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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32711725

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cross-sectional imaging regularly results in incidental discovery of adrenal tumours, requiring exclusion of adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC). However, differentiation is hampered by poor specificity of imaging characteristics. We aimed to validate a urine steroid metabolomics approach, using steroid profiling as the diagnostic basis for ACC. METHODS: We did a prospective multicentre study in adult participants (age ≥18 years) with newly diagnosed adrenal masses. We assessed the accuracy of diagnostic imaging strategies based on maximum tumour diameter (≥4 cm vs <4 cm), imaging characteristics (positive vs negative), and urine steroid metabolomics (low, medium, or high risk of ACC), separately and in combination, using a reference standard of histopathology and follow-up investigations. With respect to imaging characteristics, we also assessed the diagnostic utility of increasing the unenhanced CT tumour attenuation threshold from the recommended 10 Hounsfield units (HU) to 20 HU. FINDINGS: Of 2169 participants recruited between Jan 17, 2011, and July 15, 2016, we included 2017 from 14 specialist centres in 11 countries in the final analysis. 98 (4·9%) had histopathologically or clinically and biochemically confirmed ACC. Tumours with diameters of 4 cm or larger were identified in 488 participants (24·2%), including 96 of the 98 with ACC (positive predictive value [PPV] 19·7%, 95% CI 16·2-23·5). For imaging characteristics, increasing the unenhanced CT tumour attenuation threshold to 20 HU from the recommended 10 HU increased specificity for ACC (80·0% [95% CI 77·9-82·0] vs 64·0% [61·4-66.4]) while maintaining sensitivity (99·0% [94·4-100·0] vs 100·0% [96·3-100·0]; PPV 19·7%, 16·3-23·5). A urine steroid metabolomics result indicating high risk of ACC had a PPV of 34·6% (95% CI 28·6-41·0). When the three tests were combined, in the order of tumour diameter, positive imaging characteristics, and urine steroid metabolomics, 106 (5·3%) participants had the result maximum tumour diameter of 4 cm or larger, positive imaging characteristics (with the 20 HU cutoff), and urine steroid metabolomics indicating high risk of ACC, for which the PPV was 76·4% (95% CI 67·2-84·1). 70 (3·5%) were classified as being at moderate risk of ACC and 1841 (91·3%) at low risk (negative predictive value 99·7%, 99·4-100·0). INTERPRETATION: An unenhanced CT tumour attenuation cutoff of 20 HU should replace that of 10 HU for exclusion of ACC. A triple test strategy of tumour diameter, imaging characteristics, and urine steroid metabolomics improves detection of ACC, which could shorten time to surgery for patients with ACC and help to avoid unnecessary surgery in patients with benign tumours. FUNDING: European Commission, UK Medical Research Council, Wellcome Trust, and UK National Institute for Health Research, US National Institutes of Health, the Claire Khan Trust Fund at University Hospitals Birmingham Charities, and the Mayo Clinic Foundation for Medical Education and Research.

2.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 105(9)2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32628749

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Mild autonomous cortisol secretion (MACS) affects up to 50% of patients with adrenal adenomas. Frailty is a syndrome characterized by the loss of physiological reserves and an increase in vulnerability, and it serves as a marker of declining health. OBJECTIVE: To compare frailty in patients with MACS versus patients with nonfunctioning adrenal tumors (NFAT). DESIGN: Retrospective study, 2003-2018. SETTING: Referral center. PATIENTS: Patients >20 years of age with adrenal adenoma and MACS (1 mg overnight dexamethasone suppression (DST) of 1.9-5 µg/dL) and NFAT (DST <1.9 µg/dL). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Frailty index (range 0-1), calculated using a 47-variable deficit model. RESULTS: Patients with MACS (n = 168) demonstrated a higher age-, sex-, and body mass index-adjusted prevalence of hypertension (71% vs 60%), cardiac arrhythmias (50% vs 40%), and chronic kidney disease (25% vs 17%), but a lower prevalence of asthma (5% vs 14%) than patients with NFAT (n = 275). Patients with MACS reported more symptoms of weakness (21% vs 11%), falls (7% vs 2%), and sleep difficulty (26% vs 15%) as compared with NFAT. Age-, sex- and BMI-adjusted frailty index was higher in patients with MACS vs patients with NFAT (0.17 vs 0.15; P = 0.009). Using a frailty index cutoff of 0.25, 24% of patients with MACS were frail, versus 18% of patients with NFAT (P = 0.028). CONCLUSION: Patients with MACS exhibit a greater burden of comorbid conditions, adverse symptoms, and frailty than patients with NFAT. Future prospective studies are needed to further characterize frailty, examine its responsiveness to adrenalectomy, and assess its influence on health outcomes in patients with MACS.

