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1.
J Urol ; 203(1): 159-163, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31441673

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Patients who undergo cystectomy due to bladder cancer can elect an ileal conduit or a neobladder for urinary diversion. Decision regret related to this choice is an important and undesirable patient reported outcome. Our objective was to compare the severity of decision regret experienced by patients with a neobladder vs an ileal conduit. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed data from a longitudinal cohort study of patients who underwent cystectomy from 2013 to 2015. We applied multivariable linear regression to examine associations of the urinary diversion method (neobladder vs ileal conduit) with decision regret measured with the DRS (Decision Regret Scale) 6 and 18 months after cystectomy. Covariates included demographic and clinical characteristics, health care utilization and complications after cystectomy, quality of life and factors related to the decision making process, including informed and shared decision making, and goal concordance. RESULTS: Of the 192 patients in our cohort 141 received an ileal conduit and 51 received a neobladder. We observed no significant difference in the DRS score in patients with a neobladder vs an ileal conduit at 6 or 18 months (b=-1.28, 95% CI -9.07-6.53, vs b=-1.55, 95% CI -12.48-9.38). However, informed decision making was negatively related to decision regret at 6 and 18 months (b=-13.08, 95% CI -17.05--9.11, and b=-8.54, 95% CI -4.26--2.63, respectively). Quality of life was negatively associated with decision regret at 18 months (b=-5.50, 95% CI -8.95--2.03). CONCLUSIONS: Patients treated with cystectomy who were more informed about bladder reconstruction options experienced less regret independent of the method selected. Efforts to inform and prepare patients for the bladder reconstruction decision may help prevent decision regret.


Assuntos
Cistectomia , Tomada de Decisões , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/cirurgia , Derivação Urinária/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Invasividade Neoplásica , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Satisfação do Paciente , Qualidade de Vida , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/patologia
2.
Am J Prev Med ; 2019 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31831290

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Unmet social and economic needs are associated with poor health outcomes, but little is known about how these needs are predictive of future healthcare utilization. This study examined the association of social and economic needs identified during medical visits with future hospitalizations and emergency department visits. METHODS: Individuals with electronic health record-coded social and economic needs during a primary care, emergency department, or urgent care visit at Kaiser Permanente Northwest from October 1, 2016 to November 31, 2017 (case patients) were identified, as well as individuals who had visits during that time period but had no electronic health record-coded needs (control patients). The 2 groups were compared on sociodemographic characteristics, comorbidities, and healthcare utilization in the prior year. Finally, logistic regression assessed the relationship between documented needs and hospitalizations and emergency department visits in the 12 months following the index visit, controlling for sociodemographic characteristics, comorbidities, and prior healthcare utilization. Statistical analysis was completed in April 2019. RESULTS: Case patients differed significantly from control patients on sociodemographic characteristics and had higher rates of comorbidities and prior healthcare utilization. Social and economic needs documented during the index visit were associated with significantly higher rates of hospitalization and emergency department visits in the 12 months following the visit, controlling for sociodemographic characteristics, comorbidities, and prior utilization. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate that documented social and economic needs are a powerful predictor of future hospitalization and emergency department use and suggest the need for research into whether interventions to address these needs can influence healthcare utilization.

3.
J Natl Compr Canc Netw ; 17(10): 1166-1172, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31590146

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Oral tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have been the standard of care for chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) since 2001. However, few studies have evaluated changes in the treatment landscape of CML over time. This study assessed the long-term treatment patterns of oral anticancer therapies among patients with CML. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study included patients newly diagnosed with CML between January 1, 2000, and December 31, 2016, from 10 integrated healthcare systems. The proportion of patients treated with 5 FDA-approved oral TKI agents-bosutinib, dasatinib, imatinib, nilotinib, and ponatinib-in the 12 months after diagnosis were measured, overall and by year, between 2000 and 2017. We assessed the use of each oral agent through the fourth-line setting. Multivariable logistic regression estimated the odds of receiving any oral agent, adjusting for sociodemographic and clinical characteristics. RESULTS: Among 853 patients with CML, 81% received an oral agent between 2000 and 2017. Use of non-oral therapies decreased from 100% in 2000 to 5% in 2005, coinciding with imatinib uptake from 65% in 2001 to 98% in 2005. Approximately 28% of patients switched to a second-line agent, 9% switched to a third-line agent, and 2% switched to a fourth-line agent. Adjusted analysis showed that age at diagnosis, year of diagnosis, and comorbidity burden were statistically significantly associated with odds of receiving an oral agent. CONCLUSIONS: A dramatic shift was seen in CML treatments away from traditional, nonoral chemotherapy toward use of novel oral TKIs between 2000 and 2017. As the costs of oral anticancer agents reach new highs, studies assessing the long-term health and financial outcomes among patients with CML are warranted.

