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1.
Mol Biol Cell ; : mbcE19070395, 2020 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31967944

RESUMO

The large GTPase Dynamin 2 (Dyn2) is known to increase the invasiveness of pancreatic cancer tumor cells, but the mechanisms by which Dyn2 regulates changes in the actin cytoskeleton to drive cell migration are still unclear. Here we report that a direct interaction between Dyn2 and the actin bundling protein alpha-actinin (α-actinin) 4 is critical for tumor cell migration and remodeling of the extracellular matrix in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) cells. The direct interaction is mediated through the C-terminal tails of both Dyn2 and α-actinin 4, and these proteins interact at invasive structures at the plasma membrane. While Dyn2 binds directly to both α-actinin 1 and α-actinin 4, only the interaction with α-actinin 4 is required to promote tumor cell invasion. Specific disruption of the Dyn2 - α-actinin 4 interaction blocks the ability of PDAC cells to migrate in either 2-dimensions or invade through extracellular matrix as a result of impaired invadopodia stability. Analysis of human PDAC tumor tissue additionally reveals that elevated α-actinin 4 or Dyn2 expression are predictive of poor survival. Overall, these data demonstrate that Dyn2 regulates cytoskeletal dynamics, in part, by interacting with the actin binding protein α-actinin 4 during tumor cell invasion. [Media: see text] [Media: see text].

2.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2020 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31917448

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although 20 pancreatic cancer susceptibility loci have been identified through genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in individuals of European ancestry, much of its heritability remains unexplained and the genes responsible largely unknown. METHODS: To discover novel pancreatic cancer risk loci and possible causal genes, we performed a pancreatic cancer transcriptome-wide association study (TWAS) in Europeans using three approaches, FUSION, MetaXcan and SMulTiXcan. We integrated GWAS summary statistics from 9,040 pancreatic cancer cases and 12,496 controls, with gene expression prediction models built using transcriptome data from histologically normal pancreatic tissue samples (NCI Laboratory of Translational Genomics, LTG (n = 95) and Genotype-Tissue Expression, GTEx v7 (n = 174) datasets), and data from 48 different tissues (GTEx v7, n = 74-421 samples). RESULTS: We identified 25 genes whose genetically predicted expression was statistically significantly associated with pancreatic cancer risk (FDR < 0.05), including 14 candidate genes at 11 novel loci (1p36.12: CELA3B; 9q31.1: SMC2, SMC2-AS1; 10q23.31: RP11-80H5.9; 12q13.13: SMUG1; 14q32.33: BTBD6; 15q23: HEXA; 15q26.1: RCCD1; 17q12:, PNMT, CDK12, PGAP3; 17q22: SUPT4H1; 18q11.22: RP11-888D10.3; and 19p13.11: PGPEP1) and 11 at 6 known risk loci (5p15.33: TERT, CLPTM1L, ZDHHC11B; 7p14.1: INHBA; 9q34.2: ABO; 13q12.2: PDX1; 13q22.1: KLF5; and 16q23.1: WDR59, CFDP1, BCAR1, TMEM170A). The association for 12 of these genes (CELA3B, SMC2, and PNMT at novel risk loci, and TERT, CLPTM1L, INHBA, ABO, PDX1, KLF5, WDR59, CFDP1 and BCAR1 at known loci) remained statistically significant after Bonferroni correction. CONCLUSIONS: By integrating gene expression and genotype data, we identified novel pancreatic cancer risk loci and candidate functional genes that warrant further investigation.

3.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 28(12): 2062-2069, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31533940

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pancreatic cancer is associated with development of cachexia, a wasting syndrome thought to limit survival. Few studies have longitudinally quantified peripheral tissues or identified biomarkers predictive of future tissue wasting. METHODS: Adipose and muscle tissue were measured by computed tomography (CT) at diagnosis and 50 to 120 days later in 164 patients with advanced pancreatic cancer. Tissue changes and survival were evaluated by Cox proportional hazards regression. Baseline levels of circulating markers were examined in relation to future tissue wasting. RESULTS: Compared with patients in the bottom quartile of muscle change per 30 days (average gain of 0.8 ± 2.0 cm2), those in the top quartile (average loss of 12.9 ± 4.9 cm2) had a hazard ratio (HR) for death of 2.01 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.12-3.62]. Patients in the top quartile of muscle attenuation change (average decrease of 4.9 ± 2.4 Hounsfield units) had an HR of 2.19 (95% CI, 1.18-4.04) compared with those in the bottom quartile (average increase of 2.4 ± 1.6 Hounsfield units). Changes in adipose tissue were not associated with survival. Higher plasma branched chain amino acids (BCAA; P = 0.004) and lower monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1; P = 0.005) at diagnosis were associated with greater future muscle loss. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with advanced pancreatic cancer, muscle loss and decrease in muscle density in 2 to 4 months after diagnosis were associated with reduced survival. BCAAs and MCP-1 levels at diagnosis were associated with subsequent muscle loss. IMPACT: BCAAs and MCP-1 levels at diagnosis could identify a high-risk group for future tissue wasting.

