Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 129
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31402291

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alternative splicing of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) results in VEGFAxxxb antiangiogenic isoforms that fail to activate angiogenesis. Bevacizumab, widely used in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC), binds both VEGFA and VEGFAxxxb isoforms. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded primary tumors from metastatic CRC patients treated with first-line FOLFIRI (leucovorin, 5-fluorouracil, irinotecan, and oxaliplatin) + bevacizumab (n = 285) or FOLFIRI only (n = 75) were collected. The relative expression of VEGFA121a, 121b, 145a, 145b, 165a, and 165b was assessed with custom TaqMan-MGB assays and quantitative PCR. RESULTS: At a median follow-up of 101.5 months, left-sided primary CRC was a favorable prognosticator (median survival, 29.2 vs. 18.2 months; P = .015). Positive high VEGFA145b was an unfavorable factor for progression-free survival (PFS; hazard ratio [HR] = 1.66; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.13-2.44; P = .009) in patients who received FOLFIRI + bevacizumab, without prognostic significance in FOLFIRI-only patients (HR = 0.70; 95% CI, 0.34-1.44; P = .33). The adverse effect on PFS of 145b was more pronounced in patients with right-sided colon cancer (HR = 2.62; 95% CI, 1.35-5.12; P = .005), especially in those who received bevacizumab (HR = 2.85; 95% CI, 1.31-6.21; P = .008). In patients with right-sided colon primary tumors, isoform 121b correlated with inferior PFS (HR = 1.73; 95% CI, 0.94-3.18; P = .076) and overall survival (OS; HR = 2.0; 95% CI, 1.08-3.72; P = .028). In patients with left-sided primary tumors, positive high 165b correlated with superior PFS (HR = 0.76; 95% CI, 0.59-0.99; P = .044) and OS (HR = 0.68; 95% CI, 0.52-0.90; P = .006). At multivariate analysis, right-sided primary tumor was associated with inferior PFS (HR = 1.28; 95% CI, 1.00-1.64), while 145b consistently retained predictive significance for lack of benefit in PFS with bevacizumab (HR = 1.71; 95% CI, 1.16-2.53). Multivariate analysis for OS showed that VEGFA165b expression was favorable in patients with left-sided but unfavorable in patients with right-sided primary tumors (Pinteraction < .001). CONCLUSION: The antiangiogenic isoform VEGFA145b messenger RNA may predict resistance to bevacizumab. Differences in biological relevance and prognostic significance of various VEGFA isoforms were found for right- versus left-sided primary tumors.

2.
Oncologist ; 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30936379

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The impact of cisplatin use on long-term survival of unselected patients with advanced urinary tract cancer (aUTC) has not been adequately investigated. We used a multinational database to study long-term survival and the impact of treatment type in unselected patients with aUTC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 1,333 patients with aUTC (cT4bN0M0, cTanyN+M0, cTanyNanyM+), transitional-cell, squamous, or adenocarcinoma histology who received systemic chemotherapy and had available survival data were selected. Long-term survival was defined as alive at 3 years following initiation of first-line chemotherapy. Conditional overall survival (COS) analysis was employed to study change in prognosis given time survived from initiation of first-line chemotherapy. RESULTS: Median follow-up was 31.7 months. The combination of cisplatin use and cisplatin eligibility accurately predicted long-term survival. Eligible patients treated with cisplatin conferred a 31.6% probability of 3-year survival (95% confidence interval [CI]: 25.1-38.3), and 2-year COS for patients surviving 3 years after initiation of cisplatin-based chemotherapy was 83% (95% CI: 59.7-93.5). The respective probabilities for patients who were ineligible for cisplatin or not treated with cisplatin despite eligibility were 14% (95% CI: 10.8-17.6) and 49.3% (95% CI: 28.2-67.4). Two-year COS remained significantly different between these two groups up to 3 years after chemotherapy initiation. CONCLUSION: Cisplatin-based therapy was associated with the highest likelihood of long-term survival in patients with aUTC and should be used in patients who fulfill the established eligibility criteria. Novel therapies are necessary to increase long-term survival in cisplatin-ineligible patients. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Long-term, disease-free survival is possible in one in four eligible-for-cisplatin patients with advanced urinary tract cancer (aUTC) treated with cisplatin-based combination chemotherapy. Therefore, deviations from eligibility criteria should be avoided. Consolidation surgery should be considered in responders. These data provide benchmarks for the study of novel therapies in aUTC.