3.
Surgery ; 2020 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32693952

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The diagnostic threshold for mild autonomous cortisol secretion using low dose, overnight, dexamethasone suppression testing is recognized widely as a serum cortisol ≥1.8 mcg/dL. The degree to which these patients require postoperative glucocorticoid replacement is unknown. METHODS: We reviewed adult patients with corticotropin (ACTH)-independent hypercortisolism who underwent unilateral laparoscopic adrenalectomy for benign disease with a dexamethasone suppression testing ≥1.8 mcg/dL at our institution from 1996 to 2018. Patients with a dexamethasone suppression testing of 1.8 to 5 mcg/dL were compared with those with a dexamethasone suppression testing >5 mcg/dL. RESULTS: We compared 68 patients with a preoperative dexamethasone suppression testing of 1.8 to 5 mcg/dL to 53 patients with a preoperative dexamethasone suppression testing >5 mcg/dL. Preoperative serum ACTH (mean 10.0 vs 9.2 pg/mL), adenoma size (mean 3.4 vs 3.5 cm), and side of adrenalectomy (37 and 47% right) were similar between groups (P > .05 each). Patients with a dexamethasone suppression testing 1.8 to 5 mcg/dL were older (mean values 58 ± 11 vs 52 ± 16 years ; P = .01), less likely to be female (63 vs 81%; P = .03), had greater body mass indexes (33.1 ± 8.4 vs 29.1 ± 5.6; P = .01), and had lesser 24 hour preoperative urine cortisol excretions (32.6 ± 26.7 vs 76.1 ± 129.4 mcg; P = .03). Postoperative serum cortisol levels were compared in 22 patients with a dexamethasone suppression testing of 1.8 to 5 mcg/dL to 14 patients with a dexamethasone suppression testing >5 mcg/dL. Those with dexamethasone suppression testing 1.8 to 5 mcg/dL had greater postoperative serum cortisol levels (8.0 ± 5.7 vs 5.0 ± 2.6 mcg/dL; P = .03), were less likely to be discharged on glucocorticoid replacement (59% vs 89%; P = .003), and had a decreased duration of treatment (4.4 ± 3.8 vs 10.7 ± 18.0 months; P = .04). CONCLUSION: Assessment of early postoperative adrenal function with mild autonomous cortisol secretion is necessary to minimize unnecessary glucocorticoid replacement.

5.
Neurosurg Focus ; 48(6): E3, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32480375

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Cushing's disease arises from functioning adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-secreting pituitary adenomas. These tumors can be very small and evade detection by MRI. Empty sella syndrome is a phenomenon by which an arachnoid outpouching of CSF into the sella leads to compression of the pituitary, likely due to intracranial hypertension (a common issue in Cushing's disease), further leading to difficulty in visualizing the pituitary gland that may contribute to difficulty in finding a tumor on MRI, so-called MRI-negative Cushing's disease. The authors sought to examine the association between empty sella syndrome and MRI-negative Cushing's disease. METHODS: A single-institution database of Cushing's disease cases from 2000 to 2017 was reviewed, and 197 cases were included in the analysis. One hundred eighty patients had a tissue diagnosis of Cushing's disease and 17 had remission with surgery, but no definitive tissue diagnosis was obtained. Macroadenomas (tumors > 1 cm) were excluded. The degree of empty sella syndrome was graded on the degree of CSF visualized in the sella on midline sagittal T1-weighted MRI. RESULTS: Of the 197 cases identified, 40 (20%) presented with MRI-negative disease, and empty sella syndrome was present in 49 cases (25%). MRI-negative disease was found in 18 (37%) of 49 empty sella cases versus 22 (15%) of 148 cases without empty sella syndrome present. Empty sella syndrome was significantly associated with MRI-negative disease (OR 3.32, 95% CI 1.61-6.74, p = 0.0018). Decreased thickness of the pituitary gland was also associated with MRI-negative disease (mean thickness 5.6 vs 6.8 mm, p = 0.0002). CONCLUSIONS: Empty sella syndrome is associated with an increased rate of MRI-negative Cushing's disease. Pituitary compression causing a relative reduction in the volume of the pituitary for imaging is a plausible cause for not detecting the tumor mass with MRI.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32569405