4.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 28(7): 1238-1245, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31015203

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pancreatic cancer is the fourth-leading cause of cancer death in both men and women in the United States. The currently identified common susceptibility loci account for a small fraction of estimated heritability. We sought to estimate overall heritability of pancreatic cancer and partition the heritability by variant frequencies and functional annotations. METHODS: Analysis using the genome-based restricted maximum likelihood method (GREML) was conducted on Pancreatic Cancer Case-Control Consortium (PanC4) genome-wide association study (GWAS) data from 3,568 pancreatic cancer cases and 3,363 controls of European Ancestry. RESULTS: Applying linkage disequilibrium- and minor allele frequency-stratified GREML (GREML-LDMS) method to imputed GWAS data, we estimated the overall heritability of pancreatic cancer to be 21.2% (SE = 4.8%). Across the functional groups (intronic, intergenic, coding, and regulatory variants), intronic variants account for most of the estimated heritability (12.4%). Previously identified GWAS loci explained 4.1% of the total phenotypic variation of pancreatic cancer. Mutations in hereditary pancreatic cancer susceptibility genes are present in 4% to 10% of patients with pancreatic cancer, yet our GREML-LDMS results suggested these regions explain only 0.4% of total phenotypic variance for pancreatic cancer. CONCLUSIONS: Although higher than previous studies, our estimated 21.2% overall heritability may still be downwardly biased due to the inherent limitation that the contribution of rare variants in genes with a substantive overall impact on disease are not captured when applying these commonly used methods to imputed GWAS data. IMPACT: Our work demonstrated the importance of rare and common variants in pancreatic cancer risk.

5.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 111(6): 557-567, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30541042

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) identify associations of individual single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with cancer risk but usually only explain a fraction of the inherited variability. Pathway analysis of genetic variants is a powerful tool to identify networks of susceptibility genes. METHODS: We conducted a large agnostic pathway-based meta-analysis of GWAS data using the summary-based adaptive rank truncated product method to identify gene sets and pathways associated with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) in 9040 cases and 12 496 controls. We performed expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) analysis and functional annotation of the top SNPs in genes contributing to the top associated pathways and gene sets. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: We identified 14 pathways and gene sets associated with PDAC at a false discovery rate of less than 0.05. After Bonferroni correction (P ≤ 1.3 × 10-5), the strongest associations were detected in five pathways and gene sets, including maturity-onset diabetes of the young, regulation of beta-cell development, role of epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor transactivation by G protein-coupled receptors in cardiac hypertrophy pathways, and the Nikolsky breast cancer chr17q11-q21 amplicon and Pujana ATM Pearson correlation coefficient (PCC) network gene sets. We identified and validated rs876493 and three correlating SNPs (PGAP3) and rs3124737 (CASP7) from the Pujana ATM PCC gene set as eQTLs in two normal derived pancreas tissue datasets. CONCLUSION: Our agnostic pathway and gene set analysis integrated with functional annotation and eQTL analysis provides insight into genes and pathways that may be biologically relevant for risk of PDAC, including those not previously identified.

6.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 111(3): 264-271, 2019 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29982661

