Respiração Artificial , Fatores de Risco , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Fatores de Tempo , Carga Viral , Eliminação de Partículas Virais
12.
Kidney Int Rep ; 6(4): 905-915, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33817450

RESUMO

Introduction: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is an important complication in COVID-19, but its precise etiology has not fully been elucidated. Insights into AKI mechanisms may be provided by analyzing the temporal associations of clinical parameters reflecting disease processes and AKI development. Methods: We performed an observational cohort study of 223 consecutive COVID-19 patients treated at 3 sites of a tertiary care referral center to describe the evolvement of severe AKI (Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes stage 3) and identify conditions promoting its development. Descriptive statistics and explanatory multivariable Cox regression modeling with clinical parameters as time-varying covariates were used to identify risk factors of severe AKI. Results: Severe AKI developed in 70 of 223 patients (31%) with COVID-19, of which 95.7% required kidney replacement therapy. Patients with severe AKI were older, predominantly male, had more comorbidities, and displayed excess mortality. Severe AKI occurred exclusively in intensive care unit patients, and 97.3% of the patients developing severe AKI had respiratory failure. Mechanical ventilation, vasopressor therapy, and inflammatory markers (serum procalcitonin levels and leucocyte count) were independent time-varying risk factors of severe AKI. Increasing inflammatory markers displayed a close temporal association with the development of severe AKI. Sensitivity analysis on risk factors of AKI stage 2 and 3 combined confirmed these findings. Conclusion: Severe AKI in COVID-19 was tightly coupled with critical illness and systemic inflammation and was not observed in milder disease courses. These findings suggest that traditional systemic AKI mechanisms rather than kidney-specific processes contribute to severe AKI in COVID-19.

13.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(3): e24475, 2021 03 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33688845

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Symptom checkers (SCs) are tools developed to provide clinical decision support to laypersons. Apart from suggesting probable diagnoses, they commonly advise when users should seek care (triage advice). SCs have become increasingly popular despite prior studies rating their performance as mediocre. To date, it is unclear whether SCs can triage better than those who might choose to use them. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to compare triage accuracy between SCs and their potential users (ie, laypersons). METHODS: On Amazon Mechanical Turk, we recruited 91 adults from the United States who had no professional medical background. In a web-based survey, the participants evaluated 45 fictitious clinical case vignettes. Data for 15 SCs that had processed the same vignettes were obtained from a previous study. As main outcome measures, we assessed the accuracy of the triage assessments made by participants and SCs for each of the three triage levels (ie, emergency care, nonemergency care, self-care) and overall, the proportion of participants outperforming each SC in terms of accuracy, and the risk aversion of participants and SCs by comparing the proportion of cases that were overtriaged. RESULTS: The mean overall triage accuracy was similar for participants (60.9%, SD 6.8%; 95% CI 59.5%-62.3%) and SCs (58%, SD 12.8%). Most participants outperformed all but 5 SCs. On average, SCs more reliably detected emergencies (80.6%, SD 17.9%) than laypersons did (67.5%, SD 16.4%; 95% CI 64.1%-70.8%). Although both SCs and participants struggled with cases requiring self-care (the least urgent triage category), SCs more often wrongly classified these cases as emergencies (43/174, 24.7%) compared with laypersons (56/1365, 4.10%). CONCLUSIONS: Most SCs had no greater triage capability than an average layperson, although the triage accuracy of the five best SCs was superior to the accuracy of most participants. SCs might improve early detection of emergencies but might also needlessly increase resource utilization in health care. Laypersons sometimes require support in deciding when to rely on self-care but it is in that very situation where SCs perform the worst. Further research is needed to determine how to best combine the strengths of humans and SCs.


Assuntos
Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Triagem , Adulto , Benchmarking , Humanos , Autocuidado , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(2): e25283, 2021 02 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33497350

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 outbreak has affected the lives of millions of people by causing a dramatic impact on many health care systems and the global economy. This devastating pandemic has brought together communities across the globe to work on this issue in an unprecedented manner. OBJECTIVE: This case study describes the steps and methods employed in the conduction of a remote online health hackathon centered on challenges posed by the COVID-19 pandemic. It aims to deliver a clear implementation road map for other organizations to follow. METHODS: This 4-day hackathon was conducted in April 2020, based on six COVID-19-related challenges defined by frontline clinicians and researchers from various disciplines. An online survey was structured to assess: (1) individual experience satisfaction, (2) level of interprofessional skills exchange, (3) maturity of the projects realized, and (4) overall quality of the event. At the end of the event, participants were invited to take part in an online survey with 17 (+5 optional) items, including multiple-choice and open-ended questions that assessed their experience regarding the remote nature of the event and their individual project, interprofessional skills exchange, and their confidence in working on a digital health project before and after the hackathon. Mentors, who guided the participants through the event, also provided feedback to the organizers through an online survey. RESULTS: A total of 48 participants and 52 mentors based in 8 different countries participated and developed 14 projects. A total of 75 mentorship video sessions were held. Participants reported increased confidence in starting a digital health venture or a research project after successfully participating in the hackathon, and stated that they were likely to continue working on their projects. Of the participants who provided feedback, 60% (n=18) would not have started their project without this particular hackathon and indicated that the hackathon encouraged and enabled them to progress faster, for example, by building interdisciplinary teams, gaining new insights and feedback provided by their mentors, and creating a functional prototype. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides insights into how online hackathons can contribute to solving the challenges and effects of a pandemic in several regions of the world. The online format fosters team diversity, increases cross-regional collaboration, and can be executed much faster and at lower costs compared to in-person events. Results on preparation, organization, and evaluation of this online hackathon are useful for other institutions and initiatives that are willing to introduce similar event formats in the fight against COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19/terapia , Atenção à Saúde/organização & administração , Internet , Adulto , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação
15.
J Crit Care ; 61: 241-246, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33220577