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Data on the presentations and outcomes of patients with adrenal gland metastases are limited. Our objectives were to characterize the prevalence of adrenal metastases subtypes and investigate how varying clinical presentations affect disease progression, development of primary adrenal insufficiency (PAI) and mortality. DESIGN: Single institution tertiary centre, retrospective cohort study from 1997 to 2020. PATIENTS AND MEASUREMENTS: Adult patients with adrenal metastases. Clinical, radiologic and biochemical presentations and outcomes were reviewed. RESULTS: Of 579 patients (62.3% men, median age 67 years [range 25-92]) with adrenal metastases (median tumour size of 30 mm [range 5-200]), 339 (58.5%) were discovered during cancer staging, 210 (36.3%) were found incidentally, and 29 (5.0%) based on symptoms. Tumours originated from the lung (226, 39.0%), genitourinary (GU) (160, 27.6%), gastrointestinal (GI) (79, 13.6%) and other (114, 19.7%) organ systems. Bilateral metastases were found in 140 (24.2%) patients at the time of initial diagnosis, and 249 (43.0%) had bilateral disease throughout the study course. PAI developed in 12.4% of patients with bilateral disease and was associated with larger tumour size. Median follow-up time was 14 months (range 0-232), and 442 (76.3%) patients died. Higher mortality was independently associated with older age, adrenal metastases originating from the lung, bilateral disease, and the absence of adrenalectomy. CONCLUSIONS: Adrenal gland metastases originated most commonly from lung, GU and GI malignancies. Bilateral adrenal metastases occurred in 43% of patients, and PAI occurred in 12.4% of those with bilateral disease, warranting further case detection strategies.

7.
Endocr Pract ; 2020 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32576041

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Opioid-induced adrenal insufficiency (OIAI) may develop in patients treated with chronic opioids due suppression of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Our objective was to describe clinical manifestations, biochemical presentation and clinical course of OIAI. METHODS: A retrospective study of adults diagnosed with OIAI between 2006 and 2018 at an academic center. Opioid daily dose was converted into morphine mg equivalent (MME). RESULTS: Forty patients (n=29, 73% women) taking chronic opioids at a daily median MME dose of 105 (60-200) mg and median duration of 60 (3-360) months were diagnosed with OIAI. Patients reported fatigue (n=29, 73%), musculoskeletal pain (n=21, 53%), and weight loss (n=17, 53%) for a median of 12 (1-132) months prior to diagnosis and only 7.5% (n=3) patients were identified with OIAI through case detection. Biochemical diagnosis of OIAI was based on 1) low morning cortisol, baseline ACTH and/or DHEAS in 59% (n=26) patients or 2) abnormal cosyntropin stimulation test (CST) in 41% (n=14) patients. With glucocorticoid replacement, 16/23 (70%) patients with available follow up experienced improvement in symptoms. Opioids were tapered or discontinued in 15 patients, of whom 10 were followed for adrenal function of which 7 (70%) recovered from OIAI. CONCLUSION: Minimum daily MME in patients diagnosed with OIAI was 60 mg/day. OIAI causes significant morbidity and recognition requires a high level of clinical suspicion. Appropriate glucocorticoid treatment led to improvement of symptoms in 70%. Resolution of OIAI occurred following opioid cessation or reduction.