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Increased risk of malignancies other than pancreatic cancer (PC) has been reported among first-degree relatives (FDRs) of PC patients; however, the roles of susceptibility gene mutations are unclear. We assessed risk for 15 cancers among FDRs of unselected PC probands. METHODS: Data on 17 162 FDRs, with more than 336 000 person-years at risk, identified through 2305 sequential PC probands enrolled at Mayo Clinic (2000-2016) were analyzed. Family history data were provided by the probands. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated, comparing malignancies observed among the FDRs with that expected using Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) data. Genetic testing was performed among a subset of probands (n = 2094), enabling stratified analyses among FDRs based on whether the related proband tested positive or negative for inherited mutation in 22 sequenced cancer susceptibility genes. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: Compared with SEER, PC risk was twofold higher among FDRs of PC probands (SIR = 2.04, 95% CI = 1.78 to 2.31, P < .001). Primary liver cancer risk was elevated among female FDRs (SIR = 2.10, 95% CI = 1.34 to 3.12, P < .001). PC risk was more elevated among FDRs of mutation-positive probands (SIR = 4.32, 95% CI = 3.10 to 5.86) than FDRs of mutation-negative probands (SIR = 1.77, 95% CI = 1.51 to 2.05, between-group P < .001). FDR PC risk was higher when the related proband was younger than age 60 years at diagnosis and mutation-positive (SIR = 5.24, 95% CI = 2.93 to 8.64) than when the proband was younger than age 60 years but mutation-negative (SIR = 1.76, 95% CI = 1.21 to 2.47, between-group P < .001). Breast (SIR = 1.29, 95% CI = 1.01 to 1.63) and ovarian (SIR = 2.38, 95% CI = 1.30 to 4.00) cancers were elevated among FDRs of mutation-positive probands. CONCLUSIONS: Our study substantiates twofold risk of PC among FDRs of PC patients and suggests increased risk for primary liver cancer among female FDRs. FDRs of susceptibility mutation carriers had substantially increased risk for PC and increased risk for breast and ovarian cancers.

7.
PLoS One ; 13(8): e0202272, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30107003

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Advanced pancreatic cancer is a highly refractory disease almost always associated with survival of little more than a year. New interventions based on novel targets are needed. We aim to identify new genetic determinants of overall survival (OS) in patients after treatment with gemcitabine using genome-wide screens of germline DNA. We aim also to support these findings with in vitro functional analysis. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Genome-wide screens of germline DNA in two independent cohorts of pancreatic cancer patients (from the Cancer and Leukemia Group B (CALGB) 80303 and the Mayo Clinic) were used to select new genes associated with OS. The vitamin D receptor gene (VDR) was selected, and the interactions of genetic variation in VDR with circulating vitamin D levels and gemcitabine treatment were evaluated. Functional effects of common VDR variants were also evaluated in experimental assays in human cell lines. RESULTS: The rs2853564 variant in VDR was associated with OS in patients from both the Mayo Clinic (HR 0.81, 95% CI 0.70-0.94, p = 0.0059) and CALGB 80303 (HR 0.74, 0.63-0.87, p = 0.0002). rs2853564 interacted with high pre-treatment levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D, a measure of endogenous vitamin D) (p = 0.0079 for interaction) and with gemcitabine treatment (p = 0.024 for interaction) to confer increased OS. rs2853564 increased transcriptional activity in luciferase assays and reduced the binding of the IRF4 transcription factor. CONCLUSION: Our findings propose VDR as a novel determinant of survival in advanced pancreatic cancer patients. Common functional variation in this gene might interact with endogenous vitamin D and gemcitabine treatment to determine improved patient survival. These results support evidence for a modulatory role of the vitamin D pathway for the survival of advanced pancreatic cancer patients.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/genética , Adenocarcinoma/mortalidade , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/mortalidade , Receptores de Calcitriol/genética , Adenocarcinoma/sangue , Adenocarcinoma/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Antimetabólitos Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Bevacizumab/uso terapêutico , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Desoxicitidina/análogos & derivados , Desoxicitidina/uso terapêutico , Método Duplo-Cego , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Seguimentos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/sangue , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Vitamina D/sangue
8.
JAMA ; 319(23): 2401-2409, 2018 06 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29922827

