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1.
Clin Nutr ; 2020 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32075745

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Some previous evidence have linked dairy products with greater muscle mass, bone mineral density and lower risk of osteoporosis. However, there is also evidence of a detrimental effect of milk on the risk of hip fracture. The aim of this study was to assess the prospective association between dairy consumption and risk of falls in older adults. METHODS: We used data from 2 cohorts of community-dwellers aged ≥60y: the Seniors-ENRICA cohort with 2981 individuals, and the UK Biobank cohort with 8927 participants. In the Seniors-ENRICA, dairy consumption was assessed with a validated diet history in 2008-10, and falls were ascertained up to 2015. In the UK Biobank study, dairy consumption was obtained with 3-5 multiple-pass 24-h food records in 2006-10, and falls were assessed up to 2016. RESULTS: A total of 801 individuals in the Seniors-ENRICA and 201 in the UK Biobank experienced ≥1 fall. After adjustment for potential confounders, dairy products were not associated with risk of falls in the Seniors-ENRICA [hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) per 1-serving increment in total dairy consumption: 1.02 (0.93-1.11), milk: 0.93 (0.85-1.01), yogurt: 1.05 (0.96-1.15), and cheese: 0.96 (0.88-1.05)]. Corresponding figures in the UK Biobank were: total dairy: 1.19 (1.00-1.41), milk: 1.53 (1.13-2.08), yogurt: 1.10 (0.90-1.31), and cheese: 1.02 (0.87-1.22). CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest a null association between habitual dairy consumption and the risk of falling in older adults. Whether milk consumption may increase the risk of falls, as observed in the UK Biobank cohort, merits further study.

3.
J Hypertens ; 2020 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31977571

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Air in urban areas is usually contaminated with particle matter. High concentrations lead to a rise in the risk of cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. Some studies have reported that ultrafine particles (UFP) play a greater role in cardiovascular diseases than other particle matter, particularly regarding hypertensive crises and DBP, although in the latter such effects were described concerning clinical blood pressure (BP). In this study, we evaluate the relationship between 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM) and atmospheric UFP concentrations in Barcelona. METHODS: An observational study of individual patients' temporal and geographical characteristics attended in Primary Care Centres and Hypertensive Units during 2009-2014 was performed. RESULTS: The participants were 521 hypertensive patients, mean age 56.8 years (SD 14.5), 52.4% were women. Mean BMI was 28.0 kg/m and the most prominent cardiovascular risk factors were diabetes (N = 66, 12.7%) and smoking (N = 79, 15.2%). We describe UFP effects at short-term and up to 1 week (from lag 0 to 7). For every 10 000 particle/cm UFP increase measured at an urban background site, a corresponding statistically significant increase of 2.7 mmHg [95% confidence interval = (0.5-4.8)] in 24-h DBP with ABPM for the following day was observed (lag 1). CONCLUSION: We have observed that a rise in UFP concentrations during the day prior to ABPM is significantly associated with an increase in 24 h and diurnal DBP. It has been increasingly demonstrated that UFP play a key role in cardiovascular risk factors and, as we have demonstrated, in good BP control.

4.
Eur J Prev Cardiol ; : 2047487319896138, 2020 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31914797

RESUMO

A low prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus has been reported in familial hypercholesterolaemia. Whether a healthier lifestyle could explain it has not been explored. This cross-sectional study determines the prevalence of lifestyle-related cardiovascular risk factors in heterozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia (HeFH) from the Dyslipidaemia Registry of the Spanish Atherosclerosis Society and in the ENRICA study, a representative sample of the adult Spanish general population, weighted to match the age and sex distribution of the HeFH sample. A total of 2185 HeFH patients and 11,856 individuals from ENRICA were included. HeFH had lower body mass index and fewer of them were smokers than in the reference population. A model adjusted for age, sex and body mass index showed that HeFH more frequently had cardiovascular disease (odds ratio (OR) 23.98; 95% confidence interval (CI) 18.40-31.23) and hypertension (OR 1.20; 95% CI 1.07-1.35), and took anti-hypertensive medication (OR 1.36; 95% CI 1.18-1.56) and anti-diabetic medication (OR 1.25; 95% CI 1.00-1.56), but less frequently were smokers (OR 0.79; 95% CI 0.71-0.89). In a HeFH subsample (n = 513) with complete blood glucose information, those patients without cardiovascular disease showed lower prevalence of smoking and type 2 diabetes mellitus, lower body mass index and glucose, and higher diastolic blood pressure than the Spanish population. The differences in type 2 diabetes mellitus were justified mostly by the difference in body mass index. Body mass index adjustment also showed higher prevalence of hypertension and use of anti-hypertensive drugs in HeFH. In summary, HeFH patients had lower body mass index, which may contribute to explaining the lower prevalence of diabetes, and lower current smoking but higher hypertension.

