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1.
Pediatr Rheumatol Online J ; 18(1): 80, 2020 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33066778

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Heme oxygenase-1 (HMOX1) catalyzes the metabolism of heme into carbon monoxide, ferrous iron, and biliverdin. Through biliverdin reductase, biliverdin becomes bilirubin. HMOX1-deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive disorder with hallmark features of direct antibody negative hemolytic anemia with normal bilirubin, hyperinflammation and features similar to macrophage activation syndrome. Clinical findings have included asplenia, nephritis, hepatitis, and vasculitis. Pulmonary features and evaluation of the immune response have been limited. CASE PRESENTATION: We present a young boy who presented with chronic respiratory failure due to nonspecific interstitial pneumonia following a chronic history of infection-triggered recurrent hyperinflammatory flares. Episodes included hemolysis without hyperbilirubinemia, immunodeficiency, hepatomegaly with mild transaminitis, asplenia, leukocytosis, thrombocytosis, joint pain and features of macrophage activation with negative autoimmune serologies. Lung biopsy revealed cholesterol granulomas. He was found post-mortem by whole exome sequencing to have a compound heterozygous paternal frame shift a paternal frame shift HMOX1 c.264_269delCTGG (p.L89Sfs*24) and maternal splice donor HMOX1 (c.636 + 2 T > A) consistent with HMOX1 deficiency. Western blot analysis confirmed lack of HMOX1 protein upon oxidant stimulation of the patient cells. CONCLUSIONS: Here, we describe a phenotype expansion for HMOX1-deficiency to include not only asplenia and hepatomegaly, but also interstitial lung disease with cholesterol granulomas and inflammatory flares with hemophagocytosis present in the bone marrow.

2.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 15035, 2020 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32929111

RESUMO

Otitis media (OM), a very common disease in young children, can result in hearing loss. In order to potentially replicate previously reported associations between OM and PLG, exome and Sanger sequencing, RNA-sequencing of saliva and middle ear samples, 16S rRNA sequencing, molecular modeling, and statistical analyses including transmission disequilibrium tests (TDT) were performed in a multi-ethnic cohort of 718 families and simplex cases with OM. We identified four rare PLG variants c.112A > G (p.Lys38Glu), c.782G > A (p.Arg261His), c.1481C > T (p.Ala494Val) and c.2045 T > A (p.Ile682Asn), and one common variant c.1414G > A (p.Asp472Asn). However TDT analyses for these PLG variants did not demonstrate association with OM in 314 families. Additionally PLG expression is very low or absent in normal or diseased middle ear in mouse and human, and salivary expression and microbial α-diversity were non-significant in c.1414G > A (p.Asp472Asn) carriers. Based on molecular modeling, the novel rare variants particularly c.782G > A (p.Arg261His) and c.2045 T > A (p.Ile682Asn) were predicted to affect protein structure. Exploration of other potential disease mechanisms will help elucidate how PLG contributes to OM susceptibility in humans. Our results underline the importance of following up findings from genome-wide association through replication studies, preferably using multi-omic datasets.

3.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; : e1406, 2020 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32748548

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) is the most common cardiovascular malformation in adults, with a prevalence of 0.5%-2%. The prevalence of BAV in cohorts who were ascertained due to thoracic aortic aneurysms or acute aortic dissections (TAD) is as high as 20%. However, the contribution of causal BAV genes to TAD is not known. Therefore, we evaluated rare deleterious variants of GATA4, NOTCH1, SMAD6, or ROBO4 in patients with BAV who presented with TAD. METHODS: Our cohort consisted of 487 probands with Heritable Thoracic Aortic Aneurysms or Dissections (HTAD, 12% BAV, 29% female) and 63 probands with Early onset complications of Bicuspid Aortic Valve disease (EBAV, 63% TAD, 34% female). After whole exome sequencing, we functionally annotated GATA4, NOTCH1, SMAD6, and ROBO4 variants and compared the prevalence of rare variants in these genes to controls without HTAD. RESULTS: We identified 11 rare deleterious variants of GATA4, SMAD6, or ROBO4 in 12 (18%) EBAV cases. The burden of rare SMAD6 and GATA4 variants was significantly enriched in EBAV but not in HTAD cases, even among HTAD cases with BAV (p < .003). CONCLUSION: Rare variants of NOTCH1, ROBO4, SMAD6, or GATA4 do not significantly contribute to BAV in cohorts with HTAD. We conclude that BAV patients who present with HTAD are a genetically distinct subgroup with implications for genetic testing and prognosis.