RESUMO

Importance: Individuals genetically predisposed to pancreatic cancer may benefit from early detection. Genes that predispose to pancreatic cancer and the risks of pancreatic cancer associated with mutations in these genes are not well defined. Objective: To determine whether inherited germline mutations in cancer predisposition genes are associated with increased risks of pancreatic cancer. Design, Setting, and Participants: Case-control analysis to identify pancreatic cancer predisposition genes; longitudinal analysis of patients with pancreatic cancer for prognosis. The study included 3030 adults diagnosed as having pancreatic cancer and enrolled in a Mayo Clinic registry between October 12, 2000, and March 31, 2016, with last follow-up on June 22, 2017. Reference controls were 123 136 individuals with exome sequence data in the public Genome Aggregation Database and 53 105 in the Exome Aggregation Consortium database. Exposures: Individuals were classified based on carrying a deleterious mutation in cancer predisposition genes and having a personal or family history of cancer. Main Outcomes and Measures: Germline mutations in coding regions of 21 cancer predisposition genes were identified by sequencing of products from a custom multiplex polymerase chain reaction-based panel; associations of genes with pancreatic cancer were assessed by comparing frequency of mutations in genes of pancreatic cancer patients with those of reference controls. Results: Comparing 3030 case patients with pancreatic cancer (43.2% female; 95.6% non-Hispanic white; mean age at diagnosis, 65.3 [SD, 10.7] years) with reference controls, significant associations were observed between pancreatic cancer and mutations in CDKN2A (0.3% of cases and 0.02% of controls; odds ratio [OR], 12.33; 95% CI, 5.43-25.61); TP53 (0.2% of cases and 0.02% of controls; OR, 6.70; 95% CI, 2.52-14.95); MLH1 (0.13% of cases and 0.02% of controls; OR, 6.66; 95% CI, 1.94-17.53); BRCA2 (1.9% of cases and 0.3% of controls; OR, 6.20; 95% CI, 4.62-8.17); ATM (2.3% of cases and 0.37% of controls; OR, 5.71; 95% CI, 4.38-7.33); and BRCA1 (0.6% of cases and 0.2% of controls; OR, 2.58; 95% CI, 1.54-4.05). Conclusions and Relevance: In this case-control study, mutations in 6 genes associated with pancreatic cancer were found in 5.5% of all pancreatic cancer patients, including 7.9% of patients with a family history of pancreatic cancer and 5.2% of patients without a family history of pancreatic cancer. Further research is needed for replication in other populations.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , DNA de Neoplasias/análise , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Sistema de Registros , Risco , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Análise de Sobrevida
9.
Carcinogenesis ; 39(8): 1056-1067, 2018 07 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29800239

RESUMO

Diets with high inflammatory potential are suspected to increase risk for pancreatic cancer (PC). Using pooled analyses, we examined whether this association applies to populations from different geographic regions and population subgroups with varying risks for PC, including variation in ABO blood type. Data from six case-control studies (cases, n = 2414; controls, n = 4528) in the Pancreatic Cancer Case-Control Consortium (PanC4) were analyzed, followed by replication in five nested case-control studies (cases, n = 1268; controls, n = 4215) from the Pancreatic Cancer Cohort Consortium (PanScan). Two polymorphisms in the ABO locus (rs505922 and rs8176746) were used to infer participants' blood types. Dietary questionnaire-derived nutrient/food intake was used to compute energy-adjusted dietary inflammatory index (E-DII®) scores to assess inflammatory potential of diet. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using multivariable-adjusted logistic regression. Higher E-DII scores, reflecting greater inflammatory potential of diet, were associated with increased PC risk in PanC4 [ORQ5 versus Q1=2.20, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.85-2.61, Ptrend < 0.0001; ORcontinuous = 1.20, 95% CI = 1.17-1.24], and PanScan (ORQ5 versus Q1 = 1.23, 95% CI = 0.92-1.66, Ptrend = 0.008; ORcontinuous = 1.09, 95% CI = 1.02-1.15). As expected, genotype-derived non-O blood type was associated with increased PC risk in both the PanC4 and PanScan studies. Stratified analyses of associations between E-DII quintiles and PC by genotype-derived ABO blood type did not show interaction by blood type (Pinteraction = 0.10 in PanC4 and Pinteraction=0.13 in PanScan). The results show that consuming a pro-inflammatory diet and carrying non-O blood type are each individually, but not interactively, associated with increased PC risk.


Assuntos
Sistema do Grupo Sanguíneo ABO/genética , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Inflamação/imunologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/sangue , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação/complicações , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pâncreas/imunologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/imunologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos
10.
Pancreas ; 47(6): 738-741, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29771765

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Human pancreatic polypeptide (HPP) is a hormone secreted by the ventral pancreas. While postprandial HPP levels have been studied in chronic pancreatitis (CP) and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), there are limited data on fasting HPP in these diseases. METHODS: Fasting serum HPP was measured in the following groups of patients: CP with diabetes mellitus (DM) (n = 16), CP without DM (n = 34), PDAC with new-onset DM (n = 50), PDAC without DM (n = 49), new-onset type 2 DM (n = 50), and controls without DM (n = 49). Sixty-six had type 3c DM (CP with DM, n = 16; PDAC with new-onset DM, n = 50). RESULTS: Median fasting HPP levels (in picograms per milliliter) were similar among all groups. Median (interquartile range) HPP levels in new-onset type 2 DM (n = 50; 288.3 [80.1-1072.1]) were similar to those in type 3c DM (n = 66; 242.3 [64.9-890.9]) (P = 0.71). In PDAC (n = 99), HPP values were similar in pancreatic head (n = 75) versus body/tail (n = 24) tumors (245.3 [64.3-1091.3] vs 334.7 [136.1-841.5]; P = 0.95), regardless of DM. CONCLUSIONS: Fasting HPP levels are similar in CP, PDAC, and controls regardless of glycemic status.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/sangue , Polipeptídeo Pancreático/sangue , Pancreatite Crônica/sangue , Precursores de Proteínas/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/métodos , Jejum/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
11.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 556, 2018 02 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29422604