3.
Breast ; 44: 144-152, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30780085

RESUMO

AIM: To further quantify the association between physical activity (PA) after breast cancer diagnosis and all-cause mortality, breast cancer mortality and/or breast cancer recurrence. METHODS AND RESULTS: PubMed was searched until November 2017 for observational studies investigating any type of PA in association with total mortality, breast cancer mortality and/or breast cancer recurrence among women with breast cancer diagnosis. Pooled hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using random-effects models for highest versus lowest categories of PA. Ten studies were included in the meta-analysis. During an average follow-up ranging from 3.5 to 12.7 years there were 23,041 breast cancer survivors, 2,522 deaths from all causes, 841 deaths from breast cancer and 1,398 recurrences/remissions. Compared to women in the lowest recreational PA level (lowest quintile/quartile), women in the highest level had a lower risk of all-cause mortality (HR = 0.58, 95% CIs: 0.45-0.75; 8 studies), of death from breast cancer (HR = 0.60, 95% CIs 0.36-0.99; 5 studies) and a lower, albeit non-significant, risk of recurrence (HR = 0.79, 95% CIs 0.60-1.05; 5 studies). There was evidence of heterogeneity between the studies evaluating recreational PA and total mortality (Ι2 = 52.4%) and even higher for breast cancer mortality (Ι2 = 77.7%) or recurrence (Ι2 = 66.4%). CONCLUSION: Highest recreational PA after breast cancer diagnosis was associated with lower all-cause and breast cancer mortality. This finding probably reflects the favorable impact of PA on cardiovascular mortality, and a possible favorable role on breast cancer survival, though reverse causation cannot be excluded.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Sobreviventes de Câncer/psicologia , Exercício , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Atividade Motora , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Recreação
4.
Int J Cancer ; 144(2): 240-250, 2019 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29943826

RESUMO

The epidemiological evidence regarding the association of coffee and tea consumption with prostate cancer risk is inconclusive, and few cohort studies have assessed these associations by disease stage and grade. We examined the associations of coffee (total, caffeinated and decaffeinated) and tea intake with prostate cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Among 142,196 men, 7,036 incident prostate cancer cases were diagnosed over 14 years of follow-up. Data on coffee and tea consumption were collected through validated country-specific food questionnaires at baseline. We used Cox proportional hazards regression models to compute hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Models were stratified by center and age, and adjusted for anthropometric, lifestyle and dietary factors. Median coffee and tea intake were 375 and 106 mL/day, respectively, but large variations existed by country. Comparing the highest (median of 855 mL/day) versus lowest (median of 103 mL/day) consumers of coffee and tea (450 vs. 12 mL/day) the HRs were 1.02 (95% CI, 0.94-1.09) and 0.98 (95% CI, 0.90-1.07) for risk of total prostate cancer and 0.97 (95% CI, 0.79-1.21) and 0.89 (95% CI, 0.70-1.13) for risk of fatal disease, respectively. No evidence of association was seen for consumption of total, caffeinated or decaffeinated coffee or tea and risk of total prostate cancer or cancer by stage, grade or fatality in this large cohort. Further investigations are needed to clarify whether an association exists by different preparations or by concentrations and constituents of these beverages.


Assuntos
Café , Neoplasias da Próstata/epidemiologia , Chá , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores de Risco
5.
Int J Cancer ; 145(1): 122-131, 2019 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30588620

RESUMO

There is a growing evidence of the protective role of the Mediterranean diet (MD) on cancer. However, no prospective study has yet investigated its influence on lymphoma. We evaluated the association between adherence to the MD and risk of lymphoma and its subtypes in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. The analysis included 476,160 participants, recruited from 10 European countries between 1991 and 2001. Adherence to the MD was estimated through the adapted relative MD (arMED) score excluding alcohol. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used while adjusting for potential confounders. During an average follow-up of 13.9 years, 3,136 lymphomas (135 Hodgkin lymphoma [HL], 2,606 non-HL and 395 lymphoma not otherwise specified) were identified. Overall, a 1-unit increase in the arMED score was associated with a 2% lower risk of lymphoma (95% CI: 0.97; 1.00, p-trend = 0.03) while a statistically nonsignificant inverse association between a high versus low arMED score and risk of lymphoma was observed (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.91 [95% CI 0.80; 1.03], p-trend = 0.12). Analyses by lymphoma subtype did not reveal any statistically significant associations. Albeit with small numbers of cases (N = 135), a suggestive inverse association was found for HL (HR 1-unit increase = 0.93 [95% CI: 0.86; 1.01], p-trend = 0.07). However, the study may have lacked statistical power to detect small effect sizes for lymphoma subtype. Our findings suggest that an increasing arMED score was inversely related to the risk of overall lymphoma in EPIC but not by subtypes. Further large prospective studies are warranted to confirm these findings.

