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1.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(3): 606-615, 2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31474318

RESUMO

Cerebellar malformations are diverse congenital anomalies frequently associated with developmental disability. Although genetic and prenatal non-genetic causes have been described, no systematic analysis has been performed. Here, we present a large-exome sequencing study of Dandy-Walker malformation (DWM) and cerebellar hypoplasia (CBLH). We performed exome sequencing in 282 individuals from 100 families with DWM or CBLH, and we established a molecular diagnosis in 36 of 100 families, with a significantly higher yield for CBLH (51%) than for DWM (16%). The 41 variants impact 27 neurodevelopmental-disorder-associated genes, thus demonstrating that CBLH and DWM are often features of monogenic neurodevelopmental disorders. Though only seven monogenic causes (19%) were identified in more than one individual, neuroimaging review of 131 additional individuals confirmed cerebellar abnormalities in 23 of 27 genetic disorders (85%). Prenatal risk factors were frequently found among individuals without a genetic diagnosis (30 of 64 individuals [47%]). Single-cell RNA sequencing of prenatal human cerebellar tissue revealed gene enrichment in neuronal and vascular cell types; this suggests that defective vasculogenesis may disrupt cerebellar development. Further, de novo gain-of-function variants in PDGFRB, a tyrosine kinase receptor essential for vascular progenitor signaling, were associated with CBLH, and this discovery links genetic and non-genetic etiologies. Our results suggest that genetic defects impact specific cerebellar cell types and implicate abnormal vascular development as a mechanism for cerebellar malformations. We also confirmed a major contribution for non-genetic prenatal factors in individuals with cerebellar abnormalities, substantially influencing diagnostic evaluation and counseling regarding recurrence risk and prognosis.

2.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(3): 448-455, 2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31491408

RESUMO

Gene discovery for Mendelian conditions (MCs) offers a direct path to understanding genome function. Approaches based on next-generation sequencing applied at scale have dramatically accelerated gene discovery and transformed genetic medicine. Finding the genetic basis of ∼6,000-13,000 MCs yet to be delineated will require both technical and computational innovation, but will rely to a larger extent on meaningful data sharing.

3.
Genet Med ; 2019 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31474762

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Moyamoya angiopathy (MMA) is a cerebrovascular disease characterized by occlusion of large arteries, which leads to strokes starting in childhood. Twelve altered genes predispose to MMA but the majority of cases of European descent do not have an identified genetic trigger. METHODS: Exome sequencing from 39 trios were analyzed. RESULTS: We identified four de novo variants in three genes not previously associated with MMA: CHD4, CNOT3, and SETD5. Identification of additional rare variants in these genes in 158 unrelated MMA probands provided further support that rare pathogenic variants in CHD4 and CNOT3 predispose to MMA. Previous studies identified de novo variants in these genes in children with developmental disorders (DD), intellectual disability, and congenital heart disease. CONCLUSION: These genes encode proteins involved in chromatin remodeling, and taken together with previously reported genes leading to MMA-like cerebrovascular occlusive disease (YY1AP1, SMARCAL1), implicate disrupted chromatin remodeling as a molecular pathway predisposing to early onset, large artery occlusive cerebrovascular disease. Furthermore, these data expand the spectrum of phenotypic pleiotropy due to alterations of CHD4, CNOT3, and SETD5 beyond DD to later onset disease in the cerebrovascular arteries and emphasize the need to assess clinical complications into adulthood for genes associated with DD.

4.
Birth Defects Res ; 2019 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31328417

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The National Birth Defects Prevention Study (NBDPS) is a multisite, population-based, case-control study of genetic and nongenetic risk factors for major structural birth defects. Eligible women had a pregnancy affected by a birth defect or a liveborn child without a birth defect between 1997 and 2011. They were invited to complete a telephone interview to collect pregnancy exposure data and were mailed buccal cell collection kits to collect specimens from themselves, their child (if living), and their child's father. Over 23,000 families representing more than 30 major structural birth defects provided DNA specimens. METHODS: To evaluate their utility for exome sequencing (ES), specimens from 20 children with colonic atresia were studied. Evaluations were conducted on specimens collected using cytobrushes stored and transported in open versus closed packaging, on native genomic DNA (gDNA) versus whole genome amplified (WGA) products and on a library preparation protocol adapted to low amounts of DNA. RESULTS: The DNA extracted from brushes in open packaging yielded higher quality sequence data than DNA from brushes in closed packaging. Quality metrics of sequenced gDNA were consistently higher than metrics from corresponding WGA products and were consistently high when using a low input protocol. CONCLUSIONS: This proof-of-principle study established conditions under which ES can be applied to NBDPS specimens. Successful sequencing of exomes from well-characterized NBDPS families indicated that this unique collection can be used to investigate the roles of genetic variation and gene-environment interaction effects in birth defect etiologies, providing a valuable resource for birth defect researchers.

