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1.
Int J Cancer ; 2021 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33544892

RESUMO

Breast cancer survivors have a high risk of a second primary contralateral breast cancer (CBC), but there are few studies of CBC risk in minority populations. We examined whether the incidence and risk factors for CBC differed by race/ethnicity in the United States. Women with a first invasive stage I-IIB breast cancer diagnosis at ages 20-74 years between 2000 and 2015 in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program (SEER) 18 registries were followed through 2016 for a diagnosis of invasive CBC ≥1 year after the first breast cancer diagnosis. We used cause-specific Cox proportional hazards models to test the association between race/ethnicity and CBC, adjusting for age, hormone receptor status, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and stage at first diagnosis, and evaluated the impact of contralateral prophylactic mastectomy, socioeconomic status, and insurance status on the association. After a median follow-up of 5.9 years, 9,247 women (2.0%) were diagnosed with CBC. Relative to non-Hispanic (NH) White women, CBC risk was increased in NH Black women (hazard ratio = 1.44, 95% CI 1.35-1.54) and Hispanic women (1.11, 95% CI 1.02-1.20), with the largest differences among women diagnosed at younger ages. Adjustment for contralateral prophylactic mastectomy, socioeconomic status, and health insurance did not explain the associations. Therefore, non-Hispanic Black and Hispanic women have an increased risk of CBC that is not explained by clinical or socioeconomic factors collected in SEER. Large studies of diverse breast cancer survivors with detailed data on treatment delivery and adherence are needed to inform interventions to reduce this disparity. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

2.
Int J Cancer ; 2021 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33521947

RESUMO

Family history (FH) of ovarian cancer and breast cancer are well-established risk factors for ovarian cancer, but few studies have examined this association in African American (AA) and white women by histotype. We assessed first- and second-degree FH of ovarian and breast cancer and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer in the Ovarian Cancer in Women of African Ancestry Consortium. Analyses included 1052 AA cases, 2328 AA controls, 2380 white cases and 3982 white controls. Race-specific odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using multilevel logistic regression with adjustment for covariates. Analyses were stratified by histotype (high-grade serous vs others). First-degree FH of ovarian cancer was associated with high-grade serous carcinoma in AA (OR = 2.32, 95% CI: 1.50, 3.59) and white women (OR = 2.48, 95% CI: 1.82, 3.38). First-degree FH of breast cancer increased risk irrespective of histotype in AAs, but with high-grade serous carcinoma only in white women. Associations with second-degree FH of ovarian cancer were observed for overall ovarian cancer in white women and with high-grade serous carcinoma in both groups. First-degree FH of ovarian cancer and of breast cancer, and second-degree FH of ovarian cancer is strongly associated with high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma in AA and white women. The association of FH of breast cancer with high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma is similar in white women and AA women, but may differ for other histotypes.

3.
Cancer Causes Control ; 32(2): 157-168, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33404907

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Diabetes and hypertension are two common comorbidities that affect breast cancer patients, particularly Black women. Disruption of chronic disease management during cancer treatment has been speculated. Therefore, this study examined the implementation of clinical practice guidelines and health outcomes for these comorbidities before and during cancer treatment. METHODS: We used a population-based, prospective cohort of Black women diagnosed with breast cancer (2012-2016) in New Jersey (n = 563). Chronic disease management for diabetes and hypertension was examined 12 months before and after breast cancer diagnosis and compared using McNemar's test for matched paired and paired t tests. RESULTS: Among this cohort, 18.1% had a co-diagnosis of diabetes and 47.2% had a co-diagnosis of hypertension. Implementation of clinical practice guidelines and health outcomes that differed in the 12 months before and after cancer diagnosis included lipid screening (64.5% before versus 50.0% after diagnosis; p = 0.004), glucose screening (72.7% versus 90.7%; p < 0.001), and blood pressure control < 140/90 mmHg (57.6% versus 71.5%; p = 0.004) among patients with hypertension-only. For patients with diabetes, eye and foot care were low (< 35%) and optimal HbA1c < 8.0% was achieved for less than 50% of patients in both time periods. CONCLUSION: Chronic disease management continued during cancer treatment; however, eye and foot exams for patients with diabetes and lipid screening for patients with hypertension-only were inadequate. Given that comorbidities may account for half of the Black-White breast cancer survival disparity, strategies are needed to improve chronic disease management during cancer, especially for Black women who bear a disproportionate burden of chronic diseases.