6.
J Hepatol ; 70(5): 885-892, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30582978

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: To date, evidence on the association between physical activity and risk of hepatobiliary cancers has been inconclusive. We examined this association in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort (EPIC). METHODS: We identified 275 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cases, 93 intrahepatic bile duct cancers (IHBCs), and 164 non-gallbladder extrahepatic bile duct cancers (NGBCs) among 467,336 EPIC participants (median follow-up 14.9 years). We estimated cause-specific hazard ratios (HRs) for total physical activity and vigorous physical activity and performed mediation analysis and secondary analyses to assess robustness to confounding (e.g. due to hepatitis virus infection). RESULTS: In the EPIC cohort, the multivariable-adjusted HR of HCC was 0.55 (95% CI 0.38-0.80) comparing active and inactive individuals. Regarding vigorous physical activity, for those reporting >2 hours/week compared to those with no vigorous activity, the HR for HCC was 0.50 (95% CI 0.33-0.76). Estimates were similar in sensitivity analyses for confounding. Total and vigorous physical activity were unrelated to IHBC and NGBC. In mediation analysis, waist circumference explained about 40% and body mass index 30% of the overall association of total physical activity and HCC. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest an inverse association between physical activity and risk of HCC, which is potentially mediated by obesity. LAY SUMMARY: In a pan-European study of 467,336 men and women, we found that physical activity is associated with a reduced risk of developing liver cancers over the next decade. This risk was independent of other liver cancer risk factors, and did not vary by age, gender, smoking status, body weight, and alcohol consumption.

7.
Int J Cancer ; 145(6): 1510-1516, 2019 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30585640

RESUMO

Gallstones, a common gastrointestinal condition, can lead to several digestive complications and can result in inflammation. Risk factors for gallstones include obesity, diabetes, smoking and physical inactivity, all of which are known risk factors for colorectal cancer (CRC), as is inflammation. However, it is unclear whether gallstones are a risk factor for CRC. We examined the association between history of gallstones and CRC in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study, a prospective cohort of over half a million participants from ten European countries. History of gallstones was assessed at baseline using a self-reported questionnaire. The analytic cohort included 334,986 participants; a history of gallstones was reported by 3,917 men and 19,836 women, and incident CRC was diagnosed among 1,832 men and 2,178 women (mean follow-up: 13.6 years). Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between gallstones and CRC were estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression models, stratified by sex, study centre and age at recruitment. The models were adjusted for body mass index, diabetes, alcohol intake and physical activity. A positive, marginally significant association was detected between gallstones and CRC among women in multivariable analyses (HR = 1.14, 95%CI 0.99-1.31, p = 0.077). The relationship between gallstones and CRC among men was inverse but not significant (HR = 0.81, 95%CI 0.63-1.04, p = 0.10). Additional adjustment for details of reproductive history or waist circumference yielded minimal changes to the observed associations. Further research is required to confirm the nature of the association between gallstones and CRC by sex.