5.
Hum Mutat ; 40(10): 1813-1825, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31215115

RESUMO

Cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL/P) is generally viewed as a complex trait with multiple genetic and environmental contributions. In 70% of cases, CL/P presents as an isolated feature and/or deemed nonsyndromic. In the remaining 30%, CL/P is associated with multisystem phenotypes or clinically recognizable syndromes, many with a monogenic basis. Here we report the identification, via exome sequencing, of likely pathogenic variants in two genes that encode interacting proteins previously only linked to orofacial clefting in mouse models. A variant in GDF11 (encoding growth differentiation factor 11), predicting a p.(Arg298Gln) substitution at the Furin protease cleavage site, was identified in one family that segregated with CL/P and both rib and vertebral hypersegmentation, mirroring that seen in Gdf11 knockout mice. In the second family in which CL/P was the only phenotype, a mutation in FST (encoding the GDF11 antagonist, Follistatin) was identified that is predicted to result in a p.(Cys56Tyr) substitution in the region that binds GDF11. Functional assays demonstrated a significant impact of the specific mutated amino acids on FST and GDF11 function and, together with embryonic expression data, provide strong evidence for the importance of GDF11 and Follistatin in the regulation of human orofacial development.

6.
Hum Mutat ; 40(8): 1156-1171, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31009165

RESUMO

A genetic basis for otitis media is established, however, the role of rare variants in disease etiology is largely unknown. Previously a duplication variant within A2ML1 was identified as a significant risk factor for otitis media in an indigenous Filipino population and in US children. In this report exome and Sanger sequencing was performed using DNA samples from the indigenous Filipino population, Filipino cochlear implantees, US probands, Finnish, and Pakistani families with otitis media. Sixteen novel, damaging A2ML1 variants identified in otitis media patients were rare or low-frequency in population-matched controls. In the indigenous population, both gingivitis and A2ML1 variants including the known duplication variant and the novel splice variant c.4061 + 1 G>C were independently associated with otitis media. Sequencing of salivary RNA samples from indigenous Filipinos demonstrated lower A2ML1 expression according to the carriage of A2ML1 variants. Sequencing of additional salivary RNA samples from US patients with otitis media revealed differentially expressed genes that are highly correlated with A2ML1 expression levels. In particular, RND3 is upregulated in both A2ML1 variant carriers and high-A2ML1 expressors. These findings support a role for A2ML1 in keratinocyte differentiation within the middle ear as part of otitis media pathology and the potential application of ROCK inhibition in otitis media.

7.
Hum Genet ; 138(6): 593-600, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30982135

RESUMO

Postaxial polydactyly (PAP) is a common limb malformation that often leads to cosmetic and functional complications. Molecular evaluation of polydactyly can serve as a tool to elucidate genetic and signaling pathways that regulate limb development, specifically, the anterior-posterior specification of the limb. To date, only five genes have been identified for nonsyndromic PAP: FAM92A, GLI1, GLI3, IQCE and ZNF141. In this study, two Pakistani multiplex consanguineous families with autosomal recessive nonsyndromic PAP were clinically and molecularly evaluated. From both pedigrees, a DNA sample from an affected member underwent exome sequencing. In each family, we identified a segregating frameshift (c.591dupA [p.(Q198Tfs*21)]) and nonsense variant (c.2173A > T [p.(K725*)]) in KIAA0825 (also known as C5orf36). Although KIAA0825 encodes a protein of unknown function, it has been demonstrated that its murine ortholog is expressed during limb development. Our data contribute to the establishment of a catalog of genes important in limb patterning, which can aid in diagnosis and obtaining a better understanding of the biology of polydactyly.