5.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2021 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33395700

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Blacks tend to have a stronger inflammatory immune response than Whites. We hypothesized that racial differences in host immunity also manifest in the tumor microenvironment (TME), constituting part of a distinct aggressive tumor biology underlying higher mortality in Black women. METHODS: Pathological and gene expression profiling approaches were used for characterizing infiltrating immune cells in breast TME from 1,315 patients from the Women's Circle of Health Study. Racial differences in tumor immune phenotypes were compared, with results validated in a publicly accessible dataset. Prognostic associations of immune phenotypes were assessed in three independent cohorts. RESULTS: We found marked and consistent differences in tumor immune responses between Black and White patients. Not only did tumors from Blacks display a stronger overall immune presence, but the composition and quality of immune infiltrates differed, regardless of tumor subtypes. Black patients had a stronger CD4+/B cell response, and further, a more exhausted CD8+ T cell profile. A signature indicating a higher ratio of exhausted CD8+ T cells to total CD8+ T cells (ExCD8-r) was consistently associated with poorer survival, particularly among hormone receptor (HR)-positive patients. Among HR-negative patients, combinations of the absolute fraction of CD8+ T cells and ExCD8-r signature identified the CD8lowExCD8-rhigh subgroup, the most prevalent among Blacks, with the worst survival. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings of a distinct exhausted CD8+ T cell signature in Black breast cancer patients indicates an immunobiological basis for their more aggressive disease, and also a rationale for the use of immune checkpoint inhibitors targeting the exhaustion phenotype.

6.
N Engl J Med ; 384(5): 440-451, 2021 02 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33471974

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Population-based estimates of the risk of breast cancer associated with germline pathogenic variants in cancer-predisposition genes are critically needed for risk assessment and management in women with inherited pathogenic variants. METHODS: In a population-based case-control study, we performed sequencing using a custom multigene amplicon-based panel to identify germline pathogenic variants in 28 cancer-predisposition genes among 32,247 women with breast cancer (case patients) and 32,544 unaffected women (controls) from population-based studies in the Cancer Risk Estimates Related to Susceptibility (CARRIERS) consortium. Associations between pathogenic variants in each gene and the risk of breast cancer were assessed. RESULTS: Pathogenic variants in 12 established breast cancer-predisposition genes were detected in 5.03% of case patients and in 1.63% of controls. Pathogenic variants in BRCA1 and BRCA2 were associated with a high risk of breast cancer, with odds ratios of 7.62 (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.33 to 11.27) and 5.23 (95% CI, 4.09 to 6.77), respectively. Pathogenic variants in PALB2 were associated with a moderate risk (odds ratio, 3.83; 95% CI, 2.68 to 5.63). Pathogenic variants in BARD1, RAD51C, and RAD51D were associated with increased risks of estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer and triple-negative breast cancer, whereas pathogenic variants in ATM, CDH1, and CHEK2 were associated with an increased risk of estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer. Pathogenic variants in 16 candidate breast cancer-predisposition genes, including the c.657_661del5 founder pathogenic variant in NBN, were not associated with an increased risk of breast cancer. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides estimates of the prevalence and risk of breast cancer associated with pathogenic variants in known breast cancer-predisposition genes in the U.S. population. These estimates can inform cancer testing and screening and improve clinical management strategies for women in the general population with inherited pathogenic variants in these genes. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and the Breast Cancer Research Foundation.).


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Variação Genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Razão de Chances , Risco , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Adulto Jovem
7.
Health Place ; 67: 102498, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33383367

RESUMO

We investigated relationships between independently observed, visual cues of residential environments and subsequent participant-reported stress within a population-based cohort of Black breast cancer survivors (n = 476). Greater visual cues of engagement - presence of team sports, yard decorations, outdoor seating - (compared to less engagement) was marginally associated with lower perceived stress in univariate models, but attenuated towards null with adjustment for socio-demographic, behavioral, and health-related covariates. Similarly, physical disorder and perceived stress were not associated in adjusted models. Relationships between observed built environment characteristics and perceived stress might be influenced by socioeconomic and health behavior factors, which longitudinal studies should investigate.