RESUMO

The high demand for intensive care, which is predicted to further increase in the future, is contrasted by a shortage of trained intensivists and specialized nurses. Telemedicine has been heralded as a promising solution. Yet, there is considerable heterogeneity in tele-critical care when it comes to measurable effects. However, the focus has been on telemedical solutions substituting on-site intensivist functions, and outcome measures have primarily been mortality and length of stay. In a new model of telemedicine for the ICU, telemedicine could be used to increase adherence to best practice guidelines and indicators of process quality. Further, indicators of process quality, functional outcomes and quality of life measures should be incorporated in the evaluation of outcomes, as patients frequently value those higher than mere survival.


Assuntos
Qualidade de Vida , Telemedicina , Cuidados Críticos , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde
17.
JMIR Res Protoc ; 9(12): e19695, 2020 Dec 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33382040

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Telemedicine has been deployed to address issues in intensive care delivery, as well as to improve outcome and quality of care. Implementation of this technology has been characterized by high variability. Tele-intensive care unit (ICU) interventions involve the combination of multiple technological and organizational components, as well as interconnections of key stakeholders inside the hospital organization. The extensive literature on the benefits of tele-ICUs has been characterized as heterogeneous. On one hand, positive clinical and economical outcomes have been shown in multiple studies. On the other hand, no tangible benefits could be detected in several cases. This could be due to the diverse forms of organizations and the fact that tele-ICU interventions are complex to evaluate. The implementation context of tele-ICUs has been shown to play an important role in the success of the technology. The benefits derived from tele-ICUs depend on the organization where it is deployed and how the telemedicine systems are applied. There is therefore value in analyzing the benefits of tele-ICUs in relation to the characteristics of the organization where it is deployed. To date, research on the topic has not provided a comprehensive overview of literature taking both the technology setup and implementation context into account. OBJECTIVE: We present a protocol for a scoping review of the literature on telemedicine in the ICU and its benefits in intensive care. The purpose of this review is to map out evidence about telemedicine in critical care in light of the implementation context. This review could represent a valuable contribution to support the development of tele-ICU technologies and offer perspectives on possible configurations, based on the implementation context and use case. METHODS: We have followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses extension for Scoping Reviews (PRISMA-ScR) checklist and the recommendations of the Joanna Briggs Institute methodology for scoping reviews. The scoping review and subsequent systematic review will be completed by spring 2021. RESULTS: The preliminary search has been conducted. After removing all duplicates, we found 2530 results. The review can now be advanced to the next steps of the methodology, including literature database queries with appropriate keywords, retrieval of the results in a reference management tool, and screening of titles and abstracts. CONCLUSIONS: The results of the search indicate that there is sufficient literature to complete the scoping review. Upon completion, the scoping review will provide a map of existing evidence on tele-ICU systems given the implementation context. Findings of this research could be used by researchers, clinicians, and implementation teams as they determine the appropriate setup of new or existing tele-ICU systems. The need for future research contributions and systematic reviews will be identified. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): DERR1-10.2196/19695.

18.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(10): e22161, 2020 10 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33118935

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Owing to an increase in digital technologies in health care, recently leveraged by the COVID-19 pandemic, physicians are required to use these technologies appropriately and to be familiar with their implications on patient care, the health system, and society. Therefore, medical students should be confronted with digital health during their medical education. However, corresponding teaching formats and concepts are still largely lacking in the medical curricula. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to introduce digital health as a curricular module at a German medical school and to identify undergraduate medical competencies in digital health and their suitable teaching methods. METHODS: We developed a 3-week curricular module on digital health for third-year medical students at a large German medical school, taking place for the first time in January 2020. Semistructured interviews with 5 digital health experts were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using an abductive approach. We obtained feedback from the participating students and lecturers of the module through a 17-item survey questionnaire. RESULTS: The module received overall positive feedback from both students and lecturers who expressed the need for further digital health education and stated that the field is very important for clinical care and is underrepresented in the current medical curriculum. We extracted a detailed overview of digital health competencies, skills, and knowledge to teach the students from the expert interviews. They also contained suggestions for teaching methods and statements supporting the urgency of the implementation of digital health education in the mandatory curriculum. CONCLUSIONS: An elective class seems to be a suitable format for the timely introduction of digital health education. However, a longitudinal implementation in the mandatory curriculum should be the goal. Beyond training future physicians in digital skills and teaching them digital health's ethical, legal, and social implications, the experience-based development of a critical digital health mindset with openness to innovation and the ability to assess ever-changing health technologies through a broad transdisciplinary approach to translate research into clinical routine seem more important. Therefore, the teaching of digital health should be as practice-based as possible and involve the educational cooperation of different institutions and academic disciplines.