8.
Breast Cancer Res ; 20(1): 147, 2018 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30509329

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few published breast cancer (BC) risk prediction models consider the heterogeneity of predictor variables between estrogen-receptor positive (ER+) and negative (ER-) tumors. Using data from two large cohorts, we examined whether modeling this heterogeneity could improve prediction. METHODS: We built two models, for ER+ (ModelER+) and ER- tumors (ModelER-), respectively, in 281,330 women (51% postmenopausal at recruitment) from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort. Discrimination (C-statistic) and calibration (the agreement between predicted and observed tumor risks) were assessed both internally and externally in 82,319 postmenopausal women from the Women's Health Initiative study. We performed decision curve analysis to compare ModelER+ and the Gail model (ModelGail) regarding their applicability in risk assessment for chemoprevention. RESULTS: Parity, number of full-term pregnancies, age at first full-term pregnancy and body height were only associated with ER+ tumors. Menopausal status, age at menarche and at menopause, hormone replacement therapy, postmenopausal body mass index, and alcohol intake were homogeneously associated with ER+ and ER- tumors. Internal validation yielded a C-statistic of 0.64 for ModelER+ and 0.59 for ModelER-. External validation reduced the C-statistic of ModelER+ (0.59) and ModelGail (0.57). In external evaluation of calibration, ModelER+ outperformed the ModelGail: the former led to a 9% overestimation of the risk of ER+ tumors, while the latter yielded a 22% underestimation of the overall BC risk. Compared with the treat-all strategy, ModelER+ produced equal or higher net benefits irrespective of the benefit-to-harm ratio of chemoprevention, while ModelGail did not produce higher net benefits unless the benefit-to-harm ratio was below 50. The clinical applicability, i.e. the area defined by the net benefit curve and the treat-all and treat-none strategies, was 12.7 × 10- 6 for ModelER+ and 3.0 × 10- 6 for ModelGail. CONCLUSIONS: Modeling heterogeneous epidemiological risk factors might yield little improvement in BC risk prediction. Nevertheless, a model specifically predictive of ER+ tumor risk could be more applicable than an omnibus model in risk assessment for chemoprevention.

9.
Nat Genet ; 2018 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30510241

RESUMO

To further dissect the genetic architecture of colorectal cancer (CRC), we performed whole-genome sequencing of 1,439 cases and 720 controls, imputed discovered sequence variants and Haplotype Reference Consortium panel variants into genome-wide association study data, and tested for association in 34,869 cases and 29,051 controls. Findings were followed up in an additional 23,262 cases and 38,296 controls. We discovered a strongly protective 0.3% frequency variant signal at CHD1. In a combined meta-analysis of 125,478 individuals, we identified 40 new independent signals at P < 5 × 10-8, bringing the number of known independent signals for CRC to ~100. New signals implicate lower-frequency variants, Krüppel-like factors, Hedgehog signaling, Hippo-YAP signaling, long noncoding RNAs and somatic drivers, and support a role for immune function. Heritability analyses suggest that CRC risk is highly polygenic, and larger, more comprehensive studies enabling rare variant analysis will improve understanding of biology underlying this risk and influence personalized screening strategies and drug development.

10.
Eur J Nutr ; 2018 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30535794

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Coffee and tea constituents have shown several anti-carcinogenic activities in cellular and animal studies, including against thyroid cancer (TC). However, epidemiological evidence is still limited and inconsistent. Therefore, we aimed to investigate this association in a large prospective study. METHODS: The study was conducted in the EPIC (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition) cohort, which included 476,108 adult men and women. Coffee and tea intakes were assessed through validated country-specific dietary questionnaires. RESULTS: During a mean follow-up of 14 years, 748 first incident differentiated TC cases (including 601 papillary and 109 follicular TC) were identified. Coffee consumption (per 100 mL/day) was not associated either with total differentiated TC risk (HRcalibrated 1.00, 95% CI 0.97-1.04) or with the risk of TC subtypes. Tea consumption (per 100 mL/day) was not associated with the risk of total differentiated TC (HRcalibrated 0.98, 95% CI 0.95-1.02) and papillary tumor (HRcalibrated 0.99, 95% CI 0.95-1.03), whereas an inverse association was found with follicular tumor risk (HRcalibrated 0.90, 95% CI 0.81-0.99), but this association was based on a sub-analysis with a small number of cancer cases. CONCLUSIONS: In this large prospective study, coffee and tea consumptions were not associated with TC risk.

11.
Br J Nutr ; 120(10): 1081-1097, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30401007

RESUMO

The beneficial association of the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) with longevity has been consistently demonstrated, but the associations of MedDiet components have not been accordingly evaluated. We performed an updated meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies published up to 31 December 2017, to quantify the association of adherence to MedDiet, expressed as an index/score (MDS) and of its components with all-cause mortality. We estimated summary relative risks (SRR) and 95 % CI using random effects models. On the basis of thirty studies (225 600 deaths), SRR for the study-specific highest/lowest and per 1sd MDS increment were 0·79 (95 % CI 0·77, 0·81, Ι 2=42 %, P-heterogeneity 0·02) and 0·92 (95 % CI 0·90, 0·94, Ι 2 56 %, P-heterogeneity <0·01), respectively. Inversely, statistically significant associations were evident in stratified analyses by country, MDS range and publication year, with some evidence for heterogeneity across countries overall (P-heterogeneity 0·011), as well as across European countries (P=0·018). Regarding MDS components, relatively stronger and statistically significant inverse associations were highlighted for moderate/none-excessive alcohol consumption (0·86, 95 % CI 0·77, 0·97) and for above/below-the-median consumptions of fruit (0·88, 95 % CI 0·83, 0·94) and vegetables (0·94, 95 % CI 0·89, 0·98), whereas a positive association was apparent for above/below-the-median intake of meat (1·07, 95 % CI 1·01, 1·13). Our meta-analyses confirm the inverse association of MedDiet with mortality and highlight the dietary components that influence mostly this association. Our results are important for better understanding the role of MedDiet in health and proposing dietary changes to effectively increase adherence to this healthy dietary pattern.