8.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2020 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33252629

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The causes of racial disparities in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) incidence remain unclear. Differences in the prevalence of ovarian cancer risk factors may explain disparities in EOC incidence among African American (AA) and White women. METHODS: We used data from four case-control studies and three case-control studies nested within prospective cohorts in the Ovarian Cancer in Women of African Ancestry Consortium to estimate race-specific associations of ten known or suspected EOC risk factors using logistic regression. Using the Bruzzi method, race-specific population attributable risks (PAR) were estimated for each risk factor individually and collectively, including groupings of exposures (reproductive factors and modifiable factors). All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: Among 3,244 White EOC cases and 9,638 controls and 1,052 AA EOC cases and 2,410 controls, AA women had a statistically significantly higher PAR (false discovery rate (FDR) P < .001) for first-degree family history of breast cancer (PAR = 10.1%, 95% CI = 6.5% to 13.7%) compared to White women (PAR = 2.6%, 95% CI = 0.8% to 4.4%). After multiple test correction, AA women had a higher PAR than White women when evaluating all risk factors collectively (PAR = 61.6%, 95% CI = 48.6% to 71.3% vs. PAR = 43.0%, 95% CI = 32.8% to 51.4%, respectively; FDR P = .06) and for modifiable exposures, including BMI, oral contraceptives, aspirin, and body powder (PAR = 36.0%, 95% CI = 21.0% to 48.8% vs. PAR = 13.8%, 95% CI = 4.5% to 21.8%, respectively; FDR P = .04). CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, the selected risk factors accounted for slightly more of the risk among AA than White women, and interventions to reduce EOC incidence that are focused on multiple modifiable risk factors may be slightly more beneficial to AA women than White women at risk for EOC.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33234556

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The disproportionate burden of more aggressive breast cancer subtypes among African American/Black women may stem from multilevel determinants. However, data are limited regarding the impacts of neighborhood social environmental characteristics among Black women. METHODS: We evaluated the association between neighborhood-level socioeconomic status (nSES) and breast cancer subtypes in the Women's Circle of Health and Women's Circle of Health Follow-up Study, which included 1,220 Black women diagnosed from 2005 to 2017 with invasive breast cancer. nSES at diagnosis was measured using NCI's census tract-level SES index. We used multilevel multinomial logistic regression models to estimate the association of nSES with breast cancer subtypes [triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), HER2-positive vs. luminal A], adjusting for individual-level SES, body mass index, and reproductive factors. We tested for interactions by neighborhood racial composition. RESULTS: Compared to census tracts characterized as high nSES, the relative risk ratios (RRR) for TNBC were 1.81 (95% CI: 1.20-2.71) and 1.95 (95% CI: 1.27-2.99) for women residing in areas with intermediate and low nSES, respectively (p-trend: .002). Neighborhood racial composition modified the association between nSES and TNBC; the highest relative risk of TNBC was among women residing in low nSES areas with low proportions of Black residents. CONCLUSIONS: Black women residing in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods may have an increased risk of TNBC, particularly among areas with lower proportions of Black residents. IMPACT: Places people live may influence breast tumor biology. A deeper understanding of multilevel pathways contributing to tumor biology is needed.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33097496

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests etiologic heterogeneity among breast cancer subtypes. Previous studies with six-marker IHC classification of intrinsic subtypes included small numbers of black women. METHODS: Using centralized laboratory results for estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor, HER2, proliferation marker, Ki-67, EGFR, and cytokeratin (CK)5/6, we estimated case-only and case-control ORs for established breast cancer risk factors among cases (n = 2,354) and controls (n = 2,932) in the African American Breast Cancer Epidemiology and Risk (AMBER) consortium. ORs were estimated by ER status and intrinsic subtype using adjusted logistic regression. RESULTS: Case-only analyses by ER status showed etiologic heterogeneity by age at menarche, parity (vs. nulliparity), and age at first birth. In case-control analyses for intrinsic subtype, increased body mass index and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) were associated with increased risk of luminal A subtype, whereas older age at menarche and parity, regardless of breastfeeding, were associated with reduced risk. For basal-like cancers, parity without breastfeeding and increasing WHR were associated with increased risk, whereas breastfeeding and age ≥25 years at first birth were associated with reduced risk among parous women. Basal-like and ER-/HER2+ subtypes had earlier age-at-incidence distribution relative to luminal subtypes. CONCLUSIONS: Breast cancer subtypes showed distinct etiologic profiles in the AMBER consortium, a study of more than 5,000 black women with centrally assessed tumor biospecimens. IMPACT: Among black women, high WHR and parity without breastfeeding are emerging as important intervention points to reduce the incidence of basal-like breast cancer.

