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1.
Popul Health Manag ; 2021 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33535008

RESUMO

Unmet basic needs (eg, food insecurity, inadequate housing) are major barriers to diabetes self-management. The purpose of this study was to identify the prevalence of unmet basic needs and examine the association with diabetes control and care utilization among insured persons with diabetes. A total of 4043 adult patients with diabetes were screened for unmet basic needs using Your Current Life Situation, a screener for unmet basic needs, during a clinical encounter or as an online survey, during the study period (January 1, 2016-August 31, 2017). Hemoglobin A1c and care utilization (outpatient, emergency department [ED], hospitalization, diabetes-related prescription refills) were extracted from the electronic health record 12 months prior to screening. The authors compared patients with unmet basic needs to those with no needs on poor diabetes control (ie, A1c ≥8%) and care utilization using multivariable regression models. Of the 4043 patients screened, 25% endorsed ≥1 unmet basic need. In adjusted analyses, the presence of unmet basic needs was associated with an increased likelihood of having an A1c ≥8% (OR = 1.77; 95% CI 1.47, 2.13), more outpatient visits (incidence rate ratio [IRR] = 1.3; 1.2, 1.4), more ED visits (IRR = 2.3; 2.0, 2.6), more hospitalizations (IRR = 1.8; 1.5, 2.2), and more delays in refilling diabetes medication (IRR = 1.21; 1.13, 1.30). Findings indicate that unmet basic needs are highly prevalent, even among an insured patient population, and are associated with poor diabetes-related clinical outcomes and excess utilization. Future studies to determine best strategies to integrate this information into treatment planning are warranted.

2.
J Gen Intern Med ; 2021 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33469762

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Financial burden can affect healthcare utilization. Few studies have assessed the short-term associations between material (debt, trouble paying rent) and psychological (worry or distress about affording future healthcare) financial risks, and subsequent outpatient and emergency healthcare use. Worry was defined as concerns about affording future healthcare. OBJECTIVE: Examine whether worry about affording healthcare is associated with healthcare utilization when controlling for material risk and general anxiety DESIGN: Longitudinal observational study PARTICIPANTS: Kaiser Permanente members with exchange-based federally subsidized health insurance (n = 450, 45% response rate) MAIN MEASURES: Survey measures of financial risks (material difficulty paying for medical care and worry about affording healthcare) and general anxiety. Healthcare use (primary care, urgent care, emergency department, and outpatient specialty visits) in the 6 months following survey completion. KEY RESULTS: Emergency department and primary care visits were not associated with material risk, worry about affording care, or general anxiety in individual and pooled analyses (all 95% confidence intervals (CI) for relative risk (RR) included 1). Although no individual predictor was associated with urgent care use (all 95% CIs for RR included 1), worry about affording prescriptions (relative risk (RR) = 2.01; 95% CI 1.14, 3.55) and general anxiety (RR = 0.38; 95% CI 0.15, 0.95) were significant when included in the same model, suggesting the two confounded each other. Worry about affording healthcare services was associated with fewer specialty care visits (RR = 0.40; 95% CI 0.25, 0.64) even when controlling for material risk and general anxiety, although general anxiety was also associated with more specialty care visits (RR = 1.98; 95% CI, 1.23, 3.18). CONCLUSIONS: Screening for both general anxiety and financial worry may assist with specialty care utilization. Identifying these concerns may provide more opportunities to assist patients. Future research should examine interventions to reduce worry about cost of care.