RESUMO

In 2020, 146,063 deaths due to pancreatic cancer are estimated to occur in Europe and the United States combined. To identify common susceptibility alleles, we performed the largest pancreatic cancer GWAS to date, including 9040 patients and 12,496 controls of European ancestry from the Pancreatic Cancer Cohort Consortium (PanScan) and the Pancreatic Cancer Case-Control Consortium (PanC4). Here, we find significant evidence of a novel association at rs78417682 (7p12/TNS3, P = 4.35 × 10-8). Replication of 10 promising signals in up to 2737 patients and 4752 controls from the PANcreatic Disease ReseArch (PANDoRA) consortium yields new genome-wide significant loci: rs13303010 at 1p36.33 (NOC2L, P = 8.36 × 10-14), rs2941471 at 8q21.11 (HNF4G, P = 6.60 × 10-10), rs4795218 at 17q12 (HNF1B, P = 1.32 × 10-8), and rs1517037 at 18q21.32 (GRP, P = 3.28 × 10-8). rs78417682 is not statistically significantly associated with pancreatic cancer in PANDoRA. Expression quantitative trait locus analysis in three independent pancreatic data sets provides molecular support of NOC2L as a pancreatic cancer susceptibility gene.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/genética , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Fator 1-beta Nuclear de Hepatócito/genética , Fator 4 Nuclear de Hepatócito/genética , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Proteínas/genética , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Tensinas/genética
12.
Am J Phys Med Rehabil ; 97(7): 500-506, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29406405

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: A pilot study was conducted to longitudinally quantify effect of onabotulinum toxin A (BoNT-A) on passive muscle properties in children with cerebral palsy using ultrasound shear wave elastography. DESIGN: This was a prospective longitudinal cohort study. RESULTS: Between 1 and 3 mos post-BoNT-A, a significant improvement in the shear modulus of the lateral gastrocnemius was found at 10-degrees plantar flexion (PF) (-7.57 [-10.98, -5.07], P = 0.02) and 0-degrees PF (-14.74 [-18.21, -9.38], P = 0.03). There was a notable, but nonsignificant, difference in shear modulus at 20-degrees PF, 10-degrees PF, and 0-degrees PF between pre-BoNT-A and 1 mo post-BoNT-A. Pre-BoNT-A shear modulus was not significantly different from 3 mos post-BoNT-A at all foot positions. No significant differences in ankle passive range of motion or spasticity were found. CONCLUSION: Despite no significant change in ankle range of motion or spasticity, shear wave elastography was able to detect a difference in lateral gastrocnemius passive muscle properties in children with cerebral palsy after BoNT-A injections. The difference in passive muscle properties resolved by 3 mos post-BoNT-A.


Assuntos
Toxinas Botulínicas Tipo A/administração & dosagem , Paralisia Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Paralisia Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Técnicas de Imagem por Elasticidade/métodos , Espasticidade Muscular/diagnóstico por imagem , Espasticidade Muscular/tratamento farmacológico , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/diagnóstico por imagem , Músculo Esquelético/efeitos dos fármacos , Projetos Piloto , Estudos Prospectivos , Amplitude de Movimento Articular/fisiologia
13.
Nature ; 554(7693): 533-537, 2018 02 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29443959

