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2.
J Cyst Fibros ; 2021 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34393091

RESUMO

Chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Pa) infection is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in people with cystic fibrosis (CF). There is no gold standard definition of chronic Pa infection in CF. We compared chronic Pa definitions using encounter-based versus annualized data in the Early Pseudomonas Infection Control (EPIC) Observational study cohort, and subsequently compared annualized chronic Pa definitions across a range of U.S. cohorts spanning decades of CF care. We found that an annualized chronic Pa definition requiring at least 1 Pa+ culture in 3 of 4 consecutive years ("Green 3/4") resulted in chronic Pa metrics similar to established encounter-based modified Leeds criteria definitions, including a similar age at and proportion who fulfilled chronic Pa criteria, and a similar proportion with sustained Pa infection after meeting the chronic Pa definition. The Green 3/4 chronic Pa definition will be valuable for longitudinal analyses in cohorts with limited culture frequency.

3.
J Mol Med (Berl) ; 2021 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34322716

RESUMO

Otitis media (OM) is common in young children and can cause hearing loss and speech, language, and developmental delays. OM has high heritability; however, little is known about OM-related molecular and genetic processes. CDHR3 was previously identified as a locus for OM susceptibility, but to date, studies have focused on how the CDHR3 p.Cys529Tyr variant increases epithelial binding of rhinovirus-C and risk for lung or sinus pathology. In order to further delineate a role for CDHR3 in OM, we performed the following: exome sequencing using DNA samples from OM-affected individuals from 257 multi-ethnic families; Sanger sequencing, logistic regression and transmission disequilibrium tests for 407 US trios or probands with OM; 16S rRNA sequencing and analysis for middle ear and nasopharyngeal samples; and single-cell RNA sequencing and differential expression analyses for mouse middle ear. From exome sequence data, we identified a novel pathogenic CDHR3 splice variant that co-segregates with OM in US and Finnish families. Additionally, a frameshift and six missense rare or low-frequency variants were identified in Finnish probands. In US probands, the CDHR3 p.Cys529Tyr variant was associated with the absence of middle ear fluid at surgery and also with increased relative abundance of Lysobacter in the nasopharynx and Streptomyces in the middle ear. Consistent with published data on airway epithelial cells and our RNA-sequence data from human middle ear tissues, Cdhr3 expression is restricted to ciliated epithelial cells of the middle ear and is downregulated after acute OM. Overall, these findings suggest a critical role for CDHR3 in OM susceptibility. KEY MESSAGES: • Novel rare or low-frequency CDHR3 variants putatively confer risk for otitis media. • Pathogenic variant CDHR3 c.1653 + 3G > A was found in nine families with otitis media. • CDHR3 p.Cys529Tyr was associated with lack of effusion and bacterial otopathogens. • Cdhr3 expression was limited to ciliated epithelial cells in mouse middle ear. • Cdhr3 was downregulated 3 h after infection of mouse middle ear.

4.
Am J Hum Genet ; 108(8): 1436-1449, 2021 08 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34216551

RESUMO

Despite widespread clinical genetic testing, many individuals with suspected genetic conditions lack a precise diagnosis, limiting their opportunity to take advantage of state-of-the-art treatments. In some cases, testing reveals difficult-to-evaluate structural differences, candidate variants that do not fully explain the phenotype, single pathogenic variants in recessive disorders, or no variants in genes of interest. Thus, there is a need for better tools to identify a precise genetic diagnosis in individuals when conventional testing approaches have been exhausted. We performed targeted long-read sequencing (T-LRS) using adaptive sampling on the Oxford Nanopore platform on 40 individuals, 10 of whom lacked a complete molecular diagnosis. We computationally targeted up to 151 Mbp of sequence per individual and searched for pathogenic substitutions, structural variants, and methylation differences using a single data source. We detected all genomic aberrations-including single-nucleotide variants, copy number changes, repeat expansions, and methylation differences-identified by prior clinical testing. In 8/8 individuals with complex structural rearrangements, T-LRS enabled more precise resolution of the mutation, leading to changes in clinical management in one case. In ten individuals with suspected Mendelian conditions lacking a precise genetic diagnosis, T-LRS identified pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants in six and variants of uncertain significance in two others. T-LRS accurately identifies pathogenic structural variants, resolves complex rearrangements, and identifies Mendelian variants not detected by other technologies. T-LRS represents an efficient and cost-effective strategy to evaluate high-priority genes and regions or complex clinical testing results.