Assuntos
Dedos/anormalidades , Genes Recessivos/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/genética , Mutação , Polidactilia/genética , Dedos do Pé/anormalidades , Animais , Consanguinidade , Saúde da Família , Feminino , Dedos/patologia , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Polidactilia/patologia , Dedos do Pé/patologia , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma/métodos
8.
J Inherit Metab Dis ; 42(5): 993-997, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30945312

RESUMO

The translocon-associated protein (TRAP) complex facilitates the translocation of proteins across the endoplasmic reticulum membrane and associates with the oligosaccharyl transferase (OST) complex to maintain proper glycosylation of nascent polypeptides. Pathogenic variants in either complex cause a group of rare genetic disorders termed, congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG). We report an individual who presented with severe intellectual and developmental disabilities and sensorineural deafness with an unsolved type I CDG, and sought to identify the underlying genetic basis. Exome sequencing identified a novel homozygous variant c.278_281delAGGA [p.Glu93Valfs*7] in the signal sequence receptor 3 (SSR3) subunit of the TRAP complex. Biochemical studies in patient fibroblasts showed the variant destabilized the TRAP complex with a complete loss of SSR3 protein and partial loss of SSR1 and SSR4. Importantly, all subunit levels were corrected by expression of wild-type SSR3. Abnormal glycosylation status in fibroblasts was confirmed using two markers proteins, GP130 and ICAM1. Our findings confirm mutations in SSR3 cause a novel CDG. A novel frameshift variant in the translocon associated protein, SSR3, disrupts the stability of the TRAP complex and causes a novel Congenital Disorder of Glycosylation.

9.
Hum Genet ; 138(3): 257-269, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30806792

RESUMO

Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome (RSTS) is an autosomal-dominant neurodevelopmental disease affecting 1:125,000 newborns characterized by intellectual disability, growth retardation, facial dysmorphisms and skeletal abnormalities. RSTS is caused by mutations in genes encoding for writers of the epigenetic machinery: CREBBP (~ 60%) or its homologous EP300 (~ 10%). No causative mutation is identified in up to 30% of patients. We performed whole-exome sequencing (WES) on eight RSTS-like individuals who had normal high-resolution array CGH testing and were CREBBP- and EP300-mutation -negative, to identify the molecular cause. In four cases, we identified putatively causal variants in three genes (ASXL1, KMT2D and KMT2A) encoding members of the epigenetic machinery known to be associated with the Bohring-Opitz, Kabuki and Wiedemann-Steiner syndromes. Each variant is novel, de novo, fulfills the ACMG criteria and is predicted to result in loss-of-function leading to haploinsufficiency of the epi-gene. In two of the remaining cases, homozygous/compound heterozygous variants in XYLT2 and PLCB4 genes, respectively, associated with spondyloocular and auriculocondylar 2 syndromes and in the latter an additional candidate variant in XRN2, a gene yet unrelated to any disease, were detected, but their pathogenicity remains uncertain. These results underscore the broad clinical spectrum of Mendelian disorders of the epigenetic apparatus and the high rate of WES disclosure of the genetic basis in cases which may pose a challenge for phenotype encompassing distinct syndromes. The overlapping features of distinct intellectual disability syndromes reflect common pathogenic molecular mechanisms affecting the complex regulation of balance between open and closed chromatin.


Assuntos
Estudos de Associação Genética , Síndrome de Rubinstein-Taybi/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Rubinstein-Taybi/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma , Proteína de Ligação a CREB/genética , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Hibridização Genômica Comparativa , Proteína p300 Associada a E1A/genética , Epigênese Genética , Facies , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Mutação , Fenótipo
10.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 27(7): 1054-1060, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30809044

RESUMO

SMAD4 pathogenic variants cause juvenile polyposis (JPS) and hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT), and 40% of affected individuals also have thoracic aortic disease. At the same time, SMAD4 pathogenic variants have not been reported in thoracic aortic disease families without JPS-HHT. A SMAD4 heterozygous variant, c.290G>T, p.(Arg97Leu), not present in population databases and predicted to be damaging to protein function, was identified in a family with thoracic aortic disease and no evidence of HHT or JPS. Cellular studies revealed that the SMAD4 p.(Arg97Leu) alteration increased SMAD4 ubiquitination and 26S proteasome-mediated protein degradation. Smooth muscle cells (SMCs) infected with lentivirus expressing the SMAD4 p.(Arg97Leu) variant demonstrated reduced contractile protein gene expression when compared to that of wild-type SMAD4. In addition, two rare variants were identified in individuals with early age of onset of thoracic aortic dissection. These results suggest that SMAD4 rare missense variants can lead to thoracic aortic disease in individuals who do not have JPS or HHT.