4.
J Inherit Metab Dis ; 2020 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32681751

RESUMO

Asparagine-linked glycosylation 13 homolog (ALG13) encodes a nonredundant, highly conserved, X-linked uridine diphosphate (UDP)-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase required for the synthesis of lipid linked oligosaccharide precursor and proper N-linked glycosylation. De novo variants in ALG13 underlie a form of early infantile epileptic encephalopathy known as EIEE36, but given its essential role in glycosylation, it is also considered a congenital disorder of glycosylation (CDG), ALG13-CDG. Twenty-four previously reported ALG13-CDG cases had de novo variants, but surprisingly, unlike most forms of CDG, ALG13-CDG did not show the anticipated glycosylation defects, typically detected by altered transferrin glycosylation. Structural homology modeling of two recurrent de novo variants, p.A81T and p.N107S, suggests both are likely to impact the function of ALG13. Using a corresponding ALG13-deficient yeast strain, we show that expressing yeast ALG13 with either of the highly conserved hotspot variants rescues the observed growth defect, but not its glycosylation abnormality. We present molecular and clinical data on 29 previously unreported individuals with de novo variants in ALG13. This more than doubles the number of known cases. A key finding is that a vast majority of the individuals presents with West syndrome, a feature shared with other CDG types. Among these, the initial epileptic spasms best responded to adrenocorticotropic hormone or prednisolone, while clobazam and felbamate showed promise for continued epilepsy treatment. A ketogenic diet seems to play an important role in the treatment of these individuals.

5.
Circ Genom Precis Med ; 13(4): e002892, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32603605

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a genetically heterogeneous cardiac disease characterized by progressive ventricular enlargement and reduced systolic function. Here, we report genetic and functional analyses implicating the rat sarcoma signaling protein, SOS1 (Son of sevenless homolog 1), in DCM pathogenesis. METHODS: Exome sequencing was performed on 412 probands and family members from our DCM cohort, identifying several SOS1 variants with potential disease involvement. As several lines of evidence have implicated dysregulated rat sarcoma signaling in the pathogenesis of DCM, we assessed functional impact of each variant on the activation of ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase), AKT (protein kinase B), and JNK (c-Jun N-terminal kinase) pathways. Relative expression levels were determined by Western blot in HEK293T cells transfected with variant or wild-type human SOS1 expression constructs. RESULTS: A rare SOS1 variant [c.571G>A, p.(Glu191Lys)] was found to segregate alongside an A-band TTN truncating variant in a pedigree with aggressive, early-onset DCM. Reduced disease severity in the absence of the SOS1 variant suggested its potential involvement as a genetic risk factor for DCM in this family. Exome sequencing identified 5 additional SOS1 variants with potential disease involvement in 4 other families [c.1820T>C, p.(Ile607Thr); c.2156G>C, p.(Gly719Ala); c.2230A>G, p.(Arg744Gly); c.2728G>C, p.(Asp910His); c.3601C>T, p.(Arg1201Trp)]. Impacted amino acids occupied a number of functional domains relevant to SOS1 activity, including the N-terminal histone fold, as well as the C-terminal REM (rat sarcoma exchange motif), CDC25 (cell division cycle 25), and PR (proline-rich) tail domains. Increased phosphorylated ERK expression relative to wild-type levels was seen for all 6 SOS1 variants, paralleling known disease-relevant SOS1 signaling profiles. CONCLUSIONS: These data support gain-of-function variation in SOS1 as a contributing factor to isolated DCM.

6.
J Med Genet ; 2020 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32709676

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Otitis media (OM) susceptibility has significant heritability; however, the role of rare variants in OM is mostly unknown. Our goal is to identify novel rare variants that confer OM susceptibility. METHODS: We performed exome and Sanger sequencing of >1000 DNA samples from 551 multiethnic families with OM and unrelated individuals, RNA-sequencing and microbiome sequencing and analyses of swabs from the outer ear, middle ear, nasopharynx and oral cavity. We also examined protein localisation and gene expression in infected and healthy middle ear tissues. RESULTS: A large, intermarried pedigree that includes 81 OM-affected and 53 unaffected individuals cosegregates two known rare A2ML1 variants, a common FUT2 variant and a rare, novel pathogenic variant c.1682A>G (p.Glu561Gly) within SPINK5 (LOD=4.09). Carriage of the SPINK5 missense variant resulted in increased relative abundance of Microbacteriaceae in the middle ear, along with occurrence of Microbacteriaceae in the outer ear and oral cavity but not the nasopharynx. Eight additional novel SPINK5 variants were identified in 12 families and individuals with OM. A role for SPINK5 in OM susceptibility is further supported by lower RNA counts in variant carriers, strong SPINK5 localisation in outer ear skin, faint localisation to middle ear mucosa and eardrum and increased SPINK5 expression in human cholesteatoma. CONCLUSION: SPINK5 variants confer susceptibility to non-syndromic OM. These variants potentially contribute to middle ear pathology through breakdown of mucosal and epithelial barriers, immunodeficiency such as poor vaccination response, alteration of head and neck microbiota and facilitation of entry of opportunistic pathogens into the middle ear.