8.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 105(8)2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32424397

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Appropriate management of adrenal insufficiency (AI) in pregnancy can be challenging due to the rarity of the disease and lack of evidence-based recommendations to guide glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid dosage adjustment. OBJECTIVE: Multicenter survey on current clinical approaches in managing AI during pregnancy. DESIGN: Retrospective anonymized data collection from 19 international centers from 2013 to 2019. SETTING AND PATIENTS: 128 pregnancies in 113 women with different causes of AI: Addison disease (44%), secondary AI (25%), congenital adrenal hyperplasia (25%), and acquired AI due to bilateral adrenalectomy (6%). RESULTS: Hydrocortisone (HC) was the most commonly used glucocorticoid in 83% (97/117) of pregnancies. Glucocorticoid dosage was increased at any time during pregnancy in 73/128 (57%) of cases. In these cases, the difference in the daily dose of HC equivalent between baseline and the third trimester was 8.6 ± 5.4 (range 1-30) mg. Fludrocortisone dosage was increased in fewer cases (7/54 during the first trimester, 9/64 during the second trimester, and 9/62 cases during the third trimester). Overall, an adrenal crisis was reported in 9/128 (7%) pregnancies. Cesarean section was the most frequent mode of delivery at 58% (69/118). Fetal complications were reported in 3/120 (3%) and minor maternal complications in 15/120 (13%) pregnancies without fatal outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: This survey confirms good maternal and fetal outcome in women with AI managed in specialized endocrine centers. An emphasis on careful endocrine follow-up and repeated patient education is likely to have reduced the risk of adrenal crisis and resulted in positive outcomes.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32410303

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Comprehensive data about patients with bilateral pheochromocytoma are limited. We aimed to describe the clinical presentation, genetic analysis, treatment and outcomes of patients with bilateral pheochromocytoma. DESIGN: A retrospective study at a tertiary care centre. PATIENTS: All patients with bilateral pheochromocytoma evaluated at Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota between January 1951 and December 2015. MEASUREMENTS: Tumour size, genetic testing, plasma/urine metanephrines and catecholamines. RESULTS: A total of 94 patients (51% women) were diagnosed with bilateral pheochromocytoma at a median age at first presentation of 31 years (range, 4-70). Bilateral disease was noted in 8.0% of pheochromocytoma patient overall and 37.5% of patients 18 years of younger. Most patients presented with synchronous tumours (80%). Median time to metachronous tumours was 4.5 years (range, 1-38). Genetic disease was identified in 75 (80%) patients, including MEN 2A (42.6%), VHL (19.1%), MEN 2B (9.6%) and NF1 (8.5%). Excess catecholamines were present in 97% of patients. Patients with synchronous pheochromocytoma commonly underwent simultaneous bilateral adrenalectomy (99%), and 18 (24%) had cortical-sparing surgery. Multicentric tumours were reported in 23 of 77 (30%) patients with available data. Recurrent disease was found in 9.6% of patients, and 8.5% developed metastatic disease. Median follow-up was 8.5 years. At the study conclusion, 4 patients had died due to pheochromocytoma or adrenalectomy. CONCLUSIONS: Bilateral pheochromocytoma occurred in 7.0% of adults with pheochromocytoma and 37.5% of paediatric patients. Genetic disease was identified in 80% of patients, predominantly MEN2A. Multicentric tumours were common, but most were still cured following adrenalectomy.

10.
Ann Surg Oncol ; 2020 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32388739

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bilateral adrenalectomy (BA) is a curative treatment for hypercortisolism in patients with corticotropin (ACTH)-dependent Cushing syndrome. Indications include refractory Cushing's disease (CD) following failed pituitary surgery, and occult or unresectable ectopic ACTH-producing neoplasms (EA). METHODS: This was a single-center, retrospective review (1995-2017) of patients undergoing BA for CD or EA. Demographics, laboratory findings, and intraoperative and postoperative variables were analyzed. RESULTS: Of 137 patients, 83 (61%) had CD and 54 (39%) had EA; 87% of CD patients were female versus 46% of EA patients (p < 0.0001). Mean age at diagnosis was 40 ± 15 years for CD and 49 ± 18 years for EA (p = 0.004). Preoperative serum cortisol concentrations were higher in the EA cohort (63 ± 40 µg/dL) versus the CD cohort (33 ± 19 µg/dL) [p < 0.001], with no significant differences in serum ACTH. Time from diagnosis until adrenalectomy was 54 ± 69 months for CD versus 4 ± 13 for EA (p = 0.002). Most patients underwent minimally invasive surgery (MIS; 86% CD vs. 75% EA; p = 0.19). There was no difference between the rates of conversion to an open approach, intraoperative blood loss, or operative time between groups, and no difference between complications in CD versus EA (p = 1.0). Five-year survival was significantly shorter among the EA cohort (30% for EA vs. 80% for CD; p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Patients with EA presented with higher serum cortisol levels compared with patients with CD. EA patients were more likely to require intraoperative transfusion and postoperative intensive care. BA in patients with CD and EA can be performed safely in an MIS fashion, with similar morbidity; however, survival at 5 years was significantly less in the EA cohort.