11.
Int J Cancer ; 2020 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33099777

RESUMO

Breast cancer incidence is increasing among Asian Indian and Pakistani women living in the United States. We examined the characteristics of breast cancer in Asian Indian and Pakistani American (AIPA) and non-Hispanic white (NHW) women using data from the surveillance, epidemiology and end results (SEER) program. Breast cancer incidence rates were estimated via segmented Poisson regression using data between 1990 and 2014 from SEER 9 registries, including New Jersey and California. Disease characteristics, treatment and survival information between 2000 and 2016 for 4900 AIPA and 482 250 NHW cases diagnosed after age 18 were obtained from SEER 18 registries and compared using descriptive analyses and multivariable competing risk proportional hazards regression. Breast cancer incidence was lower in AIPA than NHW women, increased with age and the rate of increase declined after age of 46 years. AIPA women were diagnosed at significantly younger age (mean (SD) = 54.5 (13.3) years) than NHW women (mean (SD) = 62 (14) years, P < .0001) and were more likely than NHW cases (P < .0001) to have regional or distant stage, higher grade, estrogen receptor-negative, progesterone receptor-negative, triple-negative or human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-enriched tumors, subcutaneous or total mastectomy, and lower cumulative incidence of death due to breast cancer (hazard ratio = 0.79, 95% CI: 0.72-0.86, P < .0001). AIPA had shorter median follow-up (52 months) than NHW cases (77 months). Breast cancer in AIPA women has unique characteristics that need to be further studied along with a comprehensive evaluation of their follow-up patterns.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33067778

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Limited epidemiologic data are available on the expression of adipokines leptin (LEP) and adiponectin (ADIPOQ) and adipokine receptors (LEPR, ADIPOR1, ADIPOR2) in the breast tumor microenvironment (TME). The associations of gene expression of these biomarkers with tumor clinicopathology are not well understood. METHODS: NanoString multiplexed assays were used to assess the gene expression levels of LEP, LEPR, ADIPOQ, ADIPOR1, and ADIPOR2 within tumor tissues among 162 Black and 55 White women with newly diagnosed breast cancer. Multivariate mixed effects models were used to estimate associations of gene expression with breast tumor clinicopathology (overall and separately among Blacks). RESULTS: Black race was associated with lower gene expression of LEPR (P = 0.002) and ADIPOR1 (P = 0.01). Lower LEP, LEPR, and ADIPOQ gene expression were associated with higher tumor grade (P = 0.0007, P < 0.0001, and P < 0.0001, respectively) and larger tumor size (P < 0.0001, P = 0.0005, and P < 0.0001, respectively). Lower ADIPOQ expression was associated with ER- status (P = 0.0005), and HER2-enriched (HER2-E; P = 0.0003) and triple-negative (TN; P = 0.002) subtypes. Lower ADIPOR2 expression was associated with Ki67+ status (P = 0.0002), ER- status (P < 0.0001), PR- status (P < 0.0001), and TN subtype (P = 0.0002). Associations of lower adipokine and adipokine receptor gene expression with ER-, HER2-E, and TN subtypes were confirmed using data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (P-values < 0.005). CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that lower expression of ADIPOQ, ADIPOR2, LEP, and LEPR in the breast TME might be indicators of more aggressive breast cancer phenotypes. Validation of these findings are warranted to elucidate the role of the adipokines and adipokine receptors in long-term breast cancer prognosis.