Assuntos
Aberrações Cromossômicas , Análise Citogenética/métodos , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/diagnóstico , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genoma Humano , Mutação , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Feminino , Testes Genéticos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Cariotipagem , Masculino , Análise de Sequência de DNA
5.
JAMA Neurol ; 78(8): 993-1003, 2021 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34125151

RESUMO

Importance: Moyamoya disease (MMD), a progressive vasculopathy leading to narrowing and ultimate occlusion of the intracranial internal carotid arteries, is a cause of childhood stroke. The cause of MMD is poorly understood, but genetic factors play a role. Several familial forms of MMD have been identified, but the cause of most cases remains elusive, especially among non-East Asian individuals. Objective: To assess whether ultrarare de novo and rare, damaging transmitted variants with large effect sizes are associated with MMD risk. Design, Setting, and Participants: A genetic association study was conducted using whole-exome sequencing case-parent MMD trios in a small discovery cohort collected over 3.5 years (2016-2019); data were analyzed in 2020. Medical records from US hospitals spanning a range of 1 month to 1.5 years were reviewed for phenotyping. Exomes from a larger validation cohort were analyzed to identify additional rare, large-effect variants in the top candidate gene. Participants included patients with MMD and, when available, their parents. All participants who met criteria and were presented with the option to join the study agreed to do so; none were excluded. Twenty-four probands (22 trios and 2 singletons) composed the discovery cohort, and 84 probands (29 trios and 55 singletons) composed the validation cohort. Main Outcomes and Measures: Gene variants were identified and filtered using stringent criteria. Enrichment and case-control tests assessed gene-level variant burden. In silico modeling estimated the probability of variant association with protein structure. Integrative genomics assessed expression patterns of MMD risk genes derived from single-cell RNA sequencing data of human and mouse brain tissue. Results: Of the 24 patients in the discovery cohort, 14 (58.3%) were men and 18 (75.0%) were of European ancestry. Three of 24 discovery cohort probands contained 2 do novo (1-tailed Poisson P = 1.1 × 10-6) and 1 rare, transmitted damaging variant (12.5% of cases) in DIAPH1 (mammalian diaphanous-1), a key regulator of actin remodeling in vascular cells and platelets. Four additional ultrarare damaging heterozygous DIAPH1 variants (3 unphased) were identified in 3 other patients in an 84-proband validation cohort (73.8% female, 77.4% European). All 6 patients were non-East Asian. Compound heterozygous variants were identified in ena/vasodilator-stimulated phosphoproteinlike protein EVL, a mammalian diaphanous-1 interactor that regulates actin polymerization. DIAPH1 and EVL mutant probands had severe, bilateral MMD associated with transfusion-dependent thrombocytopenia. DIAPH1 and other MMD risk genes are enriched in mural cells of midgestational human brain. The DIAPH1 coexpression network converges in vascular cell actin cytoskeleton regulatory pathways. Conclusions and Relevance: These findings provide the largest collection to date of non-East Asian individuals with sporadic MMD harboring pathogenic variants in the same gene. The results suggest that DIAPH1 is a novel MMD risk gene and impaired vascular cell actin remodeling in MMD pathogenesis, with diagnostic and therapeutic ramifications.

6.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 2021 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34135477

RESUMO

Hearing impairment (HI) is a common disorder of sensorineural function with a highly heterogeneous genetic background. Although substantial progress has been made in the understanding of the genetic etiology of hereditary HI, many genes implicated in HI remain undiscovered. Via exome and Sanger sequencing of DNA samples obtained from consanguineous Pakistani families that segregate profound prelingual sensorineural HI, we identified rare homozygous missense variants in four genes (ADAMTS1, MPDZ, MVD, and SEZ6) that are likely the underlying cause of HI. Linkage analysis provided statistical evidence that these variants are associated with autosomal recessive nonsyndromic HI. In silico analysis of the mutant proteins encoded by these genes predicted structural, conformational or interaction changes. RNAseq data analysis revealed expression of these genes in the sensory epithelium of the mouse inner ear during embryonic, postnatal, and adult stages. Immunohistochemistry of the mouse cochlear tissue, further confirmed the expression of ADAMTS1, SEZ6, and MPDZ in the neurosensory hair cells of the organ of Corti, while MVD expression was more prominent in the spiral ganglion cells. Overall, supported by in silico mutant protein analysis, animal models, linkage analysis, and spatiotemporal expression profiling in the mouse inner ear, we propose four new candidate genes for HI and expand our understanding of the etiology of HI.

8.
Am J Hum Genet ; 108(6): 1040-1052, 2021 06 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33964207

RESUMO

SLC37A4 encodes an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-localized multitransmembrane protein required for transporting glucose-6-phosphate (Glc-6P) into the ER. Once transported into the ER, Glc-6P is subsequently hydrolyzed by tissue-specific phosphatases to glucose and inorganic phosphate during times of glucose depletion. Pathogenic variants in SLC37A4 cause an established recessive disorder known as glycogen storage disorder 1b characterized by liver and kidney dysfunction with neutropenia. We report seven individuals who presented with liver dysfunction multifactorial coagulation deficiency and cardiac issues and were heterozygous for the same variant, c.1267C>T (p.Arg423∗), in SLC37A4; the affected individuals were from four unrelated families. Serum samples from affected individuals showed profound accumulation of both high mannose and hybrid type N-glycans, while N-glycans in fibroblasts and undifferentiated iPSC were normal. Due to the liver-specific nature of this disorder, we generated a CRISPR base-edited hepatoma cell line harboring the c.1267C>T (p.Arg423∗) variant. These cells replicated the secreted abnormalities seen in serum N-glycosylation, and a portion of the mutant protein appears to relocate to a distinct, non-Golgi compartment, possibly ER exit sites. These cells also show a gene dosage-dependent alteration in the Golgi morphology and reduced intraluminal pH that may account for the altered glycosylation. In summary, we identify a recurrent mutation in SLC37A4 that causes a dominantly inherited congenital disorder of glycosylation characterized by coagulopathy and liver dysfunction with abnormal serum N-glycans.


Assuntos
Antiporters/genética , Defeitos Congênitos da Glicosilação/etiologia , Retículo Endoplasmático/patologia , Hepatopatias/complicações , Proteínas de Transporte de Monossacarídeos/genética , Mutação , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Defeitos Congênitos da Glicosilação/patologia , Retículo Endoplasmático/genética , Retículo Endoplasmático/metabolismo , Feminino , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/patologia , Genes Dominantes , Glicosilação , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Linhagem
9.
Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol ; 65(2): 157-166, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33848452

RESUMO

Cystic fibrosis (CF) is characterized by chronic airway infection, inflammation, and tissue damage that lead to progressive respiratory failure. NLRP3 and NLRC4 are cytoplasmic pattern recognition receptors that activate the inflammasome, initiating a caspase-1-mediated response. We hypothesized that gain-of-function inflammasome responses are associated with worse outcomes in children with CF. We genotyped nonsynonymous variants in NLRP3 and the NLRC4 pathway from individuals in the EPIC (Early Pseudomonas Infection Control) Observational Study cohort and tested for association with CF outcomes. We generated knockouts of NLRP3 and NLRC4 in human macrophage-like cells and rescued knockouts with wild-type or variant forms of NLRP3 and NLRC4. We identified a SNP in NLRP3, p.(Q705K), that was associated with a higher rate of P. aeruginosa colonization (N = 609; P = 0.01; hazard ratio, 2.3 [Cox model]) and worsened lung function over time as measured by forced expiratory volume in 1 second (N = 445; P = 0.001 [generalized estimating equation]). We identified a SNP in NLRC4, p.(A929S), that was associated with a lower rate of P. aeruginosa colonization as part of a composite of rare variants (N = 405; P = 0.045; hazard ratio, 0.68 [Cox model]) and that was individually associated with protection from lung function decline (P < 0.001 [generalized estimating equation]). Rescue of the NLRP3 knockout with the p.(Q705K) variant produced significantly more IL-1ß in response to NLRP3 stimulation than rescue with the wild type (P = 0.020 [Student's t test]). We identified a subset of children with CF at higher risk of early lung disease progression. Knowledge of these genetic modifiers could guide therapies targeting inflammasome pathways.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Sinalização CARD/genética , Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/genética , Fibrose Cística , Inflamassomos/genética , Macrófagos/microbiologia , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Infecções por Pseudomonas/genética , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Fibrose Cística/genética , Fibrose Cística/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamassomos/metabolismo , Masculino , Células THP-1 , Células U937
10.
J Hum Genet ; 66(10): 1009-1018, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33879837