11.
Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) ; 93(1): 11-18, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32275787

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to describe clinical course of myelolipoma and to identify predictors of tumour growth and need for surgery. DESIGN: A retrospective study. PATIENTS: Consecutive patients with myelolipoma. RESULTS: A total of 321 myelolipomas (median size, 2.3 cm) were diagnosed in 305 patients at median age of 63 years (range, 25-87). Median follow-up was 54 months. Most myelolipomas were incidentally detected (86%), whereas 9% were discovered during cancer staging and 5% during workup of mass effect symptoms. Thirty-seven (12%) patients underwent adrenalectomy. Compared to myelolipomas <6 cm, tumours ≥6 cm were more likely to be bilateral (21% vs 3%, P < .0001), cause mass effect symptoms (32% vs 0%, P < .0001), have haemorrhagic changes (14% vs 1%, P < .0001) and undergo adrenalectomy (52% vs 5%, P < .0001). Among patients with ≥6 months of imaging follow-up, median size change was 0 mm (-10, 115) and median growth rate was 0 mm/y (-6, 14). Compared to <1 cm growth, ≥1 cm growth correlated with larger initial size (3.6 vs 2.3 cm, P = .02), haemorrhagic changes (12% vs 2%, P = .007) and adrenalectomy (35% vs 8%, P < .0001). CONCLUSIONS: Most myelolipomas are incidentally discovered on cross-sectional imaging. Myelolipomas ≥6 are more likely to cause mass effect symptoms, have haemorrhagic changes and undergo resection. Tumour growth ≥1 cm is associated with larger myelolipoma and haemorrhagic changes. Adrenalectomy should be considered in symptomatic patients with large tumours and when there is evidence of haemorrhage or tumour growth.

12.
J Neurosurg ; : 1-7, 2020 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32244213

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) is a rare, autosomal-dominant tumor disorder characterized by the development of pituitary tumors and other endocrine neoplasms. Diagnosis is made clinically based on the development of 2 or more canonical lesions (parathyroid gland, anterior pituitary, and enteropancreatic tumors) or in family members of a patient with a clinical diagnosis of MEN1 and the occurrence of one of the MEN1-associated tumors. The goal of this study was to characterize pituitary tumors arising in the setting of MEN1 at a single institution. The probability of tumor progression and the likelihood of surgical intervention in patients with asymptomatic nonfunctional pituitary adenomas were also analyzed. METHODS: A retrospective review of a prospectively maintained institutional database was performed for patients with MEN1 diagnosed from 1970 to 2017. Data included patient demographics, tumor characteristics, treatment strategies, and outcomes. RESULTS: A review of the database identified 268 patients diagnosed with MEN1, of whom 158 (59%) were female. Among the 268 patients, 139 (51.8%) had pituitary adenomas. There was a higher prevalence in women than in men (65% vs 35%, p < 0.005). Functional adenomas (57%) were more common. Prolactin-secreting adenomas were the most common functional tumors. Macroadenomas were seen in 27% of patients and were more likely to be symptomatic and locally aggressive (p < 0.001). Forty-nine patients (35%) underwent transsphenoidal resection at some point during their disease course. In 52 patients who were initially observed with MEN1 asymptomatic nonfunctional adenomas, only 5 (10%) progressed to need surgery. In MEN1 patients, an initial parathyroid lesion is most likely followed in order by pituitary, pancreatic, adrenal, and, finally, rare carcinoid tumors. CONCLUSIONS: Asymptomatic nonfunctional pituitary adenomas in patients with MEN1 may be followed safely with MRI. In this series, parathyroid tumors developed at the lowest median age of all cardinal tumors, and development of additional cardinal MEN1 lesions followed a predictable pattern. This pattern of disease progression could have significant implications for disease surveillance in clinical practice and may help to target clinical resources to the lesions most likely to develop next. This may aid with early detection and treatment and warrants further study.