RESUMO

Chronic inflammation increases the risk of developing one of several types of cancer. Inflammatory responses are currently thought to be controlled by mechanisms that rely on transcriptional networks that are distinct from those involved in cell differentiation. The orphan nuclear receptor NR5A2 participates in a wide variety of processes, including cholesterol and glucose metabolism in the liver, resolution of endoplasmic reticulum stress, intestinal glucocorticoid production, pancreatic development and acinar differentiation. In genome-wide association studies, single nucleotide polymorphisms in the vicinity of NR5A2 have previously been associated with the risk of pancreatic adenocarcinoma. In mice, Nr5a2 heterozygosity sensitizes the pancreas to damage, impairs regeneration and cooperates with mutant Kras in tumour progression. Here, using a global transcriptomic analysis, we describe an epithelial-cell-autonomous basal pre-inflammatory state in the pancreas of Nr5a2+/- mice that is reminiscent of the early stages of pancreatitis-induced inflammation and is conserved in histologically normal human pancreases with reduced expression of NR5A2 mRNA. In Nr5a2+/-mice, NR5A2 undergoes a marked transcriptional switch, relocating from differentiation-specific to inflammatory genes and thereby promoting gene transcription that is dependent on the AP-1 transcription factor. Pancreatic deletion of Jun rescues the pre-inflammatory phenotype, as well as binding of NR5A2 to inflammatory gene promoters and the defective regenerative response to damage. These findings support the notion that, in the pancreas, the transcriptional networks involved in differentiation-specific functions also suppress inflammatory programmes. Under conditions of genetic or environmental constraint, these networks can be subverted to foster inflammation.


Assuntos
Diferenciação Celular/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Inflamação/genética , Pâncreas/metabolismo , Pâncreas/patologia , Receptores Citoplasmáticos e Nucleares/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Células Acinares/metabolismo , Células Acinares/patologia , Animais , Cromatina/genética , Cromatina/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/patologia , Redes Reguladoras de Genes/genética , Genes jun/genética , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Camundongos , Especificidade de Órgãos/genética , Pancreatite/genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Receptores Citoplasmáticos e Nucleares/deficiência , Receptores Citoplasmáticos e Nucleares/genética , Fator de Transcrição AP-1/metabolismo
14.
Gut ; 67(3): 521-533, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28634199

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To elucidate the genetic architecture of gene expression in pancreatic tissues. DESIGN: We performed expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) analysis in histologically normal pancreatic tissue samples (n=95) using RNA sequencing and the corresponding 1000 genomes imputed germline genotypes. Data from pancreatic tumour-derived tissue samples (n=115) from The Cancer Genome Atlas were included for comparison. RESULTS: We identified 38 615 cis-eQTLs (in 484 genes) in histologically normal tissues and 39 713 cis-eQTL (in 237 genes) in tumour-derived tissues (false discovery rate <0.1), with the strongest effects seen near transcriptional start sites. Approximately 23% and 42% of genes with significant cis-eQTLs appeared to be specific for tumour-derived and normal-derived tissues, respectively. Significant enrichment of cis-eQTL variants was noted in non-coding regulatory regions, in particular for pancreatic tissues (1.53-fold to 3.12-fold, p≤0.0001), indicating tissue-specific functional relevance. A common pancreatic cancer risk locus on 9q34.2 (rs687289) was associated with ABO expression in histologically normal (p=5.8×10-8) and tumour-derived (p=8.3×10-5) tissues. The high linkage disequilibrium between this variant and the O blood group generating deletion variant in ABO (exon 6) suggested that nonsense-mediated decay (NMD) of the 'O' mRNA might explain this finding. However, knockdown of crucial NMD regulators did not influence decay of the ABO 'O' mRNA, indicating that a gene regulatory element influenced by pancreatic cancer risk alleles may underlie the eQTL. CONCLUSIONS: We have identified cis-eQTLs representing potential functional regulatory variants in the pancreas and generated a rich data set for further studies on gene expression and its regulation in pancreatic tissues.


Assuntos
Sistema do Grupo Sanguíneo ABO/genética , Expressão Gênica , Pâncreas , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas , RNA Neoplásico/análise , Transcriptoma , Alelos , Cromossomos Humanos Par 9 , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Degradação do RNAm Mediada por Códon sem Sentido , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Sequências Reguladoras de Ácido Nucleico , Análise de Sequência de RNA
15.
Pancreatology ; 18(1): 46-53, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29170050