12.
Genet Med ; 21(4): 798-812, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30655598

RESUMO

Identifying genes and variants contributing to rare disease phenotypes and Mendelian conditions informs biology and medicine, yet potential phenotypic consequences for variation of >75% of the ~20,000 annotated genes in the human genome are lacking. Technical advances to assess rare variation genome-wide, particularly exome sequencing (ES), enabled establishment in the United States of the National Institutes of Health (NIH)-supported Centers for Mendelian Genomics (CMGs) and have facilitated collaborative studies resulting in novel "disease gene" discoveries. Pedigree-based genomic studies and rare variant analyses in families with suspected Mendelian conditions have led to the elucidation of hundreds of novel disease genes and highlighted the impact of de novo mutational events, somatic variation underlying nononcologic traits, incompletely penetrant alleles, phenotypes with high locus heterogeneity, and multilocus pathogenic variation. Herein, we highlight CMG collaborative discoveries that have contributed to understanding both rare and common diseases and discuss opportunities for future discovery in single-locus Mendelian disorder genomics. Phenotypic annotation of all human genes; development of bioinformatic tools and analytic methods; exploration of non-Mendelian modes of inheritance including reduced penetrance, multilocus variation, and oligogenic inheritance; construction of allelic series at a locus; enhanced data sharing worldwide; and integration with clinical genomics are explored. Realizing the full contribution of rare disease research to functional annotation of the human genome, and further illuminating human biology and health, will lay the foundation for the Precision Medicine Initiative.


Assuntos
Doenças Genéticas Inatas/genética , Heterogeneidade Genética , Genoma Humano/genética , Genômica/tendências , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , National Institutes of Health (U.S.) , Linhagem , Estados Unidos , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma/métodos
13.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(1): 35-44, 2019 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30554721

RESUMO

Baratela-Scott syndrome (BSS) is a rare, autosomal-recessive disorder characterized by short stature, facial dysmorphisms, developmental delay, and skeletal dysplasia caused by pathogenic variants in XYLT1. We report clinical and molecular investigation of 10 families (12 individuals) with BSS. Standard sequencing methods identified biallelic pathogenic variants in XYLT1 in only two families. Of the remaining cohort, two probands had no variants and six probands had only a single variant, including four with a heterozygous 3.1 Mb 16p13 deletion encompassing XYLT1 and two with a heterozygous truncating variant. Bisulfite sequencing revealed aberrant hypermethylation in exon 1 of XYLT1, always in trans with the sequence variant or deletion when present; both alleles were methylated in those with no identified variant. Expression of the methylated XYLT1 allele was severely reduced in fibroblasts from two probands. Southern blot studies combined with repeat expansion analysis of genome sequence data showed that the hypermethylation is associated with expansion of a GGC repeat in the XYLT1 promoter region that is not present in the reference genome, confirming that BSS is a trinucleotide repeat expansion disorder. The hypermethylated allele accounts for 50% of disease alleles in our cohort and is not present in 130 control subjects. Our study highlights the importance of investigating non-sequence-based alterations, including epigenetic changes, to identify the missing heritability in genetic disorders.

14.
J Hum Genet ; 2018 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30498240

RESUMO

Sinoatrial node dysfunction and deafness (SANDD) syndrome is rare and characterized by a low heart beat and severe-to-profound deafness. Additional features include fatigue, dizziness, and episodic syncope. The sinoatrial node (SAN) drives heart automaticity and continuously regulates heart rate. The CACNA1D gene encoding the Cav1.3 protein expressed in inner hair cells, atria and SAN, induces loss-of-function in channel activity and underlies SANDD. To date, only one variant c.1208_1209insGGG:p.(G403_V404insG) has been reported for SANDD syndrome. We studied five Pakistani families with SANDD and characterized a new missense variant p.(A376V) in CACNA1D in one family, and further characterized the founder variant p.(G403_V404insG) in four additional pedigrees. We show that affected individuals in the four families which segregate p.(G403_V404insG) share a 1.03 MB haplotype on 3p21.1 suggesting they share a common distant ancestor. In conclusion, we identified new and known variants in CACNA1D in five Pakistani families with SANDD. This study is of clinical importance as the CACNA1D founder variant is only observed in families from the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK) province, in Pakistan. Therefore, screening patients with congenital deafness for SAN dysfunction in this province could ensure adequate follow-up and prevent cardiac failure associated with SAN.

15.
Genet Med ; 2018 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30504930

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To maximize the discovery of potentially pathogenic variants to better understand the diagnostic utility of genome sequencing (GS) and to assess how the presence of multiple risk events might affect the phenotypic severity in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). METHODS: GS was applied to 180 simplex and multiplex ASD families (578 individuals, 213 patients) with exome sequencing and array comparative genomic hybridization further applied to a subset for validation and cross-platform comparisons. RESULTS: We found that 40.8% of patients carried variants with evidence of disease risk, including a de novo frameshift variant in NR4A2 and two de novo missense variants in SYNCRIP, while 21.1% carried clinically relevant pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants. Patients with more than one risk variant (9.9%) were more severely affected with respect to cognitive ability compared with patients with a single or no-risk variant. We observed no instance among the 27 multiplex families where a pathogenic or likely pathogenic variant was transmitted to all affected members in the family. CONCLUSION: The study demonstrates the diagnostic utility of GS, especially for multiple risk variants that contribute to the phenotypic severity, shows the genetic heterogeneity in multiplex families, and provides evidence for new genes for follow up.

16.
Am J Hum Genet ; 103(5): 679-690, 2018 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30401457

RESUMO

Non-secretor status due to homozygosity for the common FUT2 variant c.461G>A (p.Trp154∗) is associated with either risk for autoimmune diseases or protection against viral diarrhea and HIV. We determined the role of FUT2 in otitis media susceptibility by obtaining DNA samples from 609 multi-ethnic families and simplex case subjects with otitis media. Exome and Sanger sequencing, linkage analysis, and Fisher exact and transmission disequilibrium tests (TDT) were performed. The common FUT2 c.604C>T (p.Arg202∗) variant co-segregates with otitis media in a Filipino pedigree (LOD = 4.0). Additionally, a rare variant, c.412C>T (p.Arg138Cys), is associated with recurrent/chronic otitis media in European-American children (p = 1.2 × 10-5) and US trios (TDT p = 0.01). The c.461G>A (p.Trp154∗) variant was also over-transmitted in US trios (TDT p = 0.01) and was associated with shifts in middle ear microbiota composition (PERMANOVA p < 10-7) and increased biodiversity. When all missense and nonsense variants identified in multi-ethnic US trios with CADD > 20 were combined, FUT2 variants were over-transmitted in trios (TDT p = 0.001). Fut2 is transiently upregulated in mouse middle ear after inoculation with non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae. Four FUT2 variants-namely p.Ala104Val, p.Arg138Cys, p.Trp154∗, and p.Arg202∗-reduced A antigen in mutant-transfected COS-7 cells, while the nonsense variants also reduced FUT2 protein levels. Common and rare FUT2 variants confer susceptibility to otitis media, likely by modifying the middle ear microbiome through regulation of A antigen levels in epithelial cells. Our families demonstrate marked intra-familial genetic heterogeneity, suggesting that multiple combinations of common and rare variants plus environmental factors influence the individual otitis media phenotype as a complex trait.