7.
Am J Hum Genet ; 107(2): 293-310, 2020 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32707087

RESUMO

We identified ten persons in six consanguineous families with distal arthrogryposis (DA) who had congenital contractures, scoliosis, and short stature. Exome sequencing revealed that each affected person was homozygous for one of two different rare variants (c.470G>T [p.Cys157Phe] or c.469T>C [p.Cys157Arg]) affecting the same residue of myosin light chain, phosphorylatable, fast skeletal muscle (MYLPF). In a seventh family, a c.487G>A (p.Gly163Ser) variant in MYLPF arose de novo in a father, who transmitted it to his son. In an eighth family comprised of seven individuals with dominantly inherited DA, a c.98C>T (p.Ala33Val) variant segregated in all four persons tested. Variants in MYLPF underlie both dominant and recessively inherited DA. Mylpf protein models suggest that the residues associated with dominant DA interact with myosin whereas the residues altered in families with recessive DA only indirectly impair this interaction. Pathological and histological exam of a foot amputated from an affected child revealed complete absence of skeletal muscle (i.e., segmental amyoplasia). To investigate the mechanism for this finding, we generated an animal model for partial MYLPF impairment by knocking out zebrafish mylpfa. The mylpfa mutant had reduced trunk contractile force and complete pectoral fin paralysis, demonstrating that mylpf impairment most severely affects limb movement. mylpfa mutant muscle weakness was most pronounced in an appendicular muscle and was explained by reduced myosin activity and fiber degeneration. Collectively, our findings demonstrate that partial loss of MYLPF function can lead to congenital contractures, likely as a result of degeneration of skeletal muscle in the distal limb.


Assuntos
Artrogripose/genética , Músculo Esquelético/patologia , Anormalidades Musculoesqueléticas/genética , Mutação/genética , Adolescente , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Criança , Contratura/genética , Extremidades/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Miosinas/genética , Linhagem , Adulto Jovem , Peixe-Zebra/genética
9.
J Clin Invest ; 130(8): 4423-4439, 2020 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32453716

RESUMO

Joubert syndrome (JBTS) is a recessive neurodevelopmental ciliopathy characterized by a pathognomonic hindbrain malformation. All known JBTS genes encode proteins involved in the structure or function of primary cilia, ubiquitous antenna-like organelles essential for cellular signal transduction. Here, we used the recently identified JBTS-associated protein armadillo repeat motif-containing 9 (ARMC9) in tandem-affinity purification and yeast 2-hybrid screens to identify a ciliary module whose dysfunction underlies JBTS. In addition to the known JBTS-associated proteins CEP104 and CSPP1, we identified coiled-coil domain containing 66 (CCDC66) and TOG array regulator of axonemal microtubules 1 (TOGARAM1) as ARMC9 interaction partners. We found that TOGARAM1 variants cause JBTS and disrupt TOGARAM1 interaction with ARMC9. Using a combination of protein interaction analyses, characterization of patient-derived fibroblasts, and analysis of CRISPR/Cas9-engineered zebrafish and hTERT-RPE1 cells, we demonstrated that dysfunction of ARMC9 or TOGARAM1 resulted in short cilia with decreased axonemal acetylation and polyglutamylation, but relatively intact transition zone function. Aberrant serum-induced ciliary resorption and cold-induced depolymerization in ARMC9 and TOGARAM1 patient cell lines suggest a role for this new JBTS-associated protein module in ciliary stability.