3.
JAMA Intern Med ; 2021 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33464296

RESUMO

Importance: Whether guideline-concordant lung nodule evaluations lead to better outcomes remains unknown. Objective: To examine the association between the intensity of lung nodule diagnostic evaluations and outcomes, safety, and health expenditures. Design, Setting, and Participants: This comparative effectiveness research study analyzed health plan enrollees at Kaiser Permanente Washington in Seattle, Washington, and Marshfield Clinic in Marshfield, Wisconsin, with an incidental lung nodule detected between January 1, 2005, and December 31, 2015. Included patients were 35 years or older, had no high suspicion of infection, had no history of malignant neoplasm, and had no evidence of advanced lung cancer on nodule detection. Data analysis was conducted from January 7 to August 19, 2020. Exposures: With the 2005 Fleischner Society guidelines (selected for their applicability to the time frame under investigation) as the comparator, 2 other intensities of lung nodule evaluation were defined. Guideline-concordant evaluation followed the guidelines. Less intensive evaluation was the absence of recommended testing, longer-than-recommended surveillance intervals, or less invasive testing than recommended. More intensive evaluation consisted of testing when the guidelines recommended no further testing, shorter-than-recommended surveillance intervals, or more invasive testing than recommended. Main Outcomes and Measures: The main outcome was the proportion of patients with lung cancer who had stage III or IV disease, radiation exposure, procedure-related adverse events, and health expenditures 2 years after nodule detection. Results: Among the 5057 individuals included in this comparative effectiveness research study, 1925 (38%) received guideline-concordant, 1863 (37%) less intensive, and 1269 (25%) more intensive diagnostic evaluations. The entire cohort comprised 2786 female patients (55%), and the mean (SD) age was 67 (13) years. Adjusted analyses showed that compared with guideline-concordant evaluations, less intensive evaluations were associated with fewer procedure-related adverse events (risk difference [RD], -5.9%; 95% CI, -7.2% to -4.6%), lower mean radiation exposure (-9.5 milliSieverts [mSv]; 95% CI, -10.3 mSv to -8.7 mSv), and lower mean health expenditures (-$10 916; 95% CI, -$16 112 to -$5719); no difference in stage III or IV disease was found among patients diagnosed with lung cancer (RD, 4.6%; 95% CI, -22% to +31%). More intensive evaluations were associated with more procedure-related adverse events (RD, +8.1%; 95% CI, +5.6% to +11%), higher mean radiation exposure (+6.8 mSv; 95% CI, +5.8 mSv to +7.8 mSv), and higher mean health expenditures ($20 132; 95% CI, +$14 398 to +$25 868); no difference in stage III or IV disease was observed (RD, -0.5%; 95% CI, -28% to +27%). Conclusions and Relevance: This study found inconclusive evidence of an association between less intensive diagnostic evaluations and more advanced stage at lung cancer diagnosis compared with guideline-concordant care; higher intensities of diagnostic evaluations were associated with greater procedural complications, radiation exposure, and expenditures. These findings underscore the need for more evidence on better ways to evaluate lung nodules and to avoid unnecessarily intensive diagnostic evaluations of lung nodules.

4.
Cancer Med ; 9(23): 9168-9177, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33159501

RESUMO

African American cancer survivors disproportionately experience financial difficulties after cancer. Decreased work participation (going from being employed full time to part time or from employed to not employed) can contribute to financial hardship after cancer but employment outcomes among African American cancer survivors have not been well described. This study estimates the prevalence of work changes and identifies factors associated with decreased work participation among African American cancer survivors. We analyzed data from 916 African American breast, colorectal, lung, and prostate cancer survivors who participated in the Detroit Research on Cancer Survivors (ROCS) cohort and were employed before their cancer diagnosis. Modified Poisson models estimated prevalence ratios of decreased work participation and work changes, including changes to hours, duties, or schedules, between diagnosis and ROCS enrollment controlling for sociodemographic and cancer-related factors. Nearly half of employed survivors made changes to their schedules, duties, or hours worked due to cancer and 34.6% took at least one month off of work, including 18% who took at least one month of unpaid time off. More survivors employed full time (vs. part time) at diagnosis were on disability at ROCS enrollment (18.7% vs. 12.6%, P < 0.001), while fewer were unemployed (5.9% vs. 15.7%, P < 0.001). Nearly half (47.5%) of employed survivors decreased work participation. Taking paid time off was not associated with decreased work participation; however, taking unpaid time off and making work changes were associated with prevalence ratios of decreased work participation of 1.29 (95% CI: 1.03, 1.62) and 1.37 (95% CI: 1.07, 1.75), respectively. Employment disruptions are common after a cancer diagnosis. Survivors who take unpaid time off and make other work changes may be particularly vulnerable to experiencing decreased work participation.

5.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0240822, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33147232

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Social determinants of health (SDoHs) and social risks (SRs) have been associated with adverse health and healthcare utilization and racial/ethnic disparities. However, there is limited information about the prevalence of SRs in non-"safety net" adult populations and how SRs differ by race/ethnicity, age, education, and income. METHODS: We analyzed weighted survey data for 16,247 White, 1861 Black, 2895 Latino, 1554 Filipino, and 1289 Chinese adults aged 35 to 79 who responded to the 2011 or 2014/2015 Kaiser Permanente Northern California Member Health Survey. We compared age-standardized prevalence estimates of SDoHs (education, household income, marital status) and SRs (financial worry, cost-related reduced medication use and fruit/vegetable consumption, chronic stress, harassment/discrimination, health-related beliefs) across racial/ethnic groups for ages 35 to 64 and 65 to 79. RESULTS: SDoHs and SRs differed by race/ethnicity and age group, and SRs differed by levels of education and income. In both age groups, Blacks, Latinos, and Filipinos were more likely than Whites to be in the lower income category and be worried about their financial situation. Compared to Whites, cost-related reduced medication use was higher among Blacks, and cost-related reduced fruit/vegetable consumption was higher among Blacks and Latinos. Younger adults were more likely than older adults to experience chronic stress and financial worry. Racial/ethnic disparities in income were observed within similar levels of education. Differences in prevalence of SRs by levels of education and income were wider within than across racial/ethnic groups. CONCLUSIONS: In this non-"safety net" adult health plan population, Blacks, Latinos, and Filipinos had a higher prevalence of social risks than Whites and Chinese, and prevalence of social risks differed by age group. Our results support the assessment and EHR documentation of SDoHs and social risks and use of this information to understand and address drivers of racial/ethnic disparities in health and healthcare use.