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Wolfram syndrome (WFS) is characterized by deafness, diabetes mellitus, and diabetes insipidus along with optic atrophy. WFS has an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance and is due to variants in WFS1 and CISD2. METHODS: We evaluated the underlying molecular etiology of three affected members of a consanguineous family with hearing impairment, bicuspid aortic valve, diabetes mellitus and insipidus, clinodactyly, and gastrointestinal tract abnormalities via exome sequencing approach. We correlated clinical and imaging data with the genetic findings and their associated phenotypes. RESULTS: We identified a homozygous missense variant p.(Asn1097Lys) in CDK13, a gene previously associated with autosomal dominant congenital heart defects, dysmorphic facial features, clinodactyly, gastrointestinal tract abnormalities, intellectual developmental disorder, and seizures with variable phenotypic features. CONCLUSION: We report a homozygous variant in CDK13 and suggest that this gene causes an autosomal recessive disorder with hearing impairment, bicuspid aortic valve, diabetes mellitus and insipidus, clinodactyly, and gastrointestinal tract abnormalities.

11.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2282, 2021 04 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33863876

RESUMO

Acheiropodia, congenital limb truncation, is associated with homozygous deletions in the LMBR1 gene around ZRS, an enhancer regulating SHH during limb development. How these deletions lead to this phenotype is unknown. Using whole-genome sequencing, we fine-mapped the acheiropodia-associated region to 12 kb and show that it does not function as an enhancer. CTCF and RAD21 ChIP-seq together with 4C-seq and DNA FISH identify three CTCF sites within the acheiropodia-deleted region that mediate the interaction between the ZRS and the SHH promoter. This interaction is substituted with other CTCF sites centromeric to the ZRS in the disease state. Mouse knockouts of the orthologous 12 kb sequence have no apparent abnormalities, showcasing the challenges in modelling CTCF alterations in animal models due to inherent motif differences between species. Our results show that alterations in CTCF motifs can lead to a Mendelian condition due to altered enhancer-promoter interactions.


Assuntos
Fator de Ligação a CCCTC/genética , Extremidades/embriologia , Deformidades Congênitas do Pé/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Deformidades Congênitas da Mão/genética , Animais , Sítios de Ligação/genética , Sequenciamento de Cromatina por Imunoprecipitação , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Embrião de Mamíferos , Elementos Facilitadores Genéticos/genética , Éxons/genética , Feminino , Loci Gênicos , Testes Genéticos , Proteínas Hedgehog/genética , Humanos , Íntrons/genética , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Deleção de Sequência , Especificidade da Espécie , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
12.
J Exp Med ; 218(5)2021 05 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33724365

RESUMO

SAMD9L is an interferon-induced tumor suppressor implicated in a spectrum of multisystem disorders, including risk for myeloid malignancies and immune deficiency. We identified a heterozygous de novo frameshift variant in SAMD9L in an infant with B cell aplasia and clinical autoinflammatory features who died from respiratory failure with chronic rhinovirus infection. Autopsy demonstrated absent bone marrow and peripheral B cells as well as selective loss of Langerhans and Purkinje cells. The frameshift variant led to expression of a truncated protein with interferon treatment. This protein exhibited a gain-of-function phenotype, resulting in interference in global protein synthesis via inhibition of translational elongation. Using a mutational scan, we identified a region within SAMD9L where stop-gain variants trigger a similar translational arrest. SAMD9L variants that globally suppress translation had no effect or increased mRNA transcription. The complex-reported phenotype likely reflects lineage-dominant sensitivities to this translation block. Taken together, our findings indicate that interferon-triggered SAMD9L gain-of-function variants globally suppress translation.


Assuntos
Mutação da Fase de Leitura , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Biossíntese de Proteínas/genética , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética , Células A549 , Linfócitos B/metabolismo , Linfócitos B/patologia , Evolução Fatal , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Células HEK293 , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Interferons/farmacologia , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/genética , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/metabolismo , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/metabolismo , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
13.
J Inherit Metab Dis ; 44(4): 987-1000, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33583022

RESUMO

Congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDGs) are a continuously expanding group of monogenic disorders of glycoprotein and glycolipid biosynthesis that cause multisystem diseases. Individuals with ALG3-CDG frequently exhibit severe neurological involvement (epilepsy, microcephaly, and hypotonia), ocular anomalies, dysmorphic features, skeletal anomalies, and feeding difficulties. We present 10 unreported individuals diagnosed with ALG3-CDG based on molecular and biochemical testing with 11 novel variants in ALG3, bringing the total to 40 reported individuals. In addition to the typical multisystem disease seen in ALG3-CDG, we expand the symptomatology of ALG3-CDG to now include endocrine abnormalities, neural tube defects, mild aortic root dilatation, immunodeficiency, and renal anomalies. N-glycan analyses of these individuals showed combined deficiencies of hybrid glycans and glycan extension beyond Man5 GlcNAc2 consistent with their truncated lipid-linked precursor oligosaccharides. This spectrum of N-glycan changes is unique to ALG3-CDG. These expanded features of ALG3-CDG facilitate diagnosis and suggest that optimal management should include baseline endocrine, renal, cardiac, and immunological evaluation at the time of diagnosis and with ongoing monitoring.

14.
Neurology ; 96(13): e1783-e1791, 2021 03 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33568546

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that de novo genetic variants are responsible for moyamoya disease (MMD) in children with unaffected relatives, we performed exome sequencing of 28 affected children and their unaffected parents. METHODS: Exome sequencing was performed on 28 trios of affected patients with MMD and unaffected parents. RESULTS: We identified 3 novel rare de novo RNF213 variants, 1 in the RING domain and 2 in a highly conserved region distal to the RING domain (4,114-4,120). These de novo cases of MMD present at a young age with aggressive MMD and uniquely have additional occlusive vascular lesions, including renal artery stenosis. Two previously reported cases had de novo variants in the same limited region and presented young with aggressive MMD, and 1 case had narrowing of the inferior abdominal aorta. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate a novel syndrome associated with RNF213 rare variants defined by de novo mutations disrupting highly conserved amino acids in the RING domain and a discrete region distal to the RING domain delimited by amino acids 4,114 to 4,120 leading to onset of severe MMD before 3 years of age and occlusion of other arteries, including the abdominal aorta, renal, iliac, and femoral arteries.


Assuntos
Adenosina Trifosfatases/genética , Doença de Moyamoya/genética , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/genética , Adulto , Idade de Início , Doenças da Aorta/genética , Doenças da Aorta/fisiopatologia , Arteriopatias Oclusivas/genética , Arteriopatias Oclusivas/fisiopatologia , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Artéria Femoral , Humanos , Artéria Ilíaca , Masculino , Doença de Moyamoya/fisiopatologia , Mutação , Obstrução da Artéria Renal/genética , Obstrução da Artéria Renal/fisiopatologia
15.
Am J Hum Genet ; 108(1): 8-15, 2021 01 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33417889

RESUMO

The delineation of disease entities is complex, yet recent advances in the molecular characterization of diseases provide opportunities to designate diseases in a biologically valid manner. Here, we have formalized an approach to the delineation of Mendelian genetic disorders that encompasses two distinct but inter-related concepts: (1) the gene that is mutated and (2) the phenotypic descriptor, preferably a recognizably distinct phenotype. We assert that only by a combinatorial or dyadic approach taking both of these attributes into account can a unitary, distinct genetic disorder be designated. We propose that all Mendelian disorders should be designated as "GENE-related phenotype descriptor" (e.g., "CFTR-related cystic fibrosis"). This approach to delineating and naming disorders reconciles the complexity of gene-to-phenotype relationships in a simple and clear manner yet communicates the complexity and nuance of these relationships.


Assuntos
Doenças Genéticas Inatas/diagnóstico , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/genética , Genômica/métodos , Fibrose Cística/diagnóstico , Fibrose Cística/genética , Regulador de Condutância Transmembrana em Fibrose Cística/genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Mutação/genética , Fenótipo
16.
Parkinsonism Relat Disord ; 82: 109-116, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33279834

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Essential tremor (ET) is one of the most common movement disorders. Despite its high prevalence and heritability, its genetic etiology remains elusive with only a few susceptibility genes identified and poorly replicated. Our aim was to find novel candidate genes involved in ET predisposition through whole exome sequencing. METHODS: We studied eight multigenerational families (N = 40 individuals) with an autosomal-dominant inheritance using a comprehensive strategy combining whole exome sequencing followed by case-control association testing of prioritized variants in a separate cohort comprising 521 ET cases and 596 controls. We further performed gene-based burden analyses in an additional dataset comprising 789 ET patients and 770 healthy individuals to investigate whether there was an enrichment of rare deleterious variants within our candidate genes. RESULTS: Fifteen variants co-segregated with disease status in at least one of the families, among which rs749875462 in CCDC183, rs535864157 in MMP10 and rs114285050 in GPR151 showed a nominal association with ET. However, we found no significant enrichment of rare variants within these genes in cases compared with controls. Interestingly, MMP10 protein is involved in the inflammatory response to neuronal damage and has been previously associated with other neurological disorders. CONCLUSIONS: We prioritized a set of promising genes, especially MMP10, for further genetic and functional studies in ET. Our study suggests that rare deleterious coding variants that markedly increase susceptibility to ET are likely to be found in many genes. Future studies are needed to replicate and further infer biological mechanisms and potential disease causality for our identified genes.