10.
J Inherit Metab Dis ; 43(5): 1037-1045, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32395830

RESUMO

The transmembrane domain recognition complex (TRC) targets cytoplasmic C-terminal tail-anchored (TA) proteins to their respective membranes in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), Golgi, and mitochondria. It is composed of three proteins, GET4, BAG6, and GET5. We identified an individual with compound heterozygous missense variants (p.Arg122His, p.Ile279Met) in GET4 that reduced all three TRC proteins by 70% to 90% in his fibroblasts, suggesting a possible defect in TA protein targeting. He presented with global developmental delay, intellectual disabilities, seizures, facial dysmorphism, and delayed bone age. We found the TA protein, syntaxin 5, is poorly targeted to Golgi membranes compared to normal controls. Since GET4 regulates ER to Golgi transport, we hypothesized that such transport would be disrupted in his fibroblasts, and discovered that retrograde (but not anterograde) transport was significantly reduced. Despite reduction in the three TRC proteins, their mRNA levels were unchanged, suggesting increased degradation in patient fibroblasts. Treating fibroblasts with the FDA-approved proteasome inhibitor, bortezomib (10 nM), restored syntaxin 5 localization and nearly normalized the levels of all three TRC proteins. Our study identifies the first individual with GET4 mutations.

11.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 1523, 2020 03 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32251286

RESUMO

The 8q24 genomic locus is tied to the origin of numerous cancers. We investigate its contribution to hereditary prostate cancer (HPC) in independent study populations of the Nashville Familial Prostate Cancer Study and International Consortium for Prostate Cancer Genetics (combined: 2,836 HPC cases, 2,206 controls of European ancestry). Here we report 433 variants concordantly associated with HPC in both study populations, accounting for 9% of heritability and modifying age of diagnosis as well as aggressiveness; 183 reach genome-wide significance. The variants comprehensively distinguish independent risk-altering haplotypes overlapping the 648 kb locus (three protective, and four risk (peak odds ratios: 1.5, 4, 5, and 22)). Sequence of the near-Mendelian haplotype reveals eleven causal mutation candidates. We introduce a linkage disequilibrium-based algorithm discerning eight independent sentinel variants, carrying considerable risk prediction ability (AUC = 0.625) for a single locus. These findings elucidate 8q24 locus structure and correlates for clinical prediction of prostate cancer risk.


Assuntos
Cromossomos Humanos Par 8/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Loci Gênicos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Haplótipos , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Neoplasias da Próstata/epidemiologia , Fatores de Proteção , Fatores de Risco
13.
Genet Med ; 22(2): 427-431, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31474762

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Moyamoya angiopathy (MMA) is a cerebrovascular disease characterized by occlusion of large arteries, which leads to strokes starting in childhood. Twelve altered genes predispose to MMA but the majority of cases of European descent do not have an identified genetic trigger. METHODS: Exome sequencing from 39 trios were analyzed. RESULTS: We identified four de novo variants in three genes not previously associated with MMA: CHD4, CNOT3, and SETD5. Identification of additional rare variants in these genes in 158 unrelated MMA probands provided further support that rare pathogenic variants in CHD4 and CNOT3 predispose to MMA. Previous studies identified de novo variants in these genes in children with developmental disorders (DD), intellectual disability, and congenital heart disease. CONCLUSION: These genes encode proteins involved in chromatin remodeling, and taken together with previously reported genes leading to MMA-like cerebrovascular occlusive disease (YY1AP1, SMARCAL1), implicate disrupted chromatin remodeling as a molecular pathway predisposing to early onset, large artery occlusive cerebrovascular disease. Furthermore, these data expand the spectrum of phenotypic pleiotropy due to alterations of CHD4, CNOT3, and SETD5 beyond DD to later onset disease in the cerebrovascular arteries and emphasize the need to assess clinical complications into adulthood for genes associated with DD.

14.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(3): 606-615, 2019 09 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31474318