6.
Hypertension ; : HYPERTENSIONAHA11914508, 2020 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31983311

RESUMO

The prognostic relevance of short-term blood pressure (BP) variability in hypertension is not clearly established. We aimed to evaluate the association of short-term BP variability, assessed through ambulatory BP monitoring, with total and cardiovascular mortality in a large cohort of patients with hypertension. We selected 63 910 subjects from the Spanish ABPM Registry from 2004 to 2014, with a median follow-up of 4.7 years. Systolic and diastolic BP SD from 24 hours, daytime, and nighttime, weighted SD (mean of daytime and nighttime SD weighted for period duration), average real variability (mean of differences between consecutive readings), variation independent of the mean, and BP variability ratio (ratio between systolic and diastolic 24-hour SD) were calculated through 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring performed at baseline. Association with total and cardiovascular mortality (obtained through death certificates) were assessed by Cox regression models adjusted for clinical confounders and BP. Patients who died during follow-up had higher values of BP variability compared with those remaining alive. In fully adjusted models, daytime, nighttime, and weighted SD, systolic and diastolic, as well as diastolic average real variability, were all significantly associated with total and cardiovascular mortality. Hazard ratios for 1 SD increase ranged from 1.05 to 1.09 for total mortality and from 1.07 to 1.12 for cardiovascular mortality. A nighttime systolic SD ≥12 mm Hg was independently associated with total (hazard ratio: 1.13 [95% CI, 1.06-1.21]) and cardiovascular mortality (hazard ratio: 1.21 [95% CI, 1.09-1.36]). We conclude that short-term BP variability is independently associated with total and cardiovascular mortality in patients with hypertension.

7.
Rev Esp Cardiol (Engl Ed) ; 73(1): 11-13, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31405793
8.
Clin Nutr ; 39(1): 185-191, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30737049

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Certain foods and dietary patterns have been associated with both inflammation and frailty. As chronic inflammation may play a role in frailty and disability, we examined the association of the inflammatory potential of diet with these outcomes. METHODS: Data were taken from 1948 community-dwelling individuals ≥60 years old from the Seniors-ENRICA cohort, who were recruited in 2008-2010 and followed-up through 2012. Baseline diet data, obtained with a validated diet history, was used to calculate Shivappa's Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII), an "a priori" pattern score which is based on known associations of foods and nutrients with inflammation, and Tabung's Empirical Dietary Inflammatory Index (EDII), an "a posteriori" pattern score which was statistically derived from an epidemiological study. At follow-up, incident frailty was assessed with Fried's criteria, and incident limitation in instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) with the Lawton-Brody index. Statistical analyses were performed with logistic regression, and adjusted for the main confounders. RESULTS: Compared with individuals in the lowest tertile of DII, those in the highest tertile showed higher risk of frailty (odds ratio [OR] 2.48; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.42, 4.44, p-trend = 0.001) and IADL disability (OR: 1.96; 95% CI: 1.03, 3.86, p-trend = 0.035). By contrast, EDII did not show an association with these outcomes. The DII score was associated with slow gait speed, both as a low score in the Short Physical Performance Battery test (OR: 1.82; 95% CI: 1.27, 2.62, p-trend = 0.001) and as a positive Fried's criterion (OR: 1.64; 95% CI: 1.08, 2.51, p-trend = 0.021), which use different thresholds. CONCLUSIONS: DII predicted frailty and IADL while EDII did not. DII is able to measure diet healthiness in terms of physical decline in addition to avoidance of inflammation. REGISTERED ON: ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01133093.