13.
Endocr Pract ; 26(3): 340-353, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32163313

RESUMO

Over the past few decades, there has been an unprecedented rise in off-label use and misuse of testosterone, growth hormone, thyroid hormone, and adrenal supplements. Testosterone therapy is often promoted to men for the treatment of low energy, lower libido, erectile dysfunction, and other symptoms. Growth hormone is used in attempts to improve athletic performance in athletes and to attenuate aging in older adults. Thyroid hormone and/or thyroid supplements or boosters are taken to treat fatigue, obesity, depression, cognitive impairment, impaired physical performance, and infertility. Adrenal supplements are used to treat common nonspecific symptoms due to "adrenal fatigue," an entity that has not been recognized as a legitimate medical diagnosis. Several factors have contributed to the surge in off-label use and misuse of these hormones and supplements: direct-to-consumer advertising, websites claiming to provide legitimate medical information, and for-profit facilities promoting therapies for men's health and anti-aging. The off-label use and misuse of hormones and supplements in individuals without an established endocrine diagnosis carries known and unknown risks. For example, the risks of growth hormone abuse in athletes and older adults are unknown due to a paucity of studies and because those who abuse this hormone often take supraphysiologic doses in sporadic intervals. In addition to the health risks, off-label use of these hormones and supplements generates billions of dollars of unnecessary costs to patients and to the overall health-care system. It is important that patients honestly disclose to their providers off-label hormone use, as it may affect their health and treatment plan. General medical practitioners and adult endocrinologists should be able to begin a discussion with their patients regarding the unfavorable balance between the risks and benefits associated with off-label use of testosterone, growth hormone, thyroid hormone, and adrenal supplements. Abbreviations: DHEA = dehydroepiandrosterone; FDA = U.S. Food and Drug Administration; GH = growth hormone; IGF-1 = insulin-like growth factor 1; LT3 = L-triiodothyronine; LT4 = levothyroxine; T3 = total triiodothyronine; T4 = thyroxine; TSH = thyroid-stimulating hormone.


Assuntos
Uso Off-Label , Idoso , Hormônio do Crescimento , Humanos , Masculino , Testosterona , Hormônios Tireóideos , Tireotropina , Tiroxina , Tri-Iodotironina
14.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 105(7)2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32170323

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Patients with adrenal insufficiency require increased hydrocortisone cover during major stress to avoid a life-threatening adrenal crisis. However, current treatment recommendations are not evidence-based. OBJECTIVE: To identify the most appropriate mode of hydrocortisone delivery in patients with adrenal insufficiency who are exposed to major stress. DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS: Cross-sectional study: 122 unstressed healthy subjects and 288 subjects exposed to different stressors (major trauma [N = 83], sepsis [N = 100], and combat stress [N = 105]). Longitudinal study: 22 patients with preserved adrenal function undergoing elective surgery. Pharmacokinetic study: 10 patients with primary adrenal insufficiency undergoing administration of 200 mg hydrocortisone over 24 hours in 4 different delivery modes (continuous intravenous infusion; 6-hourly oral, intramuscular or intravenous bolus administration). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: We measured total serum cortisol and cortisone, free serum cortisol, and urinary glucocorticoid metabolite excretion by mass spectrometry. Linear pharmacokinetic modeling was used to determine the most appropriate mode and dose of hydrocortisone administration in patients with adrenal insufficiency exposed to major stress. RESULTS: Serum cortisol was increased in all stress conditions, with the highest values observed in surgery and sepsis. Continuous intravenous hydrocortisone was the only administration mode persistently achieving median cortisol concentrations in the range observed during major stress. Linear pharmacokinetic modeling identified continuous intravenous infusion of 200 mg hydrocortisone over 24 hours, preceded by an initial bolus of 50-100 mg hydrocortisone, as best suited for maintaining cortisol concentrations in the required range. CONCLUSIONS: Continuous intravenous hydrocortisone infusion should be favored over intermittent bolus administration in the prevention and treatment of adrenal crisis during major stress.