Assuntos
Currículo , Educação de Graduação em Medicina/métodos , Faculdades de Medicina , Estudantes de Medicina , Telemedicina , COVID-19 , Infecções por Coronavirus , Retroalimentação , Alemanha , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0234801, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32877411

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Significant improvements in clinical outcome can be achieved by implementing effective strategies to optimise pain management, reduce sedative exposure, and prevent and treat delirium in ICU patients. One important strategy is the monitoring of pain, agitation and delirium (PAD bundle). We hypothesised that there is no sufficient financial benefit to implement a monitoring strategy in a Diagnosis Related Group (DRG)-based reimbursement system, therefore we expected better clinical and decreased economic outcome for monitored patients. METHODS: This is a retrospective observational study using routinely collected data. We used univariate and multiple linear analysis, machine-learning analysis and a novel correlation statistic (maximal information coefficient) to explore the association between monitoring adherence and resulting clinical and economic outcome. For univariate analysis we split patients in an adherence achieved and an adherence non-achieved group. RESULTS: In total 1,323 adult patients from two campuses of a German tertiary medical centre, who spent at least one day in the ICU between admission and discharge between 1. January 2016 and 31. December 2016. Adherence to PAD monitoring was associated with shorter hospital LoS (e.g. pain monitoring 13 vs. 10 days; p<0.001), ICU LoS, duration of mechanical ventilation shown by univariate analysis. Despite the improved clinical outcome, adherence to PAD elements was associated with a decreased case mix per day and profit per day shown by univariate analysis. Multiple linear analysis did not confirm these results. PAD monitoring is important for clinical as well as economic outcome and predicted case mix better than severity of illness shown by machine learning analysis. CONCLUSION: Adherence to PAD bundles is also important for clinical as well as economic outcome. It is associated with improved clinical and worse economic outcome in comparison to non-adherence in univariate analysis but not confirmed by multiple linear analysis. TRIAL REGISTRATION: clinicaltrials.gov NCT02265263, Registered 15 October 2014.


Assuntos
Delírio/terapia , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/uso terapêutico , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Delírio/diagnóstico , Delírio/economia , Gerenciamento Clínico , Feminino , Humanos , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/economia , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/economia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dor/diagnóstico , Dor/economia , Manejo da Dor/economia , Respiração Artificial/economia , Respiração Artificial/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos
20.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 56(8)2020 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32823781

RESUMO

Background and objectives: The use of delirium screening instruments (DSIs) is recommended in critical care practice for a timely detection of delirium. We hypothesize that the patient-related factors "level of sedation" and "mechanical ventilation" impact test validity of DSIs. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective, bi-center observational study (clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01720914). Critically ill patients were screened for delirium daily for up to seven days after enrollment using the Nursing Delirium Screening Scale (Nu-DESC), Intensive Care Delirium Screening Checklist (ICDSC), and Confusion Assessment Method for the Intensive Care Unit (CAM-ICU). Reference standard for delirium diagnosis was the neuropsychiatric examination using the criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR). Immediately before delirium assessment, ventilation status and sedation levels were documented. Results: 160 patients were enrolled and 151 patients went into final analysis. Delirium incidence was 23.2%. Nu-DESC showed a sensitivity and specificity of 88.5%, a positive predictive value (PPV) of 71.9%, and a negative predictive value (NPV) of 95.8%. ICDSC had a sensitivity of 62.5%, a specificity of 92.4%, a PPV of 71.4%, and a NPV of 89.0%. CAM-ICU showed a sensitivity of 75.0%, a specificity of 94.7%, a PPV of 85.7%, and a NPV of 90.0%. For Nu-DESC and ICDSC, test validity was significantly better for non-sedated patients (Richmond Agitation Sedation Scale (RASS) 0/-1), whereas test validity for CAM-ICU in a severity scale version showed no significant differences for different sedation levels. No DSI showed a significant difference in test validity between noninvasively and invasively ventilated patients. Conclusions: Test validities of DSIs were comparable to previous studies. The observational scores ICDSC and Nu-DESC showed a significantly better performance in awake and drowsy patients (RASS 0/-1) when compared with other sedation levels. Physicians should refrain from sedation whenever possible to avoid suboptimal performance of DSIs.


Assuntos
Cuidados Críticos/métodos , Estado Terminal/psicologia , Delírio/diagnóstico , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/administração & dosagem , Exame Neurológico , Respiração Artificial , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
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