9.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 94(11): 2178-2188, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31623843

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the prospective association between ultra-processed food consumption and all-cause mortality and to examine the effect of theoretical iso-caloric non-processed foods substitution. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A population-based cohort of 11,898 individuals (mean age 46.9 years, and 50.5% women) were selected from the ENRICA study, a representative sample of the noninstitutionalized Spanish population. Dietary information was collected by a validated computer-based dietary history and categorized according to their degree of processing using NOVA classification. Total mortality was obtained from the National Death Index. Follow-up lasted from baseline (2008-2010) to mortality date or December 31th, 2016, whichever was first. The association between quartiles of consumption of ultra-processed food and mortality was analyzed by Cox models adjusted for the main confounders. Restricted cubic-splines were used to assess dose-response relationships when using iso-caloric substitutions. RESULTS: Average consumption of ultra-processed food was 385 g/d (24.4% of the total energy intake). After a mean follow-up of 7.7 years (93,599 person-years), 440 deaths occurred. The hazard ratio (and 95% CI) for mortality in the highest versus the lowest quartile of ultra-processed food consumption was 1.44 (95% CI, 1.01-2.07; P trend=.03) in percent of energy and 1.46 (95% CI, 1.04-2.05; P trend=.03) in grams per day per kilogram. Isocaloric substitution of ultra-processed food with unprocessed or minimally processed foods was associated with a significant nonlinear decrease in mortality. CONCLUSION: A higher consumption of ultra-processed food was associated with higher mortality in the general population. Furthermore, the theoretical iso-caloric substitution ultra-processed food by unprocessed or minimally processed foods would suppose a reduction of the mortality risk. If confirmed, these findings support the necessity of the development of new nutritional policies and guides at the national and international level. TRIAL REGISTRATION: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01133093.


Assuntos
Dieta/efeitos adversos , Fast Foods/efeitos adversos , Mortalidade/tendências , Adulto , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Causas de Morte , Estudos de Coortes , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Fast Foods/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Valor Nutritivo , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Espanha
10.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 94(9): 1707-1717, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31486377

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To identify the factors associated with the excess risk of pain observed among older women compared with men. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We used information from a cohort of 851 women and men age 63 years and older who were free of pain during 2012 and were followed up to December 31, 2015. Sociodemographic variables, health behaviors, psychosocial factors, morbidity, and functional limitations were assessed in 2012 during home visits. Incident pain in 2015 was classified according to its frequency, intensity, and number of localizations into lowest, middle, and highest categories. RESULTS: During a mean follow-up of 2.8 years, the incidence of middle and highest pain was 12.5% and 22.6% in women and 12.4% and 12.6% in men, respectively. The age-adjusted relative risk ratios and 95% CIs of middle and highest pain in women versus men were 1.20 (0.79-1.83) and 2.03 (1.40-2.94), respectively. In a mediation analysis, a higher frequency in women than men of osteomuscular disease, impaired mobility, and impaired agility accounted, respectively, for 31.1%, 46.6%, and 32.0% of the excess risk of highest pain in women compared with men. Other relevant mediators were psychological distress (25.2%), depression (8.7%), poor sleep quality (10.7%), and lower recreational physical activity (12.6%). CONCLUSION: A greater frequency of some chronic diseases, worse functional status, psychological distress, and lower physical activity can mediate the excess risk of pain in older women compared with men. TRIAL REGISTRATION: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT02804672.


Assuntos
Dor Crônica/diagnóstico , Dor Crônica/epidemiologia , Avaliação Geriátrica , Medição da Dor , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Espanha
11.
J Hypertens ; 37(7): 1393-1400, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31145710