15.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 105(5)2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32154561

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Several studies have reported increased risk of fragility fractures in patients with mild autonomous cortisol secretion (MACS), discordant to the degree of bone density deterioration. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of MACS on bone metabolism in patients with adrenal adenomas. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study with prospective enrollment, 2014-2019. SETTING: Referral center. PATIENTS: 213 patients with adrenal adenomas: 22 Cushing syndrome (CS), 92 MACS and 99 nonfunctioning adrenal tumors (NFAT). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Osteocalcin, procollagen I intact N-terminal (PINP), C-terminal telopeptide (CTX), sclerostin. RESULTS: Patients with CS demonstrated lower markers of bone formation compared with patients with MACS and NFAT (CS vs MACS vs NFAT: mean osteocalcin 14.8 vs 20.1 vs 21.3 ng/mL [P < 0.0001]; mean PINP 34.8 vs 48.7 vs 48.5 µg/L [P = 0.003]). Severity of cortisol excess was inversely associated with sclerostin (CS vs MACS vs NFAT: mean sclerostin 419 vs 538 vs 624 ng/L, [P < 0.0001]). In a multivariable model of age, sex, body mass index, cortisol, and bone turnover markers, sclerostin was a significant predictor of low bone mass in patients with MACS (OR 0.63 [CI 95%, 0.40-0.98] for each 100 ng/L of sclerostin increase).After adrenalectomy, osteocalcin, CTX, and sclerostin increased by a mean difference of 6.3 ng/mL, 0.12 ng/mL, and 171 pg/mL (P = 0.02 for all), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Lower sclerostin level in patients with MACS reflects a reduction in osteocyte function or number associated with exposure to chronic cortisol excess. Increase in bone turnover markers after adrenalectomy suggests restoration of favorable bone metabolism.

16.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 105(3)2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32101296

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Survival rates after severe injury are improving, but complication rates and outcomes are variable. OBJECTIVE: This cohort study addressed the lack of longitudinal data on the steroid response to major trauma and during recovery. DESIGN: We undertook a prospective, observational cohort study from time of injury to 6 months postinjury at a major UK trauma centre and a military rehabilitation unit, studying patients within 24 hours of major trauma (estimated New Injury Severity Score (NISS) > 15). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: We measured adrenal and gonadal steroids in serum and 24-hour urine by mass spectrometry, assessed muscle loss by ultrasound and nitrogen excretion, and recorded clinical outcomes (ventilator days, length of hospital stay, opioid use, incidence of organ dysfunction, and sepsis); results were analyzed by generalized mixed-effect linear models. FINDINGS: We screened 996 multiple injured adults, approached 106, and recruited 95 eligible patients; 87 survived. We analyzed all male survivors <50 years not treated with steroids (N = 60; median age 27 [interquartile range 24-31] years; median NISS 34 [29-44]). Urinary nitrogen excretion and muscle loss peaked after 1 and 6 weeks, respectively. Serum testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate decreased immediately after trauma and took 2, 4, and more than 6 months, respectively, to recover; opioid treatment delayed dehydroepiandrosterone recovery in a dose-dependent fashion. Androgens and precursors correlated with SOFA score and probability of sepsis. CONCLUSION: The catabolic response to severe injury was accompanied by acute and sustained androgen suppression. Whether androgen supplementation improves health outcomes after major trauma requires further investigation.