13.
NPJ Breast Cancer ; 6: 45, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33024820

RESUMO

Energy imbalance has an important role in breast cancer prognosis. Hyperactive mechanistic Target of Rapamycin (mTOR) pathway is associated with breast tumor growth, but the extent to which body fatness is associated with mTOR pathway activities in breast cancer is unclear. We performed immunostaining for mTOR, phosphorylated (p)-mTOR, p-AKT, and p-p70S6K in tumor tissue from 590 women (464 African Americans/Blacks and 126 Whites) with newly diagnosed invasive breast cancer in the Women's Circle of Health Study. Anthropometric measures were taken by study staff, and body composition was measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis. Linear regressions were used to estimate percent differences in protein expression between categories of body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, waist/hip ratio, fat mass, fat mass index, and percent body fat. We observed that BMI ≥ 35.0 vs. <25 kg/m2 was associated with 108.3% (95% CI = 16.9%-270.9%) and 101.8% (95% CI = 17.0%-248.8%) higher expression in p-mTOR and normalized p-mTOR, i.e., p-mTOR/mTOR, respectively. Quartiles 4 vs. 1 of waist/hip ratio was associated with 41.8% (95% CI = 5.81%-89.9%) higher mTOR expression. Similar associations were observed for the body fat measurements, particularly in patients with estrogen receptor-negative (ER-) tumors, but not in those with ER+ tumors, although the differences in associations were not significant. This tumor-based study found positive associations between body fatness and mTOR pathway activation, evident by a p-mTOR expression, in breast cancer. Our findings suggest that mTOR inhibition can be a treatment strategy to prevent the recurrence of these tumors in obese individuals.

14.
Support Care Cancer ; 2020 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32995999

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Sleep disturbance may be an overlooked modifiable risk factor for health disparities among African-American breast cancer survivors (AABCS). This study aimed to identify the prevalence of and risk factors for sleep disturbance in a cohort of AABCS. METHODS: The study was conducted among participants in the Women's Circle of Health Follow-up Study, a longitudinal study of breast cancer in 10 counties in New Jersey. Cases were identified shortly after diagnosis by the New Jersey State Cancer Registry. Self-reported sleep disturbance (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index) and other factors (e.g., socioeconomic status, menopausal status) were assessed at pre-diagnosis (n = 637), 10 months post-diagnosis (n = 261), and 24 months post-diagnosis (n = 632). Clinical data were obtained via medical record abstraction, and height and weight were measured by study staff. RESULTS: Most AABCS (57%) reported clinically significant sleep disturbance before diagnosis, and this rate remained largely unchanged at 10 months (53%) and 24 months post-diagnosis (61%). Average sleep disturbance scores indicated clinically significant disturbance at all three assessments (M range = 6.67-7.57). Most reported sleeping fewer than the recommended 7 hours per night at each assessment (range 57-65%). Risk factors for sleep disturbance were identified at each assessment, including pre-diagnosis (less education), 10 months post-diagnosis (lack of insurance, treatment with chemotherapy), and 24 months post-diagnosis (younger age, less education, lower income, obesity, and lymphedema). Treatment with endocrine therapy was a protective factor at 10 months post-diagnosis. CONCLUSION: Most AABCS report clinically significant sleep disturbance from before diagnosis through 24 months post-diagnosis. These rates appear indicate AABCS experience significant sleep-related disparities.

15.
J Gen Intern Med ; 2020 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32974725

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Black women are more likely to have comorbidity at breast cancer diagnosis compared with White women, which may account for half of the Black-White survivor disparity. Comprehensive disease management requires a coordinated team of healthcare professionals including primary care practitioners, but few studies have examined shared care in the management of comorbidities during cancer care, especially among racial/ethnic minorities. OBJECTIVE: To examine whether the type of medical team composition is associated with optimal clinical care management of comorbidities. DESIGN: We used the Women's Circle of Health Follow-up Study, a population-based cohort of Black women diagnosed with breast cancer. The likelihood of receiving optimal comorbidity management after breast cancer diagnosis was compared by type of medical team composition (shared care versus cancer specialists only) using binomial regression. PARTICIPANTS: Black women with a co-diagnosis of diabetes and/or hypertension at breast cancer diagnosis between 2012 and 2016 (N = 274). MAIN MEASURES: Outcome-optimal clinical care management of diabetes (i.e., A1C test, LDL-C test, and medical attention for nephropathy) and hypertension (i.e., lipid screening and prescription for hypertension medication). Main predictor-shared care, whether the patient received care from both a cancer specialist and a primary care provider and/or a medical specialist within the 12 months following a breast cancer diagnosis. KEY RESULTS: Primary care providers were the main providers involved in managing comorbidities and 90% of patients received shared care during breast cancer care. Only 54% had optimal comorbidity management. Patients with shared care were five times (aRR: 4.62; 95% CI: 1.66, 12.84) more likely to have optimal comorbidity management compared with patients who only saw cancer specialists. CONCLUSIONS: Suboptimal management of comorbidities during breast cancer care exists for Black women. However, our findings suggest that shared care is more beneficial at achieving optimal clinical care management for diabetes and hypertension than cancer specialists alone.