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Unlike the 2018 European Society of Cardiology/European Society of Hypertension (ESC/ESH) guideline, the 2017 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) guideline has recommended a shift in hypertension definition from blood pressure (BP) 140/90-130/80 mmHg. Further, they proposed somewhat different indications for antihypertensive medication. No data are available on the comprehensive impact of these guidelines in European countries, where physicians do not always follow guidelines from their own continent. We estimated the prevalence of hypertension, recommendations for antihypertensive medication, and cardiometabolic goals achieved in Spain using the ESC/ESH versus ACC/AHA guidelines. METHODS: We analyzed data from a national survey on 12074 individuals representative of the population aged at least 18 years in Spain. BP was measured with standardized procedures. RESULTS: According to the ESC/ESH and ACC/AHA guidelines, hypertension prevalence was 33.1% (95% confidence interval: 32.2-33.9%) and 46.9% (46.0-47.8%), respectively, and antihypertensive medication was recommended for 33.5% (32.7-34.3%) and 37.2% (36.3-38.1%) of adults, respectively. This represents 5.3 more million hypertensive patients and 1.4 more million candidates for medication (for a 40-million-adults' country) using the ACC/AHA versus the ESC/ESH guideline. Participants who were hypertensive under the ACC/AHA but not the ESC/ESH guideline achieved less frequently some cardiometabolic goals (e.g. nonsmoking, reduced salt consumption, LDL cholesterol if hypercholesterolemic, lifestyle medical advice, and treatment with renin-angiotensin-system blockers where indicated) than those who were hypertensive under the ESC/ESH guideline. CONCLUSION: The implementation of the ACC/AHA versus the ESC/ESH guideline would result in a substantial increase in the prevalence of hypertension and the number of adults who should receive medication. There is room for improvement in lifestyles and cardioprotective treatment in individuals with BP of 130-9/80-9 mmHg whether they are called hypertensive (ACC/AHA) or not (ESC/ESH). We suggest that clinical-practice guidelines should consider the public health and costs implications, and not only the evidence on effectiveness and cost-effectiveness, of their recommendations.

12.
Hypertension ; 74(1): 130-136, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31132953

RESUMO

United States and European guidelines have recommended new treatment goals for office blood pressure (BP). We examined 9784 hypertensives of the Spanish Ambulatory BP Monitoring (ABPM) registry with office BP treated to the prior goal (<140/90 mm Hg); and evaluated the frequency and all-cause mortality of 4 BP strata depending on whether or not they attained more conservative or new office BP goal (130-139/80-89 and <130/80 mm Hg, respectively) and whether or not BP was controlled according to ABPM criteria in the European and US guidelines (24-hour ambulatory BP <130/80 and <125/75 mm Hg, respectively). Whether achieving or not the new office BP goal, the total-mortality risk during a 5-year follow-up was only significantly higher than the reference (normal office BP and ABPM) when 24-hour ambulatory BP was above goal (hazard ratio from multivariable Cox models was in the range of 2.4-2.9; P<0.001). The frequency of patients achieving the new office BP goal was 34.4%, and the frequencies of those not achieving the ABPM goal were 31.6% and 53.7% using the 130/80 or the 125/75 ABPM goal, respectively. Mean office systolic BP was 129 mm Hg for patients not achieving the ABPM goal. In hypertensive patients controlled under prior office BP goal, the frequency of those achieving new office BP goal <130/80 was high, suggesting this goal can be attained. In addition, patients had a higher mortality risk only when ABPM was above goal despite having mean office systolic BP under control, a condition that was also common.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Monitorização Ambulatorial da Pressão Arterial/normas , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto/normas , Sistema de Registros , Idoso , Determinação da Pressão Arterial/normas , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Metas , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Valores de Referência , Espanha , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Geriatr Gerontol Int ; 19(6): 537-540, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30912276

RESUMO

AIM: The relationship between sleeping characteristics and antihypertensive medication is little known. We examined the association of sleep quality or duration and the use of sleeping pills with the number of antihypertensive drugs used in older adults. METHODS: This was a prospective cohort study of treated hypertensive patients aged ≥60 years participating in a seniors cohort, followed from 2008 to 2010 through 2012 to 2013. Self-reported sleep duration, sleep quality (usually having difficulty falling asleep or staying asleep) and sleeping pills use were ascertained at baseline, and the change in the number of antihypertensive drugs (active agents) between 2008-2010 and 2012-2013 was calculated. Analyses were carried out with logistic regression, and adjusted for demographics, lifestyle, comorbidity, baseline number of antihypertensive drugs and hypertension control. RESULTS: Among the 752 participants at baseline (mean age 69.9 years, 49.2% men), the mean sleep duration was 6.9 h/day, 37% had poor sleep quality, 16.5% usually consumed sleeping pills and the mean number of antihypertensive drugs was 1.8. During the follow-up period, 156 (20.7%) patients increased the number of antihypertensive drugs. No association was found between sleep duration or quality and the change in antihypertensive drug use. Usual sleeping pills consumption was associated with a higher risk of increasing (vs decreasing/maintaining) the number of antihypertensive drugs (odds ratio 1.85; 95% confidence interval 1.12-3.07, P-value 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: Consumption of sleeping pills was prospectively linked to an increased number of antihypertensive drugs. "Sleeping pill use" might be an indicator of future needs of antihypertensive treatment, and a warning indicator to investigate underlying sleep disorders or unhealthy lifestyles. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2019; 19: 537-540.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Medicamentos Indutores do Sono/uso terapêutico , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/tratamento farmacológico , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/epidemiologia , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Espanha/epidemiologia
14.
Public Health Nutr ; 22(8): 1433-1443, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30732662