6.
J Manag Care Spec Pharm ; 26(12): 1494-1504, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33251998

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Following approval of imatinib, a breakthrough tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI), survival significantly improved by more than 20% since 2001 among treated chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) patients. Subsequently, more expensive second-generation TKIs with varying selectivity profiles have been approved. Population-based studies are needed to evaluate the real-world utilization of TKI therapies, particularly given their escalating costs and recommendations for maintenance therapy. OBJECTIVE: To assess the utilization patterns of first-line TKIs, overall and by specific agent, among elderly CML patients in the United States, and the cost implications. METHODS: CML patients aged 65 years and older at diagnosis between 2007 and 2015 were identified from population-based cancer registries in the linked Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare database. The percentage of CML patients receiving imatinib, dasatinib, or nilotinib within the first year of diagnosis was calculated along with time to first-line treatment initiation. Bivariate comparisons and Cox proportional hazards models were used to identify factors associated with TKI initiation. Average monthly patient responsibility, including patient out-of-pocket (OOP) costs, stratified by Part D low-income subsidy (LIS) status were also calculated. RESULTS: Among the 1,589 CML patients included, receipt of any TKI within 1 year of diagnosis increased from 66.2% to 78.9%. In 2015, the distribution of first-line TKI therapies was 41.3% imatinib, 28.3% dasatinib, and 9.3% nilotinib. Almost 60% of patients initiated TKI treatment within 3 months of diagnosis. Multivariable analysis indicated that TKI use in the first year was lower among the very elderly (aged > 75 years vs. 65-69 years: HR = 0.72; 95% CI = 0.63-0.83), patients with more comorbidities (Hierarchical Condition Category risk score > 2 vs. HR = 0.74, 95% CI = 0.62-0.88), and patients ineligible for LIS (HR = 0.75; 95% CI = 0.65-0.87). Average monthly patient OOP cost was significantly lower for LIS-eligible versus LIS-ineligible patients: imatinib (2016: $12 vs. $487), dasatinib (2016: $34 vs. $557), and nilotinib (2016: $1 vs. $526). CONCLUSIONS: TKI use has increased significantly since 2007. While imatinib remained the most frequently prescribed first-line agent, by 2015 newer TKIs represented one third of the market share. Utilization patterns indicated persistent age, comorbidity, and financial barriers. TKI use is indicated for long-term therapy, and increased adoption of newer, more expensive agents raises concerns about the sustained affordability of CML treatment, particularly among unsubsidized patients. DISCLOSURES: No outside funding supported this study. There are no reported conflicts of interest.

7.
Cancer ; 126(20): 4584-4592, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32780469

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pay-for-performance reimbursement ties hospital payments to standardized quality-of-care metrics. To the authors' knowledge, the impact of pay-for-performance reimbursement models on hospitals caring primarily for uninsured or underinsured patients remains poorly defined. The objective of the current study was to evaluate how standardized quality-of-care metrics vary by a hospital's propensity to care for uninsured or underinsured patients and demonstrate the potential impact that pay-for-performance reimbursement could have on hospitals caring for the underserved. METHODS: The authors identified 1,703,865 patients with cancer who were diagnosed between 2004 and 2015 and treated at 1344 hospitals. Hospital safety-net burden was defined as the percentage of uninsured or Medicaid patients cared for by that hospital, categorizing hospitals into low-burden, medium-burden, and high-burden hospitals. The authors evaluated the impact of safety-net burden on concordance with 20 standardized quality-of-care measures, adjusting for differences in patient age, sex, stage of disease at diagnosis, and comorbidity. RESULTS: Patients who were treated at high-burden hospitals were more likely to be young, male, Black and/or Hispanic, and to reside in a low-income and low-educated region. High-burden hospitals had lower adherence to 13 of 20 quality measures compared with low-burden hospitals (all P < .05). Among the 350 high-burden hospitals, concordance with quality measures was found to be lowest for those caring for the highest percentage of uninsured or Medicaid patients, minority patients, and less educated patients (all P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Hospitals caring for uninsured or underinsured individuals have decreased quality-of-care measures. Under pay-for-performance reimbursement models, these lower quality-of-care scores could decrease hospital payments, potentially increasing health disparities for at-risk patients with cancer.