16.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 35(11): 1025-1042, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32959149

RESUMO

While childbearing protects against risk of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), few studies have explored the impact on maternal EOC risk of sex of offspring, which may affect the maternal environment during pregnancy. We performed a pooled analysis among parous participants from 12 case-controls studies comprising 6872 EOC patients and 9101 controls. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using multivariable logistic regression for case-control associations and polytomous logistic regression for histotype-specific associations, all adjusted for potential confounders. In general, no associations were found between offspring sex and EOC risk. However, compared to bearing only female offspring, bearing one or more male offspring was associated with increased risk of mucinous EOC (OR = 1.45; 95% CI = 1.01-2.07), which appeared to be limited to women reporting menarche before age 13 compared to later menarche (OR = 1.71 vs 0.99; P-interaction = 0.02). Bearing increasing numbers of male offspring was associated with greater risks of mucinous tumors (OR = 1.31, 1.84, 2.31, for 1, 2 and 3 or more male offspring, respectively; trend-p = 0.005). Stratifying by hormonally-associated conditions suggested that compared to bearing all female offspring, bearing a male offspring was associated with lower risk of endometrioid cancer among women with a history of adult acne, hirsutism, or polycystic ovary syndrome (OR = 0.49, 95% CI = 0.28-0.83) but with higher risk among women without any of those conditions (OR = 1.64 95% CI = 1.14-2.34; P-interaction = 0.003). Offspring sex influences the childbearing-EOC risk relationship for specific histotypes and conditions. These findings support the differing etiologic origins of EOC histotypes and highlight the importance of EOC histotype-specific epidemiologic studies. These findings also suggest the need to better understand how pregnancy affects EOC risk.

17.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 184(3): 901-914, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32914357

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To determine the association of pre-diagnostic allostatic load (AL) with health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among Black women with breast cancer. METHODS: In a sample of 409 Black women with non-metastatic breast cancer enrolled in the Women's Circle of Health Follow-Up Study (WCHFS), two pre-diagnostic AL measures were estimated using medical records data from up to 12 months prior to breast cancer diagnosis: AL-lipid/metabolic profile-based measure and AL-inflammatory profile-based measure. HRQOL was assessed approximately 24 months post diagnosis, using the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Breast Cancer (FACT-B) instrument, including 5 subscale scores [presented by physical well-being (PWB), social & family well-being (SFWB), emotional well-being (EWB), functional well-being (FWB), and breast cancer-specific scale (BCS)] and 3 derived total scores [presented by trial outcome index (TOI), Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General (FACT-G) and FACT-B]. We used multivariable logistic regression models, using dichotomized AL scores (lower AL: 0-3 points, higher AL: 4-8 points), to assess the associations between the two pre-diagnostic AL measures and HRQOL. RESULTS: Higher pre-diagnostic AL was associated with poorer FWB and lower FACT-G, but these associations were statistically significant for the AL-inflammatory profile-based measure (FWB: OR 1.63, 95% CI 1.04, 2.56; FACT-G: OR 1.62, 95% CI 1.04, 2.54), but not the AL-lipid/metabolic profile-based measure (FWB: OR 1.45, 95% CI 0.81, 2.59; FACT-G: OR 1.33, 95% CI 0.75, 2.37). CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that higher AL, particularly when measured using the inflammatory profile-based measure, was associated with poorer HRQOL, namely FWB and FACT-G, among Black breast cancer survivors.