RESUMO

Cerebellar malformations are diverse congenital anomalies frequently associated with developmental disability. Although genetic and prenatal non-genetic causes have been described, no systematic analysis has been performed. Here, we present a large-exome sequencing study of Dandy-Walker malformation (DWM) and cerebellar hypoplasia (CBLH). We performed exome sequencing in 282 individuals from 100 families with DWM or CBLH, and we established a molecular diagnosis in 36 of 100 families, with a significantly higher yield for CBLH (51%) than for DWM (16%). The 41 variants impact 27 neurodevelopmental-disorder-associated genes, thus demonstrating that CBLH and DWM are often features of monogenic neurodevelopmental disorders. Though only seven monogenic causes (19%) were identified in more than one individual, neuroimaging review of 131 additional individuals confirmed cerebellar abnormalities in 23 of 27 genetic disorders (85%). Prenatal risk factors were frequently found among individuals without a genetic diagnosis (30 of 64 individuals [47%]). Single-cell RNA sequencing of prenatal human cerebellar tissue revealed gene enrichment in neuronal and vascular cell types; this suggests that defective vasculogenesis may disrupt cerebellar development. Further, de novo gain-of-function variants in PDGFRB, a tyrosine kinase receptor essential for vascular progenitor signaling, were associated with CBLH, and this discovery links genetic and non-genetic etiologies. Our results suggest that genetic defects impact specific cerebellar cell types and implicate abnormal vascular development as a mechanism for cerebellar malformations. We also confirmed a major contribution for non-genetic prenatal factors in individuals with cerebellar abnormalities, substantially influencing diagnostic evaluation and counseling regarding recurrence risk and prognosis.


Assuntos
Cerebelo/anormalidades , Cerebelo/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Gravidez
15.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(3): 448-455, 2019 09 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31491408

RESUMO

Gene discovery for Mendelian conditions (MCs) offers a direct path to understanding genome function. Approaches based on next-generation sequencing applied at scale have dramatically accelerated gene discovery and transformed genetic medicine. Finding the genetic basis of ∼6,000-13,000 MCs yet to be delineated will require both technical and computational innovation, but will rely to a larger extent on meaningful data sharing.


Assuntos
Genoma Humano , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Humanos
16.
Birth Defects Res ; 111(20): 1618-1632, 2019 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31328417

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The National Birth Defects Prevention Study (NBDPS) is a multisite, population-based, case-control study of genetic and nongenetic risk factors for major structural birth defects. Eligible women had a pregnancy affected by a birth defect or a liveborn child without a birth defect between 1997 and 2011. They were invited to complete a telephone interview to collect pregnancy exposure data and were mailed buccal cell collection kits to collect specimens from themselves, their child (if living), and their child's father. Over 23,000 families representing more than 30 major structural birth defects provided DNA specimens. METHODS: To evaluate their utility for exome sequencing (ES), specimens from 20 children with colonic atresia were studied. Evaluations were conducted on specimens collected using cytobrushes stored and transported in open versus closed packaging, on native genomic DNA (gDNA) versus whole genome amplified (WGA) products and on a library preparation protocol adapted to low amounts of DNA. RESULTS: The DNA extracted from brushes in open packaging yielded higher quality sequence data than DNA from brushes in closed packaging. Quality metrics of sequenced gDNA were consistently higher than metrics from corresponding WGA products and were consistently high when using a low input protocol. CONCLUSIONS: This proof-of-principle study established conditions under which ES can be applied to NBDPS specimens. Successful sequencing of exomes from well-characterized NBDPS families indicated that this unique collection can be used to investigate the roles of genetic variation and gene-environment interaction effects in birth defect etiologies, providing a valuable resource for birth defect researchers.

17.
Hum Mutat ; 40(10): 1813-1825, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31215115

RESUMO

Cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL/P) is generally viewed as a complex trait with multiple genetic and environmental contributions. In 70% of cases, CL/P presents as an isolated feature and/or deemed nonsyndromic. In the remaining 30%, CL/P is associated with multisystem phenotypes or clinically recognizable syndromes, many with a monogenic basis. Here we report the identification, via exome sequencing, of likely pathogenic variants in two genes that encode interacting proteins previously only linked to orofacial clefting in mouse models. A variant in GDF11 (encoding growth differentiation factor 11), predicting a p.(Arg298Gln) substitution at the Furin protease cleavage site, was identified in one family that segregated with CL/P and both rib and vertebral hypersegmentation, mirroring that seen in Gdf11 knockout mice. In the second family in which CL/P was the only phenotype, a mutation in FST (encoding the GDF11 antagonist, Follistatin) was identified that is predicted to result in a p.(Cys56Tyr) substitution in the region that binds GDF11. Functional assays demonstrated a significant impact of the specific mutated amino acids on FST and GDF11 function and, together with embryonic expression data, provide strong evidence for the importance of GDF11 and Follistatin in the regulation of human orofacial development.