8.
Popul Health Manag ; 2020 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32780631

RESUMO

Social isolation among individuals ages 65 years and older is associated with poor health outcomes. However, little is known about health care utilization patterns of socially isolated individuals. This retrospective, observational study evaluated associations between social isolation and hospital and emergency department (ED) utilization among Medicare patients ages 65 years and older. In a cohort of 18,557 Medicare members age 65 years and older at Kaiser Permanente Northwest, the authors compared rates of hospitalization and ED visits in the 12 months following a baseline survey between respondents who reported feeling lonely or socially isolated and those who did not, controlling for demographic and health variables and utilization in the 12 months prior to the survey. Statistical analysis was conducted in February 2020. In adjusted models, those who reported "sometimes" experiencing social isolation were more likely to have at least 1 hospital admission (odds ratio [ORsometimes]: 1.17, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.01-1.35, P = 0.04), than those who "rarely" or "never" experienced social isolation. Those who experienced social isolation "sometimes" or "often/always" were more likely to have at least 1 ED visit (ORsometimes: 1.28, 95% CI: 1.15-1.41, P < 0.0001, and ORoften/always: 1.51, 95% CI: 1.25-1.84, P < 0.0001, respectively) than those who "rarely" or "never" experienced social isolation. These findings suggest that self-reported social isolation may be predictive of future hospital admissions and ED utilization. Research is needed to determine how addressing social isolation needs within the health care system affects health care utilization and health outcomes.

9.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(7): e2011985, 2020 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32729921

RESUMO

Importance: Researchers often analyze cancer registry data to assess for differences in survival among cancer treatments. However, the retrospective, nonrandomized design of these analyses raises questions about study validity. Objective: To examine the extent to which comparative effectiveness analyses using observational cancer registry data produce results concordant with those of randomized clinical trials. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this comparative effectiveness study, a total of 141 randomized clinical trials referenced in the National Comprehensive Cancer Network Clinical Practice Guidelines for 8 common solid tumor types were identified. Data on participants within the National Cancer Database (NCDB) diagnosed between 2004 and 2014, matching the eligibility criteria of the randomized clinical trial, were obtained. The present study was conducted from August 1, 2017, to September 10, 2019. The trials included 85 118 patients, and the corresponding NCDB analyses included 1 344 536 patients. Three Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to determine hazard ratios (HRs) for overall survival, including univariable, multivariable, and propensity score-adjusted models. Multivariable and propensity score analyses controlled for potential confounders, including demographic, comorbidity, clinical, treatment, and tumor-related variables. Main Outcomes and Measures: The main outcome was concordance between the results of randomized clinical trials and observational cancer registry data. Hazard ratios with an NCDB analysis were considered concordant if the NDCB HR fell within the 95% CI of the randomized clinical trial HR. An NCDB analysis was considered concordant if both the NCDB and clinical trial P values for survival were nonsignificant (P ≥ .05) or if they were both significant (P < .05) with survival favoring the same treatment arm in the NCDB and in the randomized clinical trial. Results: Analyses using the NCDB-produced HRs for survival were concordant with those of 141 randomized clinical trials in 79 univariable analyses (56%), 98 multivariable analyses (70%), and 90 propensity score models (64%). The NCDB analyses produced P values concordant with randomized clinical trials in 58 univariable analyses (41%), 65 multivariable analyses (46%), and 63 propensity score models (45%). No clinical trial characteristics were associated with concordance between NCDB analyses and randomized clinical trials, including disease site, type of clinical intervention, or severity of cancer. Conclusions and Relevance: The findings of this study suggest that comparative effectiveness research using cancer registry data often produces survival outcomes discordant with those of randomized clinical trial data. These findings may help provide context for clinicians and policy makers interpreting observational comparative effectiveness research in oncology.

10.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2020 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32533839

RESUMO

The national prevalence of employment changes after a cancer diagnosis has not been fully documented. Cancer survivors who worked for pay at or since diagnosis (n = 1,490) were identified from the 2011, 2016 and 2017 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey and Experiences with Cancer Supplements. Analyses characterized employment changes due to cancer and identified correlates of those employment changes. Employment changes were made by 41.3% (95% CI = 38.0% to 44.6%) of cancer survivors, representing over 3.5 million adults in the United States. Of these, 75.4% (95% CI = 71.3 to 79.2%) took extended paid time-off and 46.1% (95% CI = 41.6 to 50.7%) made other changes, including switching to part-time or to a less demanding job. Cancer survivors who were younger, female, non-white or multiple races/ethnicities, and <20 years since last cancer treatment were more likely to make employment changes. Findings highlight the need for patient-provider communication about the effects of cancer and its treatment on employment.