18.
J Med Syst ; 44(11): 191, 2020 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32986139

RESUMO

Electronic health records (EHRs) present extensive patient information and may be used as a tool to improve health care. However, the oncology context presents a complex content that increases the difficulties of EHR application. This study aimed at developing openEHR-archetypes representing clinical concepts in cancer nutrition-care, as well as to develop an openEHR-template including the aforementioned archetypes. The study involved the following stages: 1) a thorough literature review, followed by an expert's (nutrition guideline authors) survey, aiming to identify the main statements of published clinical guidelines on nutrition in cancer patients that were not included on the Clinical Knowledge Manager (CKM) repository; 2) modelling of the archetypes using the Ocean Archetype Software and submission to the CKM repository; 3) creating an example template with Template Designer; and 4) automatic conversion of the openEHR-template into a readily usable EHR using VCIntegrator. The clinical concepts (among 17 clinical concepts not yet available in the CKM repository) chosen for further development were: body composition, diet plan, dietary nutrients, dietary supplements, dietary intake assessment, and Malnutrition Screening Tool (MST). So far, four archetypes were accepted for review in the CKM repository and a template was created and converted into an EHR. This study designed new openEHR-archetypes for nutrition management in cancer patients. These archetypes can be included in EHR. Future studies are needed to assess their applicability in other areas and their practical impact on data quality, system interoperability and, ultimately, on clinical practice and research.

19.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2020 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32766851

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Parity is associated with decreased risk of invasive ovarian cancer; however, the relationship between incomplete pregnancies and invasive ovarian cancer risk is unclear. This relationship was examined using 15 case-control studies from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium (OCAC). Histotype-specific associations, which have not been examined previously with large sample sizes, were also evaluated. METHODS: A pooled analysis of 10,470 invasive epithelial ovarian cancer cases and 16,942 controls was conducted. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the association between incomplete pregnancies and invasive epithelial ovarian cancer were estimated using logistic regression. All models were conditioned on OCAC study, race/ethnicity, age, and education level, and adjusted for number of complete pregnancies, oral contraceptive use, and history of breastfeeding. The same approach was used for histotype-specific analyses. RESULTS: Ever having an incomplete pregnancy was associated with a 16% reduction in ovarian cancer risk (OR = 0.84, 95% CI = 0.79 to 0.89). There was a trend of decreasing risk with increasing number of incomplete pregnancies (two-sided Ptrend <.001). An inverse association was observed for all major histotypes; it was strongest for clear cell ovarian cancer. CONCLUSIONS: Incomplete pregnancies are associated with a reduced risk of invasive epithelial ovarian cancer. Pregnancy, including incomplete pregnancy, was associated with a greater reduction in risk of clear cell ovarian cancer, but the result was broadly consistent across histotypes. Future work should focus on understanding the mechanisms underlying this reduced risk.

20.
Gynecol Oncol ; 158(3): 702-709, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32641237

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Prior studies of menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) and ovarian cancer survival have been limited by lack of hormone regimen detail and insufficient sample sizes. To address these limitations, a comprehensive analysis of 6419 post-menopausal women with pathologically confirmed ovarian carcinoma was conducted to examine the association between MHT use prior to diagnosis and survival. METHODS: Data from 15 studies in the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium were included. MHT use was examined by type (estrogen-only (ET) or estrogen+progestin (EPT)), duration, and recency of use relative to diagnosis. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the association between hormone therapy use and survival. Logistic regression and mediation analysis was used to explore the relationship between MHT use and residual disease following debulking surgery. RESULTS: Use of ET or EPT for at least five years prior to diagnosis was associated with better ovarian cancer survival (hazard ratio, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.74 to 0.87). Among women with advanced stage, high-grade serous carcinoma, those who used MHT were less likely to have any macroscopic residual disease at the time of primary debulking surgery (p for trend <0.01 for duration of MHT use). Residual disease mediated some (17%) of the relationship between MHT and survival. CONCLUSIONS: Pre-diagnosis MHT use for 5+ years was a favorable prognostic factor for women with ovarian cancer. This large study is consistent with prior smaller studies, and further work is needed to understand the underlying mechanism.

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