12.
PLoS Med ; 15(9): e1002651, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30226842

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Helping consumers make healthier food choices is a key issue for the prevention of cancer and other diseases. In many countries, political authorities are considering the implementation of a simplified labelling system to reflect the nutritional quality of food products. The Nutri-Score, a five-colour nutrition label, is derived from the Nutrient Profiling System of the British Food Standards Agency (modified version) (FSAm-NPS). How the consumption of foods with high/low FSAm-NPS relates to cancer risk has been studied in national/regional cohorts but has not been characterized in diverse European populations. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This prospective analysis included 471,495 adults from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC, 1992-2014, median follow-up: 15.3 y), among whom there were 49,794 incident cancer cases (main locations: breast, n = 12,063; prostate, n = 6,745; colon-rectum, n = 5,806). Usual food intakes were assessed with standardized country-specific diet assessment methods. The FSAm-NPS was calculated for each food/beverage using their 100-g content in energy, sugar, saturated fatty acid, sodium, fibres, proteins, and fruits/vegetables/legumes/nuts. The FSAm-NPS scores of all food items usually consumed by a participant were averaged to obtain the individual FSAm-NPS Dietary Index (DI) scores. Multi-adjusted Cox proportional hazards models were computed. A higher FSAm-NPS DI score, reflecting a lower nutritional quality of the food consumed, was associated with a higher risk of total cancer (HRQ5 versus Q1 = 1.07; 95% CI 1.03-1.10, P-trend < 0.001). Absolute cancer rates in those with high and low (quintiles 5 and 1) FSAm-NPS DI scores were 81.4 and 69.5 cases/10,000 person-years, respectively. Higher FSAm-NPS DI scores were specifically associated with higher risks of cancers of the colon-rectum, upper aerodigestive tract and stomach, lung for men, and liver and postmenopausal breast for women (all P < 0.05). The main study limitation is that it was based on an observational cohort using self-reported dietary data obtained through a single baseline food frequency questionnaire; thus, exposure misclassification and residual confounding cannot be ruled out. CONCLUSIONS: In this large multinational European cohort, the consumption of food products with a higher FSAm-NPS score (lower nutritional quality) was associated with a higher risk of cancer. This supports the relevance of the FSAm-NPS as underlying nutrient profiling system for front-of-pack nutrition labels, as well as for other public health nutritional measures.