11.
Am J Prev Med ; 59(1): 68-78, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32564805

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This study examined associations of both medical and nonmedical financial hardships with healthcare utilization and self-rated health among cancer survivors. METHODS: The National Health Interview Survey (2013-2017) was used to identify cancer survivors (aged 18-64 years: n=4,939; aged ≥65 years: n=6,972). A total of 4 levels of medical financial hardship intensities were created with measures from material, psychological, and behavioral domains. A total of 5 levels of nonmedical financial hardship intensities were created with measures in food insecurity and worry about other economic needs (e.g., housing expenses). Generalized ordinal logistic regression examined associations between medical and nonmedical financial hardship intensities and emergency department visits, use of preventive services and cancer screenings, and self-rated health. All analyses were performed in 2019. RESULTS: In adjusted analyses, cancer survivors with higher medical financial hardship intensity (Level 4 vs Level 1; aged 18-64 years: 42% vs 26.2%, p<0.001; aged ≥65 years: 37.6% vs 24.3%, p=0.001) and higher nonmedical financial hardship intensity (Level 5 vs Level 1; aged 18-64 years: 37.2% vs 27.9%, p=0.011) had more emergency department visits. Moreover, cancer survivors with higher medical financial hardship intensity had lower influenza vaccine (Level 4 vs Level 1; aged 18-64 years: 45.6% vs 52.5%, p=0.036; aged ≥65 years: 64.6% vs 75.6%, p=0.008) and lower breast cancer screening levels (Level 4 vs Level 1; 46.8% vs 61.2%, p=0.001). Similar patterns were found between higher financial hardship intensities and worse self-rated health. CONCLUSIONS: Higher medical and nonmedical financial hardships are independently associated with more emergency department visits, lower receipt of some preventive services, and worse self-rated health in cancer survivors. With growing healthcare costs, unmet medical and nonmedical financial needs may worsen health disparities among cancer survivors.

12.
JCO Oncol Pract ; 16(9): e912-e921, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32379563

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Cost of care (CoC) conversations should occur routinely in oncology practice. However, patient preferences about with whom, when, and how to have these conversations are missing and preferences may vary across patient populations. METHODS: We performed a secondary qualitative analysis of quotes from interviews with 28 cancer survivors from two health care settings (Kaiser Permanente Washington and O'Neal Comprehensive Cancer Center at University of Alabama at Birmingham [UABCCC]). A targeted approach searched for three constructs: (1) Who should have CoC conversations with patients? (2) When should CoC conversations occur? and (3) How should CoC conversations happen? RESULTS: Interviewees were similar in age and education, but UABCCC participants had more racial/ethnic minority representation and financial distress. Within each construct, themes were similar across both groups. As to who should have CoC conversations, we found that (1) providers' main role is medical care, not CoC; and (2) care team staff members are a more appropriate choice to address CoC needs. About the question of when, we found that (3) individuals have strong convictions about when and if they want to discuss CoC; and (4) CoC information and resources need to be available when patients are ready. About the question of how, themes were (5) provide estimates of anticipated out-of-pocket costs and insurance coverage; (6) provide reassurance, sympathy, and concrete solutions; and (7) because of their sensitivity, conduct CoC conversations in a comfortable, private space. CONCLUSION: These findings offer general guidance as to who should conduct CoC conversations and when and how they should occur, with applicability across different patient populations.

13.
J Natl Compr Canc Netw ; 18(3): 315-327, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32135509

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A cancer diagnosis can impose substantial medical financial burden on individuals and may limit their ability to work. However, less is known about worry for nonmedical financial needs and food insecurity among cancer survivors. METHODS: The National Health Interview Survey (2013-2017) was used to identify cancer survivors (age 18-39 years, n=771; age 40-64 years, n=4,269; age ≥65 years, n=7,101) and individuals without a cancer history (age 18-39 years, n=53,262; age 40-64 years, n=60,141; age ≥65 years, n=30,261). For both cancer survivors and the noncancer group, adjusted proportions were generated for (1) financial worry ("very/moderately/not worried") about retirement, standard of living, monthly bills, and housing costs; and (2) food insecurity ("often/sometimes/not true") regarding whether food would run out, the fact that food bought did not last, and the inability to afford balanced meals. Further adjusted analyses examined intensity measures ("severe/moderate/minor or none") of financial worry and food insecurity among cancer survivors only. RESULTS: Compared with individuals without a cancer history, cancer survivors aged 18 to 39 years reported consistently higher "very worried" levels regarding retirement (25.5% vs 16.9%; P<.001), standard of living (20.4% vs 12.9%; P<.001), monthly bills (14.9% vs 10.3%; P=.002), and housing costs (13.6% vs 8.9%; P=.001); and higher "often true" levels regarding worry about food running out (7.9% vs 4.6%; P=.004), food not lasting (7.6% vs 3.3%; P=.003), and being unable to afford balanced meals (6.3% vs 3.4%; P=.007). Findings were not as consistent for cancer survivors aged 40 to 64 years. In contrast, results were generally similar for adults aged ≥65 years with/without a cancer history. Among cancer survivors, 57.6% (age 18-39 years; P<.001), 51.9% (age 40-64 years; P<.001), and 23.8% (age ≥65 years; referent) reported severe/moderate financial worry intensity, and 27.0% (age 18-39 years; P<.001), 14.8% (age 40-64 years; P<.001), and 6.3% (age ≥65 years; referent) experienced severe/moderate food insecurity intensity. Lower income and higher comorbidities were generally associated with greater intensities of financial worry and food insecurity in all 3 age groups. CONCLUSIONS: Younger cancer survivors experience greater financial worry and food insecurity. In addition to coping with medical costs, cancer survivors with low income and multiple comorbidities struggle to pay for daily living needs, such as food, housing, and monthly bills.