17.
Am J Hum Genet ; 2018 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30414627

RESUMO

Wiedemann-Rautenstrauch syndrome (WRS), also known as neonatal progeroid syndrome, is a rare disorder of unknown etiology. It has been proposed to be autosomal-recessive and is characterized by variable clinical features, such as intrauterine growth restriction and poor postnatal weight gain, characteristic facial features (triangular appearance to the face, convex nasal profile or pinched nose, and small mouth), widened fontanelles, pseudohydrocephalus, prominent scalp veins, lipodystrophy, and teeth abnormalities. A previous report described a single WRS patient with bi-allelic truncating and splicing variants in POLR3A. Here we present seven additional infants, children, and adults with WRS and bi-allelic truncating and/or splicing variants in POLR3A. POLR3A, the largest subunit of RNA polymerase III, is a DNA-directed RNA polymerase that transcribes many small noncoding RNAs that regulate transcription, RNA processing, and translation. Bi-allelic missense variants in POLR3A have been associated with phenotypes distinct from WRS: hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and hypomyelinating leukodystrophy with or without oligodontia. Our findings confirm the association of bi-allelic POLR3A variants with WRS, expand the clinical phenotype of WRS, and suggest specific POLR3A genotypes associated with WRS and hypomyelinating leukodystrophy.

18.
Hum Genet ; 137(11-12): 921-939, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30450527

RESUMO

Juvenile segmental progeroid syndromes are rare, heterogeneous disorders characterized by signs of premature aging affecting more than one tissue or organ starting in childhood. Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS), caused by a recurrent de novo synonymous LMNA mutation resulting in aberrant splicing and generation of a mutant product called progerin, is a prototypical example of such disorders. Here, we performed a joint collaborative study using massively parallel sequencing and targeted Sanger sequencing, aimed at delineating the underlying genetic cause of 14 previously undiagnosed, clinically heterogeneous, non-LMNA-associated juvenile progeroid patients. The molecular diagnosis was achieved in 11 of 14 cases (~ 79%). Furthermore, we firmly establish biallelic mutations in POLR3A as the genetic cause of a recognizable, neonatal, Wiedemann-Rautenstrauch-like progeroid syndrome. Thus, we suggest that POLR3A mutations are causal for a portion of under-diagnosed early-onset segmental progeroid syndromes. We additionally expand the clinical spectrum associated with PYCR1 mutations by showing that they can somewhat resemble HGPS in the first year of life. Moreover, our results lead to clinical reclassification in one single case. Our data emphasize the complex genetic and clinical heterogeneity underlying progeroid disorders.

19.
Am J Med Genet A ; 2018 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30450842

RESUMO

Stickler syndrome is a connective tissue disorder characterized by hearing loss, ocular anomalies, palatal defects, and skeletal abnormalities. The autosomal dominant form is the most common, but autosomal recessive forms have also been described. We report the second case of autosomal recessive Stickler syndrome due to homozygosity for a loss of function mutation in COL9A3, which encodes the α3 chain of type IX procollagen. The clinical features were similar to the previously described COL9A3 Stickler syndrome family, including moderate to severe sensorineural hearing loss, high myopia, and both tibial and femoral bowing at birth. Radiographs demonstrated abnormal capital femoral epiphyses and mild irregularities of the vertebral endplates. This case further establishes the phenotype associated with mutations in this gene. We suggest that loss of the α3 chain of type IX collagen results in a Stickler syndrome phenotype similar to that of the other autosomal recessive forms caused by mutations in genes encoding the α1 and α2 chains of type IX collagen.

20.
J Bone Miner Res ; 2018 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30395363

RESUMO

Polydactyly is a common congenital anomaly of the hand and foot. Postaxial polydactyly (PAP) is characterized by one or more posterior or postaxial digits. In a Pakistani family with autosomal recessive nonsyndromic postaxial polydactyly type A (PAPA), we performed genomewide genotyping, linkage analysis, and exome and Sanger sequencing. Exome sequencing revealed a homozygous nonsense variant (c.478C>T, p.[Arg160*]) in the FAM92A gene within the mapped region on 8q21.13-q24.12 that segregated with the PAPA phenotype. We found that FAM92A is expressed in the developing mouse limb and E11.5 limb bud including the progress zone and the apical ectodermal ridge, where it strongly localizes at the cilia level, suggesting an important role in limb patterning. The identified variant leads to a loss of the FAM92A/Chibby1 complex that is crucial for ciliogenesis and impairs the recruitment and the colocalization of FAM92A with Chibby1 at the base of the cilia. In addition, we show that Fam92a-/- homozygous mice also exhibit an abnormal digit morphology, including metatarsal osteomas and polysyndactyly, in addition to distinct abnormalities on the deltoid tuberosity of their humeri. In conclusion, we present a new nonsyndromic PAPA ciliopathy due to a loss-of-function variant in FAM92A. © 2018 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

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