13.
PLoS One ; 13(7): e0200302, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30063723

RESUMO

Several studies support an important role of angiogenesis in breast cancer growth and metastasis. The main objectives of the study were to investigate the immunohistochemical expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) family ligands (VEGF-A and VEGF-C) and receptors (VEGFR1, VEGFR2 and VEGFR3) in breast cancer and their associations with clinicopathological parameters, cancer subtypes/subgroups and patient outcome. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumor tissue samples were collected from early-stage breast cancer patients treated with anthracycline-based chemotherapy within a randomized trial. Immunohistochemistry was performed on serial 2.5 µm thick tissue sections from tissue microarray blocks. High VEGF-A, VEGF-C, VEGFR1, VEGFR2 and VEGFR3 protein expression was observed in 11.8% (N = 87), 80.8% (N = 585), 28.1% (N = 202), 64.6% (N = 359) and 71.8% (N = 517) of the cases, respectively. Significant associations were observed among all proteins (all p-values <0.05), with the exception of the one between VEGF-C and VEGFR1 (chi-square test, p = 0.15). Tumors with high VEGF-A protein expression, as compared to tumors with low expression were more frequently ER/PgR-negative (33.3% vs. 20.8%, chi-square test, p = 0.009) and HER2-positive (44.8% vs. 20.6%, p<0.001). In addition, tumors with high VEGFR1 expression, were more frequently HER2-positive (32.8% vs. 19.6%, p<0.001), while tumors with high VEGFR3 expression were more frequently ER/PgR-negative (24.9% vs. 17.0%, p = 0.024) and HER2-positive (26.9% vs. 14.8%, p = 0.001). High VEGF-A and VEGF-C protein expression was associated with increased DFS in the entire cohort (HR = 0.57, 95% CI 0.36-0.92, Wald's p = 0.020 and HR = 0.71, 95% CI 0.52-0.96, p = 0.025, respectively), as well as in specific subtypes/subgroups, such as HER2-positive (VEGF-A, HR = 0.32, 95% CI 0.14-0.74, p = 0.008) and triple-negative (VEGF-C, HR = 0.44, 95% CI 0.21-0.91, p = 0.027) patients. High vs. low VEGFR1 expression was an unfavorable factor for DFS in triple-negative patients (HR = 2.74, 95% CI 1.26-5.98, p = 0.011), whereas the opposite was observed among the ER/PgR-positive patients (HR = 0.69, 95% CI 0.48-0.98, p = 0.041). Regarding OS, high VEGF-C protein expression was associated with increased OS in the entire cohort (HR = 0.64, 95% CI 0.46-0.89, Wald's p = 0.008), as well as in in specific subtypes/subgroups, such as ER/PgR-negative (HR = 0.37, 95% CI 0.20-0.71, p = 0.003) and triple-negative (HR = 0.42, 95% CI 0.19-0.90, p = 0.026) patients. In conclusion, high expression of angiogenesis-related proteins is associated with adverse clinicopathological parameters in early-stage breast cancer patients and may be surrogate markers of biologically distinct subgroups of ER/PgR-negative or triple-negative tumors with superior outcome. Further validation of our findings in independent cohorts is needed.

14.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 108(1): 117-126, 2018 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29924298

RESUMO

Background: Studies using metabolomic data have identified metabolites from several compound classes that are associated with disease-related lifestyle factors. Objective: In this study, we identified metabolic signatures reflecting lifestyle patterns and related them to the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. Design: Within a nested case-control study of 147 incident HCC cases and 147 matched controls, partial least squares (PLS) analysis related 7 modified healthy lifestyle index (HLI) variables (diet, BMI, physical activity, lifetime alcohol, smoking, diabetes, and hepatitis) to 132 targeted serum-measured metabolites and a liver function score. The association between the resulting PLS scores and HCC risk was examined in multivariable conditional logistic regression models, where ORs and 95% CIs were computed. Results: The lifestyle component's PLS score was negatively associated with lifetime alcohol, BMI, smoking, and diabetes, and positively associated with physical activity. Its metabolic counterpart was positively related to the metabolites sphingomyelin (SM) (OH) C14:1, C16:1, and C22:2, and negatively related to glutamate, hexoses, and the diacyl-phosphatidylcholine PC aaC32:1. The lifestyle and metabolomics components were inversely associated with HCC risk, with the ORs for a 1-SD increase in scores equal to 0.53 (95% CI: 0.38, 0.74) and 0.28 (0.18, 0.43), and the associated AUCs equal to 0.64 (0.57, 0.70) and 0.74 (0.69, 0.80), respectively. Conclusions: This study identified a metabolic signature reflecting a healthy lifestyle pattern which was inversely associated with HCC risk. The metabolic profile displayed a stronger association with HCC than did the modified HLI derived from questionnaire data. Measuring a specific panel of metabolites may identify strata of the population at higher risk for HCC and can add substantial discrimination compared with questionnaire data. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03356535.

15.
Gut ; 2018 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29615487

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To systematically identify and validate published colorectal cancer risk prediction models that do not require invasive testing in two large population-based prospective cohorts. DESIGN: Models were identified through an update of a published systematic review and validated in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) and the UK Biobank. The performance of the models to predict the occurrence of colorectal cancer within 5 or 10 years after study enrolment was assessed by discrimination (C-statistic) and calibration (plots of observed vs predicted probability). RESULTS: The systematic review and its update identified 16 models from 8 publications (8 colorectal, 5 colon and 3 rectal). The number of participants included in each model validation ranged from 41 587 to 396 515, and the number of cases ranged from 115 to 1781. Eligible and ineligible participants across the models were largely comparable. Calibration of the models, where assessable, was very good and further improved by recalibration. The C-statistics of the models were largely similar between validation cohorts with the highest values achieved being 0.70 (95% CI 0.68 to 0.72) in the UK Biobank and 0.71 (95% CI 0.67 to 0.74) in EPIC. CONCLUSION: Several of these non-invasive models exhibited good calibration and discrimination within both external validation populations and are therefore potentially suitable candidates for the facilitation of risk stratification in population-based colorectal screening programmes. Future work should both evaluate this potential, through modelling and impact studies, and ascertain if further enhancement in their performance can be obtained.