14.
Am J Prev Med ; 58(3): 457-460, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31831290

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Unmet social and economic needs are associated with poor health outcomes, but little is known about how these needs are predictive of future healthcare utilization. This study examined the association of social and economic needs identified during medical visits with future hospitalizations and emergency department visits. METHODS: Individuals with electronic health record-coded social and economic needs during a primary care, emergency department, or urgent care visit at Kaiser Permanente Northwest from October 1, 2016 to November 31, 2017 (case patients) were identified, as well as individuals who had visits during that time period but had no electronic health record-coded needs (control patients). The 2 groups were compared on sociodemographic characteristics, comorbidities, and healthcare utilization in the prior year. Finally, logistic regression assessed the relationship between documented needs and hospitalizations and emergency department visits in the 12 months following the index visit, controlling for sociodemographic characteristics, comorbidities, and prior healthcare utilization. Statistical analysis was completed in April 2019. RESULTS: Case patients differed significantly from control patients on sociodemographic characteristics and had higher rates of comorbidities and prior healthcare utilization. Social and economic needs documented during the index visit were associated with significantly higher rates of hospitalization and emergency department visits in the 12 months following the visit, controlling for sociodemographic characteristics, comorbidities, and prior utilization. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate that documented social and economic needs are a powerful predictor of future hospitalization and emergency department use and suggest the need for research into whether interventions to address these needs can influence healthcare utilization.

15.
J Urol ; 203(1): 159-163, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31441673

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Patients who undergo cystectomy due to bladder cancer can elect an ileal conduit or a neobladder for urinary diversion. Decision regret related to this choice is an important and undesirable patient reported outcome. Our objective was to compare the severity of decision regret experienced by patients with a neobladder vs an ileal conduit. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed data from a longitudinal cohort study of patients who underwent cystectomy from 2013 to 2015. We applied multivariable linear regression to examine associations of the urinary diversion method (neobladder vs ileal conduit) with decision regret measured with the DRS (Decision Regret Scale) 6 and 18 months after cystectomy. Covariates included demographic and clinical characteristics, health care utilization and complications after cystectomy, quality of life and factors related to the decision making process, including informed and shared decision making, and goal concordance. RESULTS: Of the 192 patients in our cohort 141 received an ileal conduit and 51 received a neobladder. We observed no significant difference in the DRS score in patients with a neobladder vs an ileal conduit at 6 or 18 months (b=-1.28, 95% CI -9.07-6.53, vs b=-1.55, 95% CI -12.48-9.38). However, informed decision making was negatively related to decision regret at 6 and 18 months (b=-13.08, 95% CI -17.05--9.11, and b=-8.54, 95% CI -4.26--2.63, respectively). Quality of life was negatively associated with decision regret at 18 months (b=-5.50, 95% CI -8.95--2.03). CONCLUSIONS: Patients treated with cystectomy who were more informed about bladder reconstruction options experienced less regret independent of the method selected. Efforts to inform and prepare patients for the bladder reconstruction decision may help prevent decision regret.


Assuntos
Cistectomia , Tomada de Decisões , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/cirurgia , Derivação Urinária/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Invasividade Neoplásica , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Satisfação do Paciente , Qualidade de Vida , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/patologia
16.
J Natl Compr Canc Netw ; 17(10): 1166-1172, 2019 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31590146

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Oral tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have been the standard of care for chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) since 2001. However, few studies have evaluated changes in the treatment landscape of CML over time. This study assessed the long-term treatment patterns of oral anticancer therapies among patients with CML. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study included patients newly diagnosed with CML between January 1, 2000, and December 31, 2016, from 10 integrated healthcare systems. The proportion of patients treated with 5 FDA-approved oral TKI agents-bosutinib, dasatinib, imatinib, nilotinib, and ponatinib-in the 12 months after diagnosis were measured, overall and by year, between 2000 and 2017. We assessed the use of each oral agent through the fourth-line setting. Multivariable logistic regression estimated the odds of receiving any oral agent, adjusting for sociodemographic and clinical characteristics. RESULTS: Among 853 patients with CML, 81% received an oral agent between 2000 and 2017. Use of non-oral therapies decreased from 100% in 2000 to 5% in 2005, coinciding with imatinib uptake from 65% in 2001 to 98% in 2005. Approximately 28% of patients switched to a second-line agent, 9% switched to a third-line agent, and 2% switched to a fourth-line agent. Adjusted analysis showed that age at diagnosis, year of diagnosis, and comorbidity burden were statistically significantly associated with odds of receiving an oral agent. CONCLUSIONS: A dramatic shift was seen in CML treatments away from traditional, nonoral chemotherapy toward use of novel oral TKIs between 2000 and 2017. As the costs of oral anticancer agents reach new highs, studies assessing the long-term health and financial outcomes among patients with CML are warranted.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/tratamento farmacológico , Administração Oral , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
17.
J Oncol Pract ; 15(11): e957-e968, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31393809

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To examine the associations among high-deductible health plan (HDHP) enrollment, cancer survivorship, and access to care and utilization. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The 2010 to 2017 National Health Interview Survey was used to identify privately insured adults ages 18 to 64 years (cancer survivors, n = 4,321; individuals without a cancer history, n = 95,316). We used multivariable logistic regressions to evaluate the associations among HDHP/health savings account (HSA) status, delayed/forgone care for financial reasons, and hospital emergency department (ED) visits among cancer survivors compared with individuals without a cancer history. RESULTS: Among cancer survivors, HDHPs with or without HSA (8.9% and 13.9%, respectively; both P < .05) were associated with more delayed/forgone care compared with low-deductible health plans (LDHPs) (7.9%). HSA enrollment was associated with less delayed/forgone care among HDHP cancer survivors (P < .05). ED visits were similar by insurance type. Among individuals without a cancer history, HDHP with or without HSA (9.5% and 10.8%, respectively; both P < .05) were both associated with more delayed/forgone care compared with LDHPs (5.9%). HSA enrollment also was associated with less delayed/forgone care among HDHP enrollees without a cancer history. A small difference in ED visits was observed between HDHPs without HSA (15.3%) and LDHPs (14.1%; P < .05) or HDHPs with HSA (13.4%; P < .05) among individuals without a cancer history. CONCLUSION: HDHP enrollment and HSA status affect access to care and hospital ED visits similarly by cancer history. HDHP enrollment may serve as a barrier to access to care among cancer survivors, although HSA enrollment coupled with an HDHP may mitigate the impact on access. HDHPs and HSA status were not associated with ED visits among cancer survivors. Improvement to care coordination efforts may be needed to reduce ED visits among privately insured cancer survivors.


Assuntos
Sobreviventes de Câncer/psicologia , Dedutíveis e Cosseguros/economia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Seguro Saúde/economia , Neoplasias/economia , Sobrevivência , Adolescente , Adulto , Sobreviventes de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Dedutíveis e Cosseguros/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Planejamento em Saúde , Humanos , Seguro Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/terapia , Prognóstico , Taxa de Sobrevida , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
18.
Value Health ; 22(7): 762-767, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31277821

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the relationship between cancer history and cost-related medication nonadherence (CRN) as well as cost-coping strategies, by health insurance coverage. METHODS: We used the 2013 to 2016 National Health Interview Survey to identify adults aged 18 to 64 years with (n = 3599) and without (n = 56 909) a cancer history. Cost-related changes in medication use included (1) CRN, measured as skipping, taking less, or delaying medication because of cost, and (2) cost-coping strategies, measured as requesting lower cost medication or using alternative therapies to save money. Separate multivariable logistic regressions were used to calculate the adjusted odds ratios (AORs) of CRN and cost-coping strategies associated with cancer history, stratified by insurance. RESULTS: Cancer survivors were more likely than adults without a cancer history to report CRN (AOR 1.26; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.10-1.43) and cost-coping strategies (AOR 1.10; 95% CI 0.99-1.19). Among the privately insured, the difference in CRN by cancer history was the greatest among those enrolled in high-deductible health plans (HDHPs) without health savings accounts (HSAs) (AOR 1.78; 95% CI 1.30-2.44). Among adults with HDHP and HSA, cancer survivors were less likely to report cost-coping strategies (AOR 0.62; 95% CI 0.42-0.90). Regardless of cancer history, CRN and cost-coping strategies were the highest for those uninsured, enrolled in HDHP without HSA, and without prescription drug coverage under their health plan (all P<.001). CONCLUSIONS: Cancer survivors are prone to CRN and more likely to use cost-coping strategies. Expanding options for health insurance coverage, use of HSAs for those with HDHP, and enhanced prescription drug coverage may effectively address CRN.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/economia , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Sobreviventes de Câncer/psicologia , Gastos em Saúde , Cobertura do Seguro/economia , Seguro Saúde/economia , Adesão à Medicação , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/economia , Adolescente , Adulto , Redução de Custos , Dedutíveis e Cosseguros/economia , Substituição de Medicamentos/economia , Medicamentos Genéricos/economia , Medicamentos Genéricos/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Poupança para Cobertura de Despesas Médicas , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/psicologia , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
J Cancer Surviv ; 13(3): 429-437, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31144264

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Estimate prevalence of types of cancer-related financial hardship by race and test whether they are associated with limiting care due to cost. METHODS: We used data from 994 participants (411 white, 583 African American) in a hospital-based cohort study of survivors diagnosed with breast, colorectal, lung, or prostate cancer since January 1, 2013. Financial hardship included decreased income, borrowing money, cancer-related debt, and accessing assets to pay for cancer care. Limiting care included skipping doses of prescribed medication, refusing treatment, or not seeing a doctor when needed due to cost. Logistic regression models controlled for sociodemographic factors. RESULTS: More African American than white survivors reported financial hardship (50.3% vs. 41.0%, p = 0.005) and limiting care (20.0% vs. 14.2%, p = 0.019). More white than African American survivors reported utilizing assets (9.3% vs. 4.8%, p = 0.006), while more African American survivors reported cancer-related debt (30.5% vs. 18.5%, p < 0.001). Survivors who experienced financial hardship were 4.4 (95% CI: 2.9, 6.6) times as likely to limit care as those who did not. Borrowing money, cancer-related debt, and decreased income were each independently associated with limiting care, while accessing assets was not. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of some forms of financial hardship differed by race, and these were differentially associated with limiting care due to cost. IMPLICATIONS FOR CANCER SURVIVORS: The ability to use assets to pay for cancer care may protect survivors from limiting care due to cost. This has differential impacts on white and African American survivors.


Assuntos
Sobreviventes de Câncer/psicologia , Grupos de Populações Continentais , Neoplasias/economia , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos
20.
Ann Intern Med ; 170(9_Suppl): S70-S78, 2019 05 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31060061

RESUMO

Background: Patients prefer to discuss costs in the clinical setting, but physicians and teams may be unprepared to incorporate cost discussions into existing workflows. Objective: To understand and improve clinical workflows related to cost-of-care conversations. Design: Qualitative human-centered design study. Setting: 2 integrated health systems in the U.S. Pacific Northwest: a system-wide oncology service line and a system-wide primary care service line. Participants: Clinicians, clinical team members, operations staff, and patients. Measurements: Ethnographic observations were made at the integrated health systems, assessing barriers to and facilitators of discussing costs with patients. Three unique patient experiences of having financial concerns addressed in the clinic were designed. These experiences were refined after in-person interviews with patients (n = 20). Data were synthesized into a set of clinical workflow requirements. Results: Most patient cost concerns take 1 of 3 pathways: informing clinical care decision making, planning and budgeting concerns, and addressing immediate financial hardship. Workflow requirements include organizational recognition of the need for clinic-based cost-of-care conversations; access to cost and health plan benefit data to support each conversation pathway; clear team member roles and responsibilities for addressing cost-of-care concerns; a patient experience where cost questions are normal and each patient's preferences and privacy are respected; patients know who to go to with cost questions; patients' concerns are documented to minimize repetition to multiple team members; and patients learn their expected out-of-pocket costs before treatment begins. Limitation: Results may have limited generalizability to other health care settings, and the study did not test the effectiveness of the workflows developed. Conclusion: Clinic-based workflows for cost-of-care conversations that optimize patients' care experience require organizational commitment to addressing cost concerns, clear roles and responsibilities, appropriate and complete data access, and a team-based approach. Primary Funding Source: Robert Wood Johnson Foundation.


Assuntos
Assistência Ambulatorial/organização & administração , Comunicação , Gastos em Saúde , Neoplasias/economia , Relações Médico-Paciente , Atenção Primária à Saúde/organização & administração , Fluxo de Trabalho , Assistência Ambulatorial/economia , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Neoplasias/terapia , Atenção Primária à Saúde/economia , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Estados Unidos
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