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Healthy lifestyle habits are the cornerstone in the management of familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH). Nevertheless, dietary studies on FH-affected populations are scarce. The present study analyses dietary habits, adherence to a Mediterranean diet pattern and physical activity in an adult population with FH and compares them with their non-affected relatives. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Data came from SAFEHEART, a nationwide study in Spain.ParticipantsIndividuals (n 3714) aged ≥18 years with a genetic diagnosis of FH (n2736) and their non-affected relatives (n 978). Food consumption was evaluated using a validated FFQ. RESULTS: Total energy intake was lower in FH patients v. non-affected relatives (P<0·005). Percentage of energy from fats was also lower in the FH population (35 % in men, 36 % in women) v. those non-affected (38 % in both sexes, P<0·005), due to the lower consumption of saturated fats (12·1 % in FH patients, 13·2 % in non-affected, P<0·005). Consumption of sugars was lower in FH patients v. non-affected relatives (P<0·05). Consumption of vegetables, fish and skimmed milk was higher in the FH population (P<0·005). Patients with FH showed greater adherence to a Mediterranean diet pattern v. non-affected relatives (P<0·005). Active smoking was lower and moderate physical activity was higher in people with FH, especially women (P<0·005). CONCLUSIONS: Adult patients with FH report healthier lifestyles than their non-affected family members. They eat a healthier diet, perform more physical activity and smoke less. However, this patient group's consumption of saturated fats and sugars still exceeds guidelines.

15.
J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci ; 74(7): 1091-1097, 2019 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30052782

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The beneficial effect of nut consumption preventing cardio-metabolic diseases and cancer suggests that nuts might also protect from physical function impairment in older people since aging-related functional decline shares biological pathways with these chronic diseases. The objective was to examine the association between nut consumption and impairment of physical function in older adults. METHODS: Prospective study with 3,289 individuals aged ≥60 years from the Seniors-ENRICA cohort. In 2008-2010 and 2012 nut consumption was measured with a validated diet history. Participants were followed-up until 2015 to ascertain incident impaired physical function, specifically impaired agility, mobility, grip strength, gait speed, and overall physical function. Statistical analyses were performed with Cox regression and adjusted for the main confounders, including a wide set of socioeconomic, lifestyle, dietary, and morbidity variables. RESULTS: Overall, 65.7% of participants consumed any type of nuts. The mean intake among nut consumers was 15.1 g/d in men and 14.6 g/d in women. Median consumption of nuts was 11.5 g/d in both sexes. Men consuming ≥11.5 g/d of nuts had a lower risk of impaired agility and mobility than those who did not consume nuts; the hazard ratios (95% confidence interval (CI); p for linear trend) were 0.59 (0.39-0.90; p = .01) and 0.50 (0.29-0.90; p = .02), respectively. In women, compared with nonconsumers, the hazard ratio (95% CI; p for linear trend) of impaired overall physical function for nut intake ≥11.5 g/d was 0.65 (0.48-0.87; p = .004). No association was observed between nut consumption and low grip strength and slow gait speed. CONCLUSIONS: Nut consumption was associated with half the risk of impaired agility and mobility in men and with a lower risk of overall physical function impairment in women. The suggested protective effect of nut consumption on physical functioning merits further examination.