16.
Int J Cancer ; 143(4): 801-812, 2018 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29524225

RESUMO

Recent evidence suggested a weak relationship between alcohol consumption and pancreatic cancer (PC) risk. In our study, the association between lifetime and baseline alcohol intakes and the risk of PC was evaluated, including the type of alcoholic beverages and potential interaction with smoking. Within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study, 1,283 incident PC (57% women) were diagnosed from 476,106 cancer-free participants, followed up for 14 years. Amounts of lifetime and baseline alcohol were estimated through lifestyle and dietary questionnaires, respectively. Cox proportional hazard models with age as primary time variable were used to estimate PC hazard ratios (HR) and their 95% confidence interval (CI). Alcohol intake was positively associated with PC risk in men. Associations were mainly driven by extreme alcohol levels, with HRs comparing heavy drinkers (>60 g/day) to the reference category (0.1-4.9 g/day) equal to 1.77 (95% CI: 1.06, 2.95) and 1.63 (95% CI: 1.16, 2.29) for lifetime and baseline alcohol, respectively. Baseline alcohol intakes from beer (>40 g/day) and spirits/liquors (>10 g/day) showed HRs equal to 1.58 (95% CI: 1.07, 2.34) and 1.41 (95% CI: 1.03, 1.94), respectively, compared to the reference category (0.1-2.9 g/day). In women, HR estimates did not reach statistically significance. The alcohol and PC risk association was not modified by smoking status. Findings from a large prospective study suggest that baseline and lifetime alcohol intakes were positively associated with PC risk, with more apparent risk estimates for beer and spirits/liquors than wine intake.

17.
Clin Epigenetics ; 10: 38, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29588806

RESUMO

Background: Methylation measures quantified by microarray techniques can be affected by systematic variation due to the technical processing of samples, which may compromise the accuracy of the measurement process and contribute to bias the estimate of the association under investigation. The quantification of the contribution of the systematic source of variation is challenging in datasets characterized by hundreds of thousands of features.In this study, we introduce a method previously developed for the analysis of metabolomics data to evaluate the performance of existing normalizing techniques to correct for unwanted variation. Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450K was used to acquire methylation levels in over 421,000 CpG sites for 902 study participants of a case-control study on breast cancer nested within the EPIC cohort. The principal component partial R-square (PC-PR2) analysis was used to identify and quantify the variability attributable to potential systematic sources of variation. Three correcting techniques, namely ComBat, surrogate variables analysis (SVA) and a linear regression model to compute residuals were applied. The impact of each correcting method on the association between smoking status and DNA methylation levels was evaluated, and results were compared with findings from a large meta-analysis. Results: A sizeable proportion of systematic variability due to variables expressing 'batch' and 'sample position' within 'chip' was identified, with values of the partial R2 statistics equal to 9.5 and 11.4% of total variation, respectively. After application of ComBat or the residuals' methods, the contribution was 1.3 and 0.2%, respectively. The SVA technique resulted in a reduced variability due to 'batch' (1.3%) and 'sample position' (0.6%), and in a diminished variability attributable to 'chip' within a batch (0.9%). After ComBat or the residuals' corrections, a larger number of significant sites (k = 600 and k = 427, respectively) were associated to smoking status than the SVA correction (k = 96). Conclusions: The three correction methods removed systematic variation in DNA methylation data, as assessed by the PC-PR2, which lent itself as a useful tool to explore variability in large dimension data. SVA produced more conservative findings than ComBat in the association between smoking and DNA methylation.