17.
Endocrine ; 68(1): 203-209, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32088909

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Recent guidelines on adrenal incidentalomas suggested in patients with an indeterminate adrenal mass and no significant hormone excess that follow up with a repeat noncontrast CT or MRI after 6-12 months may be an option. METHODS: We report the case of a 32-year-old woman who presented with a 2.9 × 1.9 cm left adrenal incidentaloma that was stable in size for 4 years. Ten years later the left adrenal mass was a stage IV adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC). RESULTS: In 2006, a 32-year-old French Canadian woman was referred to endocrinology for a left 2.9 × 1.9 cm incidentally discovered adrenal mass (31 HU). She had normal hormonal investigation. The patient was followed with adrenal imaging and hormonal investigation yearly for 4 years and the lesion stayed stable in size over the 4 years. Ten years later, in 2016, the patient presented with renal colic. Urological CT unexpectedly revealed that the left adrenal mass was now measuring 9 × 8.2 cm and 2 new hepatic lesions were found. Biochemical workup demonstrated hypercorticism and hyperandrogenemia: plasma cortisol after 1 mg overnight DST of 476 nmol/L and DHEA-S of 14.0 µmol/L (N 0.9-6.5). Twenty-four hour urine steroid profiling was consistent with an adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) co-secreting cortisol, androgens and glucocorticoid precursors. The diagnosis of ACC with hepatic ACC metastases was confirmed at histology. Following genetic analysis, germline heterozygous variant of uncertain significance (VUS) was identified in the exon 16 of the APC gene (c.2414G > A, p.Arg805Gln). Immunohistochemical staining's of the ACC was positive for IGF-2 and cytoplasmic/nuclear ß-catenin staining. CONCLUSIONS: This case illustrates that (1) small adrenal incidentaloma stable in size may evolve to ACC and (2) better genetic characterization of these patients may eventually give clues on this unusual evolution.

18.
Pediatr Surg Int ; 36(2): 129-135, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31691026

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adrenalectomy for non-neuroblastic pathologies in children is rare with limited data on outcomes. We reviewed our experience of adrenalectomy in this unique population. METHODS: Retrospective study of children (age ≤ 18) who underwent adrenalectomy with non-neuroblastic pathology from 1988 to 2018. Clinical and operative details of patients were abstracted. Outcomes included length of stay and 30-day postoperative morbidity. RESULTS: Forty children underwent 50 adrenalectomies (12 right-sided, 18 left-sided, 10 bilateral). Six patients (15%) presented with an incidental adrenal mass while 4 (10%) had masses found on screening for genetic mutations or prior malignancy. The remaining 30 (75%) presented with symptoms of hormonal excess. Nineteen patients (48%) underwent genetic evaluation and 15 (38%) had genetic predispositions. Diagnoses included 9 patients (23%) with pheochromocytoma, 8 (20%) with adrenocortical adenoma, 8 (20%) with adrenocortical carcinoma, 7 (18%) with adrenal hyperplasia, 2 (5%) with metastasis, and 6 (14%) with additional benign pathologies. Of 50 adrenalectomies, twenty-five (50%) were laparoscopic. Median hospital length of stay was 3 days (range 0-11). Post-operative morbidity rate was 17% with the most severe complication being Clavien-Dindo grade II. CONCLUSION: Adrenalectomy for non-neuroblastic pathology can be done with low morbidity. Its frequent association with genetic mutations and syndromes requires surgeons to have knowledge of appropriate pre-operative testing and post-operative surveillance.

19.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 105(3)2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31665449

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Urine steroid metabolomics, combining mass spectrometry-based steroid profiling and machine learning, has been described as a novel diagnostic tool for detection of adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC). OBJECTIVE, DESIGN, SETTING: This proof-of-concept study evaluated the performance of urine steroid metabolomics as a tool for postoperative recurrence detection after microscopically complete (R0) resection of ACC. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 135 patients from 14 clinical centers provided postoperative urine samples, which were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We assessed the utility of these urine steroid profiles in detecting ACC recurrence, either when interpreted by expert clinicians or when analyzed by random forest, a machine learning-based classifier. Radiological recurrence detection served as the reference standard. RESULTS: Imaging detected recurrent disease in 42 of 135 patients; 32 had provided pre- and post-recurrence urine samples. 39 patients remained disease-free for ≥3 years. The urine "steroid fingerprint" at recurrence resembled that observed before R0 resection in the majority of cases. Review of longitudinally collected urine steroid profiles by 3 blinded experts detected recurrence by the time of radiological diagnosis in 50% to 72% of cases, improving to 69% to 92%, if a preoperative urine steroid result was available. Recurrence detection by steroid profiling preceded detection by imaging by more than 2 months in 22% to 39% of patients. Specificities varied considerably, ranging from 61% to 97%. The computational classifier detected ACC recurrence with superior accuracy (sensitivity = specificity = 81%). CONCLUSION: Urine steroid metabolomics is a promising tool for postoperative recurrence detection in ACC; availability of a preoperative urine considerably improves the ability to detect ACC recurrence.

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