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We used transcriptomic profiling and immunohistochemistry (IHC) to search for a functional imaging strategy to resolve common problems with morphological imaging of cystic neoplasms and benign cystic lesions of the pancreas. METHODS: Resected pancreatic cancer (n = 21) and normal pancreas were laser-capture micro-dissected, and transcripts were quantified by RNAseq. Functional imaging targets were validated at the protein level by IHC on a pancreatic adenocarcinoma tissue microarray and a newly created tissue microarray of resected intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) and IPMN-associated adenocarcinomas. RESULTS: Genes encoding proteins responsible for cellular import of pyruvate, export of lactate, and conversion of pyruvate to lactate were highly upregulated in pancreatic adenocarcinoma compared to normal pancreas. Strong expression of MCT4 and LDHA was observed by IHC in >90% of adenocarcinoma specimens. In IPMNs, the pyruvate-to-lactate signature was significantly elevated in high grade dysplasia (HGD) and IPMN-associated adenocarcinoma. Additionally, cores containing HGD and/or adenocarcinoma exhibited a higher number of peri-lesional stromal cells and a significant increase in peri-lesional stromal cell staining of LDHA and MCT4. Interestingly, the pyruvate-to-lactate signature was significantly upregulated in cores containing only low grade dysplasia (LGD) from patients with histologically confirmed IPMN-associated adenocarcinoma versus LGD cores from patients with non-invasive IPMNs. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest prospective studies with hyperpolarized [1-13C]-pyruvate magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging are warranted. If these IHC results translate to functional imaging findings, a positive pyruvate-to-lactate imaging signature might be a risk factor for invasion that would warrant resection of IPMNs in the absence of other worrisome features.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma Mucinoso/química , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/química , Carcinoma Papilar/química , Ácido Láctico/química , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/química , Ácido Pirúvico/química , Adenocarcinoma Mucinoso/patologia , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/patologia , Carcinoma Papilar/patologia , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Pâncreas/química , Pâncreas/patologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Transcriptoma
16.
Sci Transl Med ; 9(398)2017 07 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28701476

RESUMO

Markers are needed to facilitate early detection of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), which is often diagnosed too late for effective therapy. Starting with a PDAC cell reprogramming model that recapitulated the progression of human PDAC, we identified secreted proteins and tested a subset as potential markers of PDAC. We optimized an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using plasma samples from patients with various stages of PDAC, from individuals with benign pancreatic disease, and from healthy controls. A phase 1 discovery study (n = 20), a phase 2a validation study (n = 189), and a second phase 2b validation study (n = 537) revealed that concentrations of plasma thrombospondin-2 (THBS2) discriminated among all stages of PDAC consistently. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) c-statistic was 0.76 in the phase 1 study, 0.84 in the phase 2a study, and 0.87 in the phase 2b study. The plasma concentration of THBS2 was able to discriminate resectable stage I cancer as readily as stage III/IV PDAC tumors. THBS2 plasma concentrations combined with those for CA19-9, a previously identified PDAC marker, yielded a c-statistic of 0.96 in the phase 2a study and 0.97 in the phase 2b study. THBS2 data improved the ability of CA19-9 to distinguish PDAC from pancreatitis. With a specificity of 98%, the combination of THBS2 and CA19-9 yielded a sensitivity of 87% for PDAC in the phase 2b study. A THBS2 and CA19-9 blood marker panel measured with a conventional ELISA may improve the detection of patients at high risk for PDAC.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/sangue , Adenocarcinoma/diagnóstico , Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Antígeno CA-19-9/sangue , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/sangue , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/diagnóstico , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Trombospondinas/sangue , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Idoso , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Demografia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
17.
Nutrients ; 9(5)2017 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28468303

RESUMO

Pancreatic cancer is one of the most fatal common cancers affecting both men and women, representing about 3% of all new cancer cases in the United States. In this study, we aimed to investigate the association of pancreatic cancer risk with alcohol consumption as well as folate intake. We performed a case-control study of 384 patients diagnosed with pancreatic cancer from May 2004 to December 2009 and 983 primary care healthy controls in a largely white population (>96%). Our findings showed no significant association between risk of pancreatic cancer and either overall alcohol consumption or type of alcohol consumed (drinks/day). Our study showed dietary folate intake had a modest effect size, but was significantly inversely associated with pancreatic cancer (odds ratio (OR) = 0.99, p < 0.0001). The current study supports the hypothesis that pancreatic cancer risk is reduced with higher food-based folate intake.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Dieta , Ácido Fólico/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/epidemiologia , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estado Nutricional , Fatores de Risco
18.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 26(6): 971-974, 2017 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28264873