16.
Addiction ; 114(1): 59-68, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30063272

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Observational evidence that light-to-moderate alcohol consumption lowers mortality is questioned because of potential selection biases and residual confounding. We assess the association between alcohol intake and all-cause death in older adults after accounting for those methodological issues. METHODS: Data came from 3045 individuals representative of the non-institutionalized population aged ≥ 60 years in Spain. Participants were recruited in 2008-10, when they reported current and life-time alcohol intake; drinkers were classified as occasional (< 1.43 g/day), light (≥ 1.43 but < 20 g/day for men and ≥ 1.43 but < 10 g/day for women), moderate (≥ 20 but < 40 g/day for men and ≥ 10 but < 20 g/day for women) or heavy (≥ 40 g/day for men and ≥ 24 g/day for women)/binge. Participants were followed-up to 2017 to assess vital status. In analyses, ex-drinkers were removed from the abstainer group and were classified according to their life-time intake to address the 'abstainer bias'. Moreover, analyses were replicated in individuals without functional limitations, and excluded deaths in the first year of follow-up, to address reverse causation. Also, occasional drinkers were used as reference in some analyses to reduce the 'healthy drinker/survivor' bias. Results were adjusted for many covariates to minimize residual confounding. RESULTS: Compared with never-drinkers, the hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) of mortality for light drinkers was 1.05 (0.71-1.56) and 1.20 (0.72-2.02) in those without functional limitations. Corresponding values for moderate drinkers were 1.28 (0.81-2.02) and 1.55 (0.87-2.75) and for heavy/binge drinkers 1.85 (1.07-3.23) and 2.15 (1.09-4.22). Results were consistent when occasional drinkers were used as reference. Among drinkers without functional limitations, the hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) of mortality per 10 g/day of alcohol was 1.12 (1.02-1.23). CONCLUSION: After accounting for potential biases, light-to-moderate drinking among people 60+ years of age appears to have no statistically significant benefit on mortality compared with abstention from alcohol. By contrast, heavy/binge drinking shows a higher death risk compared with abstention from alcohol. Alcohol intake appears to have a positive dose-response with mortality among drinkers.

17.
J Am Geriatr Soc ; 67(2): 329-335, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30517767

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prospective association between protein intake and falls has been little studied. We assessed this association in a Spanish community-dwelling cohort. METHODS: We performed a prospective cohort study of 2464 men and women 60 years or older who were recruited in 2008-2010 and followed up through 2012. At baseline, the habitual protein intake was determined with a validated dietary history. At the end of follow-up, participants reported the number of falls experienced in the preceding year. Participants were stratified by an unintentional weight loss of 4.5 kg or more. Logistic regression was used after adjustment for the main confounders. RESULTS: A total of 522 participants (21.2%) experienced at least one fall. The odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of falling for the three increasing tertiles of total protein intake were 1.00, 0.86 (0.66-1.11), and 0.93 (0.70-1.24) (p for trend = 0.14). However, a statistically significant interaction with unintentional weight loss was observed for the association between protein intake and fall risk (p for interaction = 0.004). Among 163 participants (6.6%) who experienced unintentional weight loss, the ORs (95% CI) of falling for the three increasing tertiles of total protein intake were 1.00, 0.68 (0.21-2.23), and 0.23 (0.05-1.08) (p for trend = 0.01). CONCLUSION: No protective association between protein intake and fall risk in older adults was found. However, high total protein intake tended to confer substantial benefits to participants who experienced an unintentional weight loss of 4.5 kg or more in the preceding year. J Am Geriatr Soc 67:329-335, 2019.


Assuntos
Acidentes por Quedas/estatística & dados numéricos , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Proteínas na Dieta/análise , Vida Independente/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Espanha/epidemiologia , Perda de Peso
18.
Nefrología (Madrid) ; 38(6): 606-615, nov.-dic. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-178390