18.
Eur J Clin Nutr ; 72(6): 818-825, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29563640

RESUMO

Assessing diet through dietary patterns has become popular in diet-disease investigations due to the appealing simplicity of expressing several dietary exposures through one variable. Current evidence suggests that there may exist a priori and a posteriori dietary patterns that are consistently associated with reduced all-cause, as well as site-specific cancer risk across different populations. Typical examples include the Mediterranean dietary pattern, the Healthy Eating Index, a number of "healthy" a posteriori dietary patterns, and others. Despite their apparent differences, by inspecting their components it seems that multiple dietary patterns reflect core constituents of a healthy diet. Ongoing research is targeted to: (a) identify the common features underlying the beneficial-for-cancer-prevention dietary patterns, (b) decompose the estimated associations of dietary patterns with cancer risk to the individual associations of their components, and (c) construct dietary patterns for site-specific cancer risk prediction. Results of these and other initiatives could be helpful for public health policy makers and responsible bodies to (a) better formulate relevant messages for informing people about the components of cancer-preventing diets, and (b) promote small changes in eating patterns that can lower cancer risk and improve cancer outcomes.

19.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 27(5): 531-540, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29563134

RESUMO

Background: The "meeting-in-the-middle" (MITM) is a principle to identify exposure biomarkers that are also predictors of disease. The MITM statistical framework was applied in a nested case-control study of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) within European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), where healthy lifestyle index (HLI) variables were related to targeted serum metabolites.Methods: Lifestyle and targeted metabolomic data were available from 147 incident HCC cases and 147 matched controls. Partial least squares analysis related 7 lifestyle variables from a modified HLI to a set of 132 serum-measured metabolites and a liver function score. Mediation analysis evaluated whether metabolic profiles mediated the relationship between each lifestyle exposure and HCC risk.Results: Exposure-related metabolic signatures were identified. Particularly, the body mass index (BMI)-associated metabolic component was positively related to glutamic acid, tyrosine, PC aaC38:3, and liver function score and negatively to lysoPC aC17:0 and aC18:2. The lifetime alcohol-specific signature had negative loadings on sphingomyelins (SM C16:1, C18:1, SM(OH) C14:1, C16:1 and C22:2). Both exposures were associated with increased HCC with total effects (TE) = 1.23 (95% confidence interval = 0.93-1.62) and 1.40 (1.14-1.72), respectively, for BMI and alcohol consumption. Both metabolic signatures mediated the association between BMI and lifetime alcohol consumption and HCC with natural indirect effects, respectively, equal to 1.56 (1.24-1.96) and 1.09 (1.03-1.15), accounting for a proportion mediated of 100% and 24%.Conclusions: In a refined MITM framework, relevant metabolic signatures were identified as mediators in the relationship between lifestyle exposures and HCC risk.Impact: The understanding of the biological basis for the relationship between modifiable exposures and cancer would pave avenues for clinical and public health interventions on metabolic mediators. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 27(5); 531-40. ©2018 AACR.

20.
Int J Cancer ; 142(1): 66-80, 2018 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28857155

RESUMO

Genomic patterns of nasopharyngeal carcinomas (NPCs) have as yet been studied in Southeast Asian (SEA) patients. Here, we investigated genomic patterns of locally advanced NPC Southeast European (SEE) patients treated with chemoradiotherapy. We examined 126 tumors (89% EBV positive) from Greek and Romanian NPC patients with massively parallel sequencing. Paired tumor-cell-rich (TC) and infiltrating-lymphocyte-rich (TILs) samples were available in 19 and paired tumor-germline samples in 68 cases. Top mutated genes were BRCA1 (54% of all tumors); BRCA2 (29%); TP53 (22%); KRAS (18%). Based on the presence and number of mutations and mutated genes, NPC were classified as stable (no mutations, n = 27); unstable (>7 genes with multiple mutations, all BRCA1 positive, n = 21); and of intermediate stability (1-7 singly mutated genes, n = 78). BRCA1 p.Q563* was present in 59 tumors (48%), more frequently from Romanian patients (p < 0.001). No pathogenic germline mutations were identified. NPC exhibited APOBEC3A/B and nucleotide-excision-repair-related mutational signatures. As compared to TC, TILs demonstrated few shared and a higher number of low frequency private mutations (p < 0.001). In multivariate analysis models for progression-free survival, EBV positivity was a favorable prognosticator in stable tumors; BRCA1 mutations were unfavorable only in tumors of intermediate stability. In conclusion, other than described for SEA NPC, somatic BRCA1 mutations were common in SEE NPC; these were shared between TC and TILs, and appeared to affect patient outcome according to tumor genomic stability status. Along with the identified mutational signatures, these novel data may be helpful for designing new treatments for locally advanced NPC.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Carcinoma/genética , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/genética , Carcinoma/mortalidade , Carcinoma/patologia , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Genótipo , Grécia , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Mutação , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/patologia , Romênia
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA