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Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol ; 8(9): 773-781, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32711725


BACKGROUND: Cross-sectional imaging regularly results in incidental discovery of adrenal tumours, requiring exclusion of adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC). However, differentiation is hampered by poor specificity of imaging characteristics. We aimed to validate a urine steroid metabolomics approach, using steroid profiling as the diagnostic basis for ACC. METHODS: We did a prospective multicentre study in adult participants (age ≥18 years) with newly diagnosed adrenal masses. We assessed the accuracy of diagnostic imaging strategies based on maximum tumour diameter (≥4 cm vs <4 cm), imaging characteristics (positive vs negative), and urine steroid metabolomics (low, medium, or high risk of ACC), separately and in combination, using a reference standard of histopathology and follow-up investigations. With respect to imaging characteristics, we also assessed the diagnostic utility of increasing the unenhanced CT tumour attenuation threshold from the recommended 10 Hounsfield units (HU) to 20 HU. FINDINGS: Of 2169 participants recruited between Jan 17, 2011, and July 15, 2016, we included 2017 from 14 specialist centres in 11 countries in the final analysis. 98 (4·9%) had histopathologically or clinically and biochemically confirmed ACC. Tumours with diameters of 4 cm or larger were identified in 488 participants (24·2%), including 96 of the 98 with ACC (positive predictive value [PPV] 19·7%, 95% CI 16·2-23·5). For imaging characteristics, increasing the unenhanced CT tumour attenuation threshold to 20 HU from the recommended 10 HU increased specificity for ACC (80·0% [95% CI 77·9-82·0] vs 64·0% [61·4-66.4]) while maintaining sensitivity (99·0% [94·4-100·0] vs 100·0% [96·3-100·0]; PPV 19·7%, 16·3-23·5). A urine steroid metabolomics result indicating high risk of ACC had a PPV of 34·6% (95% CI 28·6-41·0). When the three tests were combined, in the order of tumour diameter, positive imaging characteristics, and urine steroid metabolomics, 106 (5·3%) participants had the result maximum tumour diameter of 4 cm or larger, positive imaging characteristics (with the 20 HU cutoff), and urine steroid metabolomics indicating high risk of ACC, for which the PPV was 76·4% (95% CI 67·2-84·1). 70 (3·5%) were classified as being at moderate risk of ACC and 1841 (91·3%) at low risk (negative predictive value 99·7%, 99·4-100·0). INTERPRETATION: An unenhanced CT tumour attenuation cutoff of 20 HU should replace that of 10 HU for exclusion of ACC. A triple test strategy of tumour diameter, imaging characteristics, and urine steroid metabolomics improves detection of ACC, which could shorten time to surgery for patients with ACC and help to avoid unnecessary surgery in patients with benign tumours. FUNDING: European Commission, UK Medical Research Council, Wellcome Trust, and UK National Institute for Health Research, US National Institutes of Health, the Claire Khan Trust Fund at University Hospitals Birmingham Charities, and the Mayo Clinic Foundation for Medical Education and Research.

Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais/urina , Metabolômica/métodos , Esteroides/urina , Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Achados Incidentais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos
Clin Chem ; 63(12): 1824-1835, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28814383


BACKGROUND: Steroid profiling is a promising diagnostic tool with adrenal tumors, Cushing syndrome (CS), and disorders of steroidogenesis. Our objective was to develop a multiple-steroid assay using liquid-chromatography, high-resolution, accurate-mass mass spectrometry (HRAM LC-MS) and to validate the assay in patients with various adrenal disorders. METHODS: We collected 24-h urine samples from 114 controls and 71 patients with adrenal diseases. An HRAM LC-MS method was validated for quantitative analysis of 26 steroid metabolites in hydrolyzed urine samples. Differences in steroid excretion between patients were analyzed based on Z-score deviation from control reference intervals. RESULTS: Limits of quantification were 20 ng/mL. Dilution linearity ranged from 80% to 120% with means of 93% to 110% for all but 2 analytes. Intraassay and interassay imprecision ranged from 3% to 18% for all but 1 analyte. Control women had lower excretion of androgen and glucocorticoid precursors/metabolites than men (P < 0.001), but no difference in mineralocorticoids was seen (P = 0.06). Androgens decreased with age in both sexes (P < 0.001). Compared with patients with adrenocortical adenoma (ACA), patients with adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) had 11 steroids with increased Z scores, especially tetrahydro-11-deoxycortisol (14 vs 0.5, P < 0.001), pregnanetriol (7.5 vs -0.4, P = 0.001), and 5-pregnenetriol (5.4 vs -0.4, P = 0.01). Steroid profiling also demonstrated metabolite abnormalities consistent with enzymatic defects in congenital adrenal hyperplasia and differences in pituitary vs adrenal CS. CONCLUSIONS: Our HRAM LC-MS assay successfully quantifies 26 steroids in urine. The statistically significant differences in steroid production of ACC vs ACA, adrenal vs pituitary CS, and in congenital adrenal hyperplasia should allow for improved diagnosis of patients with these diseases.

Neoplasias do Córtex Suprarrenal/urina , Hiperplasia Suprarrenal Congênita/urina , Adenoma Adrenocortical/urina , Carcinoma Adrenocortical/urina , Síndrome de Cushing/urina , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Esteroides/urina , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Limite de Detecção , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 102(9): 3296-3305, 2017 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28605453


Context: Malignant pheochromocytoma (PHEO) and paraganglioma (PGL) are rare and knowledge of the natural history is limited. Objective: We aimed to describe baseline characteristics and outcomes of patients with malignant PHEO and PGL (PPGL) and to identify predictors of shorter survival. Design: Retrospective review of patients with malignant PPGL evaluated from 1960 to 2016. Setting: Referral center. Patients: The group comprised 272 patients. Main Outcome Measures: Baseline description, survival outcomes, and predictors of shorter survival were evaluated in patients with rapidly progressive (n = 29) and indolent disease (n = 188). Results: Malignant PPGL was diagnosed at a median age of 39 years (range, 7 to 83 years), with synchronous metastases in 96 (35%) patients. In 176 (65%) patients, metastases developed at a median of 5.5 years (range, 0.3 to 53.4 years) from the initial diagnosis. Median follow-up was 8.2 years (range, 0.01 to 54.1 years). Median overall and disease-specific survivals were 24.6 and 33.7 years, respectively. Shorter survival correlated with male sex (P = 0.014), older age at the time of primary tumor (P = 0.0011), synchronous metastases (P < 0.0001), larger primary tumor size (P = 0.0039), elevated dopamine (P = 0.0195), and not undergoing primary tumor resection (P < 0.0001). There was no difference in the type of primary tumor or presence of SDHB mutation. Conclusions: The clinical course of patients with malignant PPGL is remarkably variable. Rapid disease progression is associated with male sex, older age at diagnosis, synchronous metastases, larger tumor size, elevated dopamine, and not undergoing resection of primary tumor. An individualized approach to patients with metastatic PPGL is warranted.

Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais/mortalidade , Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais/patologia , Paraganglioma/mortalidade , Paraganglioma/patologia , Feocromocitoma/mortalidade , Feocromocitoma/patologia , Adolescente , Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais/cirurgia , Adrenalectomia/métodos , Adrenalectomia/mortalidade , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Causas de Morte , Criança , Bases de Dados Factuais , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Paraganglioma/cirurgia , Feocromocitoma/cirurgia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Análise de Sobrevida , Adulto Jovem