RESUMO

Background: Epidemiologic associations of leukocyte telomere length (LTL) and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) have been inconsistent owing, in part, to variation in telomere length (TL) assessment across studies. To overcome this limitation and address concerns of potential reverse causation, we used carriage of telomere-related alleles to genetically predict TL and examined its association with PDAC.Methods: A case-control study of 1,500 PDAC cases and 1,500 controls, frequency-matched on age and sex was performed. Eight of nine polymorphisms previously associated with variation in LTL were analyzed. Genetic risk scores (GRS) consisting of the TL-related polymorphisms were computed as the number of long TL alleles carried by an individual scaled to published kilobase pairs of TL associated with each allele. Participants were further categorized on the basis of the number of short TL alleles they carry across all eight SNPs. Associations were examined in additive and dominant models using logistic regression to calculate ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CI).Results: In age- and sex-adjusted models, one short TL allele (rs10936599, T) was associated with reduced risk, whereas another short TL allele (rs2736100, A) was associated with increased risk, with per-allele ORs of 0.89 (95% CI, 0.79-0.99) and 1.13 (95% CI, 1.01-1.24), respectively. No association was observed with GRS or short TL allele counts, and no associations were observed in the dominant models.Conclusions: Findings suggest that genetically predicted short TL is not associated with PDAC risk.Impact: Common genetic determinants of short TL do not appear to influence PDAC risk. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(6); 971-4. ©2017 AACR.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Telômero/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Fatores de Risco
19.
Oncoimmunology ; 6(1): e1252013, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28197368

RESUMO

Immunological strategies to treat pancreatic cancer offer new therapeutic approaches to improve patient outcomes. Understanding alterations in the immune systems of pancreatic cancer patients will likely lead to advances in immunotherapy for the disease. We profiled peripheral blood leukocytes from pancreatic cancer patients (n = 22) and age-matched controls (n = 20) using flow cytometry. Immune profiling of pancreatic cancer patients identified phenotypic changes in various immune cell populations, including a population of immunosuppressive monocytes (CD14+HLA-DRlo/neg), which were shown to be increased in these patients. There was a correlation between the levels of CD14+ monocytes and the levels of CD14+HLA-DRlo/neg monocytes in peripheral blood from pancreatic cancer patients. HLA-DR downregulation of monocytes was shown to occur through pancreatic cancer-derived exosome interactions with monocytes. In an in vitro model, exosomes from patient-derived xenograft cell lines and patient plasma decreased HLA-DR expression on CD14+ monocytes. Additionally, tumor-derived exosomes caused immune suppression in monocytes through altered STAT3 signaling, induction of arginase expression, and reactive oxygen species. These findings provide novel insights into the mechanisms that govern immunosuppression in pancreatic cancer. Understanding monocyte-exosome interactions could lead to novel immunotherapies for this disease.

20.
Gastrointest Endosc ; 86(1): 161-169, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27889543

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Among the greatest hurdles to pancreatic cancer (PC) therapy is the limited tissue penetration of systemic chemotherapy because of tumor desmoplasia. The primary study aim was to determine the toxicity profile of EUS-guided fine-needle injection (EUS-FNI) with gemcitabine. Secondary endpoints included the ability to disease downstage leading to an R0 resection and overall survival (OS) at 6 months, 12 months, and 5 years after therapy. METHODS: In a prospective study from a tertiary referral center, gemcitabine (38 mg/mL) EUS-FNI was performed in patients with PC before conventional therapy. Initial and delayed adverse events (AEs) were assessed within 72 hours and 4 to 14 days after EUS-FNI, respectively. Patients were followed for ≥5 years or until death. RESULTS: Thirty-six patients with stage II (n = 3), stage III (n = 20), or stage IV (n = 13) disease underwent gemcitabine EUS-FNI with 2.5 mL (.7-7.0 mg) total volume of injectate per patient. There were no initial or delayed AEs reported. Thirty-five patients (97.2%) were deceased at the time of analysis with a median 10.3 months of follow-up (range, 3.1-63.9). OS at 6 months and 12 months was 78% and 44%, respectively. The median OS was 10.4 months (range, 2.7-68). Among patients with stage III unresectable disease, 4 (20%) were downstaged and underwent an R0 resection. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests the feasibility, safety, and potential efficacy of gemcitabine EUS-FNI for PC. Additional data are needed to verify these observations and to determine the potential role relative to conventional multimodality therapy.


Assuntos
Antimetabólitos Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Antimetabólitos Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Desoxicitidina/análogos & derivados , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Desoxicitidina/administração & dosagem , Desoxicitidina/efeitos adversos , Endossonografia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Injeções Intralesionais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Estudos Prospectivos , Critérios de Avaliação de Resposta em Tumores Sólidos , Taxa de Sobrevida , Ultrassonografia de Intervenção
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