RESUMO

Introducción: La enfermedad renal crónica (ERC) constituye un problema de salud pública a nivel mundial. Los objetivos de este estudio fueron estimar la prevalencia de ERC en España y evaluar el impacto de la acumulación de factores de riesgo cardiovascular (FRCV) en la prevalencia. Material y métodos: Análisis del Estudio de Nutrición y Riesgo Cardiovascular en España (ENRICA), estudio epidemiológico de ámbito nacional, de base poblacional, con una muestra de 11.505 sujetos representativos de la población adulta española. La información se recogió mediante cuestionarios estandarizados, exploración física y colección de muestras de sangre y orina que se analizaron en un laboratorio centralizado. La ERC se definió según las guías KDIGO en curso. Se analizó la relación de la ERC con 10 FRCV (edad, hipertensión arterial, obesidad, obesidad abdominal, tabaquismo, colesterol LDL elevado, colesterol HDL disminuido, hipertrigliceridemia, diabetes y sedentarismo. Resultados: La prevalencia de ERC fue del 15,1% (IC 95%: 14,3-16,0). La ERC fue más frecuente en varones (23,1% vs. 7,3% en mujeres), según aumentaba la edad (4,8% en sujetos de 18-44 años, 17,4% en sujetos de 45-64 años, y 37,3% en sujetos ≥ 65 años), y en sujetos con enfermedad cardiovascular (39,8% vs. 14,6% en sujetos sin enfermedad cardiovascular); todas las comparaciones con p < 0,001. La ERC afectó al 4,5% de los sujetos con 0-1FRCV, con un aumento progresivo desde el 10,4 al 52,3% en sujetos con 2 a 8-10FRCV (p de tendencia < 0,001). Conclusiones: La ERC afecta a uno de cada 7 adultos en España, una prevalencia más elevada que la estimada en estudios previos en nuestro país y similar a la observada en Estados Unidos. La ERC afecta particularmente a los varones, a sujetos de edad avanzada o con enfermedad cardiovascular. La prevalencia de ERC aumenta de forma marcada con la acumulación de FRCV, lo que sugiere que la ERC en la población podría considerarse como un trastorno cardiovascular


Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a public health problem worldwide. We aimed to estimate the CKD prevalence in Spain and to examine the impact of the accumulation of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF). Material and methods: We performed a nationwide, population-based survey evaluating 11,505 individuals representative of the Spanish adult population. Information was collected through standardised questionnaires, physical examination, and analysis of blood and urine samples in a central laboratory. CKD was graded according to current KDIGO definitions. The relationship between CKD and 10CVRF was assessed (age, hypertension, general obesity, abdominal obesity, smoking, high LDL-cholesterol, low HDL-cholesterol, hypertriglyceridaemia, diabetes and sedentary lifestyle). Results: Prevalence of CKD was 15.1% (95%CI: 14.3-16.0%). CKD was more common in men (23.1% vs 7.3% in women), increased with age (4.8% in 18-44 age group, 17.4% in 45-64 age group, and 37.3% in ≥ 65), and was more common in those with than those without cardiovascular disease (39.8% vs 14.6%); all P <.001. CKD affected 4.5% of subjects with 0-1CVRF, and then progressively increased from 10.4% to 52.3% in subjects with 2 to 8-10CVRF (P trend <.001). Conclusions: CKD affects one in seven adults in Spain. The prevalence is higher than previously reported and similar to that in the United States. CKD was particularly prevalent in men, older people and people with cardiovascular disease. Prevalence of CKD increased considerably with the accumulation of CVRF, suggesting that CKD could be considered as a cardiovascular condition


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Fatores de Risco , Espanha/epidemiologia , Prevalência
20.
Hypertension ; 72(4): 862-869, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30354717

RESUMO

The prognostic relevance of masked uncontrolled hypertension (MUCH) is incompletely clear, and its global impact on cardiovascular outcomes and mortality has not been assessed. The aim of this study was to perform a meta-analysis on the prognostic value of MUCH. We searched for articles assessing outcome in patients with MUCH compared with those with controlled hypertension (CH) and reporting adjusted hazard ratio and 95% CI. We identified 6 studies using ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (12 610 patients with 933 events) and 5 using home blood pressure measurement (17 742 patients with 394 events). The global population included 30 352 patients who experienced 1327 events. Selected studies had cardiovascular outcomes and all-cause mortality as primary outcome, and the main result is a composite of these events. The overall adjusted hazard ratio was 1.80 (95% CI, 1.57-2.06) for MUCH versus CH. Subgroup meta-analysis showed that adjusted hazard ratio was 1.83 (95% CI, 1.52-2.21) in studies using ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and 1.75 (95% CI, 1.38-2.20) in those using home blood pressure measurement. Risk was significantly higher in MUCH than in CH independently of follow-up length and types of studied events. MUCH was at significantly higher risk than CH in all ethnic groups, but the highest hazard ratio was found in studies, including black patients. Risk of cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality is significantly higher in patients with MUCH than in those with CH. MUCH detected by ambulatory or home blood pressure measurement seems to convey similar prognostic information.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Hipertensão Mascarada , Idoso , Determinação da Pressão Arterial/métodos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Hipertensão Mascarada/diagnóstico , Hipertensão Mascarada/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Prognóstico , Medição de Risco/métodos , Fatores de Risco
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