Assuntos
Proteínas Morfogenéticas Ósseas/genética , Fenda Labial/diagnóstico , Fenda Labial/genética , Folistatina/metabolismo , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Fatores de Diferenciação de Crescimento/genética , Mutação , Alelos , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Proteínas Morfogenéticas Ósseas/antagonistas & inibidores , Linhagem Celular , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Folistatina/química , Estudos de Associação Genética/métodos , Genômica/métodos , Fatores de Diferenciação de Crescimento/antagonistas & inibidores , Humanos , Modelos Moleculares , Linhagem , Conformação Proteica , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
18.
Hum Genet ; 138(6): 593-600, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30982135

RESUMO

Postaxial polydactyly (PAP) is a common limb malformation that often leads to cosmetic and functional complications. Molecular evaluation of polydactyly can serve as a tool to elucidate genetic and signaling pathways that regulate limb development, specifically, the anterior-posterior specification of the limb. To date, only five genes have been identified for nonsyndromic PAP: FAM92A, GLI1, GLI3, IQCE and ZNF141. In this study, two Pakistani multiplex consanguineous families with autosomal recessive nonsyndromic PAP were clinically and molecularly evaluated. From both pedigrees, a DNA sample from an affected member underwent exome sequencing. In each family, we identified a segregating frameshift (c.591dupA [p.(Q198Tfs*21)]) and nonsense variant (c.2173A > T [p.(K725*)]) in KIAA0825 (also known as C5orf36). Although KIAA0825 encodes a protein of unknown function, it has been demonstrated that its murine ortholog is expressed during limb development. Our data contribute to the establishment of a catalog of genes important in limb patterning, which can aid in diagnosis and obtaining a better understanding of the biology of polydactyly.


Assuntos
Dedos/anormalidades , Genes Recessivos/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/genética , Mutação , Polidactilia/genética , Dedos do Pé/anormalidades , Animais , Consanguinidade , Saúde da Família , Feminino , Dedos/patologia , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Polidactilia/patologia , Dedos do Pé/patologia , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma/métodos
19.
Hum Mutat ; 40(8): 1156-1171, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31009165

RESUMO

A genetic basis for otitis media is established, however, the role of rare variants in disease etiology is largely unknown. Previously a duplication variant within A2ML1 was identified as a significant risk factor for otitis media in an indigenous Filipino population and in US children. In this report exome and Sanger sequencing was performed using DNA samples from the indigenous Filipino population, Filipino cochlear implantees, US probands, Finnish, and Pakistani families with otitis media. Sixteen novel, damaging A2ML1 variants identified in otitis media patients were rare or low-frequency in population-matched controls. In the indigenous population, both gingivitis and A2ML1 variants including the known duplication variant and the novel splice variant c.4061 + 1 G>C were independently associated with otitis media. Sequencing of salivary RNA samples from indigenous Filipinos demonstrated lower A2ML1 expression according to the carriage of A2ML1 variants. Sequencing of additional salivary RNA samples from US patients with otitis media revealed differentially expressed genes that are highly correlated with A2ML1 expression levels. In particular, RND3 is upregulated in both A2ML1 variant carriers and high-A2ML1 expressors. These findings support a role for A2ML1 in keratinocyte differentiation within the middle ear as part of otitis media pathology and the potential application of ROCK inhibition in otitis media.


Assuntos
Regulação para Baixo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Mutação , Otite Média/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , alfa-Macroglobulinas/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Finlândia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paquistão , Linhagem , Filipinas , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Transdução de Sinais , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
20.
J Inherit Metab Dis ; 42(5): 993-997, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30945312

RESUMO

The translocon-associated protein (TRAP) complex facilitates the translocation of proteins across the endoplasmic reticulum membrane and associates with the oligosaccharyl transferase (OST) complex to maintain proper glycosylation of nascent polypeptides. Pathogenic variants in either complex cause a group of rare genetic disorders termed, congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG). We report an individual who presented with severe intellectual and developmental disabilities and sensorineural deafness with an unsolved type I CDG, and sought to identify the underlying genetic basis. Exome sequencing identified a novel homozygous variant c.278_281delAGGA [p.Glu93Valfs*7] in the signal sequence receptor 3 (SSR3) subunit of the TRAP complex. Biochemical studies in patient fibroblasts showed the variant destabilized the TRAP complex with a complete loss of SSR3 protein and partial loss of SSR1 and SSR4. Importantly, all subunit levels were corrected by expression of wild-type SSR3. Abnormal glycosylation status in fibroblasts was confirmed using two markers proteins, GP130 and ICAM1. Our findings confirm mutations in SSR3 cause a novel CDG. A novel frameshift variant in the translocon associated protein, SSR3, disrupts the stability of the TRAP complex and causes a novel Congenital Disorder of Glycosylation.

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