18.
Am J Hum Genet ; 107(6): 1029-1043, 2020 12 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33202260

RESUMO

Genetic testing has increased the number of variants identified in disease genes, but the diagnostic utility is limited by lack of understanding variant function. CARD11 encodes an adaptor protein that expresses dominant-negative and gain-of-function variants associated with distinct immunodeficiencies. Here, we used a "cloning-free" saturation genome editing approach in a diploid cell line to simultaneously score 2,542 variants for decreased or increased function in the region of CARD11 associated with immunodeficiency. We also described an exon-skipping mechanism for CARD11 dominant-negative activity. The classification of reported clinical variants was sensitive (94.6%) and specific (88.9%), which rendered the data immediately useful for interpretation of seven coding and splicing variants implicated in immunodeficiency found in our clinic. This approach is generalizable for variant interpretation in many other clinically actionable genes, in any relevant cell type.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Sinalização CARD/genética , Variação Genética , Guanilato Ciclase/genética , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/genética , Adenina/análogos & derivados , Adenina/farmacologia , Proteína 10 de Linfoma CCL de Células B/genética , Linfócitos B/citologia , Linhagem Celular , Diploide , Éxons , Genes Dominantes , Humanos , Células Jurkat , Linfoma/genética , Subunidade p50 de NF-kappa B/genética , Piperidinas/farmacologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Doenças da Imunodeficiência Primária/genética , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
19.
EMBO Mol Med ; 12(11): e11739, 2020 11 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33200460

RESUMO

Mutations in genes affecting primary cilia cause ciliopathies, a diverse group of disorders often affecting skeletal development. This includes Jeune syndrome or asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy (ATD), an autosomal recessive skeletal disorder. Unraveling the responsible molecular pathology helps illuminate mechanisms responsible for functional primary cilia. We identified two families with ATD caused by loss-of-function mutations in the gene encoding adrenergic receptor kinase 1 (ADRBK1 or GRK2). GRK2 cells from an affected individual homozygous for the p.R158* mutation resulted in loss of GRK2, and disrupted chondrocyte growth and differentiation in the cartilage growth plate. GRK2 null cells displayed normal cilia morphology, yet loss of GRK2 compromised cilia-based signaling of Hedgehog (Hh) pathway. Canonical Wnt signaling was also impaired, manifested as a failure to respond to Wnt ligand due to impaired phosphorylation of the Wnt co-receptor LRP6. We have identified GRK2 as an essential regulator of skeletogenesis and demonstrate how both Hh and Wnt signaling mechanistically contribute to skeletal ciliopathies.

20.
Pediatr Rheumatol Online J ; 18(1): 80, 2020 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33066778

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Heme oxygenase-1 (HMOX1) catalyzes the metabolism of heme into carbon monoxide, ferrous iron, and biliverdin. Through biliverdin reductase, biliverdin becomes bilirubin. HMOX1-deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive disorder with hallmark features of direct antibody negative hemolytic anemia with normal bilirubin, hyperinflammation and features similar to macrophage activation syndrome. Clinical findings have included asplenia, nephritis, hepatitis, and vasculitis. Pulmonary features and evaluation of the immune response have been limited. CASE PRESENTATION: We present a young boy who presented with chronic respiratory failure due to nonspecific interstitial pneumonia following a chronic history of infection-triggered recurrent hyperinflammatory flares. Episodes included hemolysis without hyperbilirubinemia, immunodeficiency, hepatomegaly with mild transaminitis, asplenia, leukocytosis, thrombocytosis, joint pain and features of macrophage activation with negative autoimmune serologies. Lung biopsy revealed cholesterol granulomas. He was found post-mortem by whole exome sequencing to have a compound heterozygous paternal frame shift a paternal frame shift HMOX1 c.264_269delCTGG (p.L89Sfs*24) and maternal splice donor HMOX1 (c.636 + 2 T > A) consistent with HMOX1 deficiency. Western blot analysis confirmed lack of HMOX1 protein upon oxidant stimulation of the patient cells. CONCLUSIONS: Here, we describe a phenotype expansion for HMOX1-deficiency to include not only asplenia and hepatomegaly, but also interstitial lung disease with cholesterol granulomas and inflammatory flares with hemophagocytosis present in the bone marrow.

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