4.
J Oncol Pract ; 15(11): e957-e968, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31393809

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To examine the associations among high-deductible health plan (HDHP) enrollment, cancer survivorship, and access to care and utilization. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The 2010 to 2017 National Health Interview Survey was used to identify privately insured adults ages 18 to 64 years (cancer survivors, n = 4,321; individuals without a cancer history, n = 95,316). We used multivariable logistic regressions to evaluate the associations among HDHP/health savings account (HSA) status, delayed/forgone care for financial reasons, and hospital emergency department (ED) visits among cancer survivors compared with individuals without a cancer history. RESULTS: Among cancer survivors, HDHPs with or without HSA (8.9% and 13.9%, respectively; both P < .05) were associated with more delayed/forgone care compared with low-deductible health plans (LDHPs) (7.9%). HSA enrollment was associated with less delayed/forgone care among HDHP cancer survivors (P < .05). ED visits were similar by insurance type. Among individuals without a cancer history, HDHP with or without HSA (9.5% and 10.8%, respectively; both P < .05) were both associated with more delayed/forgone care compared with LDHPs (5.9%). HSA enrollment also was associated with less delayed/forgone care among HDHP enrollees without a cancer history. A small difference in ED visits was observed between HDHPs without HSA (15.3%) and LDHPs (14.1%; P < .05) or HDHPs with HSA (13.4%; P < .05) among individuals without a cancer history. CONCLUSION: HDHP enrollment and HSA status affect access to care and hospital ED visits similarly by cancer history. HDHP enrollment may serve as a barrier to access to care among cancer survivors, although HSA enrollment coupled with an HDHP may mitigate the impact on access. HDHPs and HSA status were not associated with ED visits among cancer survivors. Improvement to care coordination efforts may be needed to reduce ED visits among privately insured cancer survivors.

5.
Value Health ; 22(7): 762-767, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31277821

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the relationship between cancer history and cost-related medication nonadherence (CRN) as well as cost-coping strategies, by health insurance coverage. METHODS: We used the 2013 to 2016 National Health Interview Survey to identify adults aged 18 to 64 years with (n = 3599) and without (n = 56 909) a cancer history. Cost-related changes in medication use included (1) CRN, measured as skipping, taking less, or delaying medication because of cost, and (2) cost-coping strategies, measured as requesting lower cost medication or using alternative therapies to save money. Separate multivariable logistic regressions were used to calculate the adjusted odds ratios (AORs) of CRN and cost-coping strategies associated with cancer history, stratified by insurance. RESULTS: Cancer survivors were more likely than adults without a cancer history to report CRN (AOR 1.26; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.10-1.43) and cost-coping strategies (AOR 1.10; 95% CI 0.99-1.19). Among the privately insured, the difference in CRN by cancer history was the greatest among those enrolled in high-deductible health plans (HDHPs) without health savings accounts (HSAs) (AOR 1.78; 95% CI 1.30-2.44). Among adults with HDHP and HSA, cancer survivors were less likely to report cost-coping strategies (AOR 0.62; 95% CI 0.42-0.90). Regardless of cancer history, CRN and cost-coping strategies were the highest for those uninsured, enrolled in HDHP without HSA, and without prescription drug coverage under their health plan (all P<.001). CONCLUSIONS: Cancer survivors are prone to CRN and more likely to use cost-coping strategies. Expanding options for health insurance coverage, use of HSAs for those with HDHP, and enhanced prescription drug coverage may effectively address CRN.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/economia , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Sobreviventes de Câncer/psicologia , Gastos em Saúde , Cobertura do Seguro/economia , Seguro Saúde/economia , Adesão à Medicação , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/economia , Adolescente , Adulto , Redução de Custos , Dedutíveis e Cosseguros/economia , Substituição de Medicamentos/economia , Medicamentos Genéricos/economia , Medicamentos Genéricos/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Poupança para Cobertura de Despesas Médicas , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/psicologia , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
6.
Ann Intern Med ; 170(9_Supplement): S70-S78, 2019 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31060061

RESUMO

Background: Patients prefer to discuss costs in the clinical setting, but physicians and teams may be unprepared to incorporate cost discussions into existing workflows. Objective: To understand and improve clinical workflows related to cost-of-care conversations. Design: Qualitative human-centered design study. Setting: 2 integrated health systems in the U.S. Pacific Northwest: a system-wide oncology service line and a system-wide primary care service line. Participants: Clinicians, clinical team members, operations staff, and patients. Measurements: Ethnographic observations were made at the integrated health systems, assessing barriers to and facilitators of discussing costs with patients. Three unique patient experiences of having financial concerns addressed in the clinic were designed. These experiences were refined after in-person interviews with patients (n = 20). Data were synthesized into a set of clinical workflow requirements. Results: Most patient cost concerns take 1 of 3 pathways: informing clinical care decision making, planning and budgeting concerns, and addressing immediate financial hardship. Workflow requirements include organizational recognition of the need for clinic-based cost-of-care conversations; access to cost and health plan benefit data to support each conversation pathway; clear team member roles and responsibilities for addressing cost-of-care concerns; a patient experience where cost questions are normal and each patient's preferences and privacy are respected; patients know who to go to with cost questions; patients' concerns are documented to minimize repetition to multiple team members; and patients learn their expected out-of-pocket costs before treatment begins. Limitation: Results may have limited generalizability to other health care settings, and the study did not test the effectiveness of the workflows developed. Conclusion: Clinic-based workflows for cost-of-care conversations that optimize patients' care experience require organizational commitment to addressing cost concerns, clear roles and responsibilities, appropriate and complete data access, and a team-based approach. Primary Funding Source: Robert Wood Johnson Foundation.

7.
J Cancer Surviv ; 13(3): 406-417, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31123985

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To assess the financial outcomes and associated social and economic effects on cancer survivors and their families. METHODS: We assessed the responses of 1656 cancer survivors to a survey with both closed- and open-ended questions about cancer-related financial sacrifices they and their family experienced and evaluated differences in financial sacrifice by reported levels of cancer-related debt. RESULTS: The most commonly reported financial sacrifices included cutbacks on household budgets, challenges with health care insurance and costs, career/self-advancement constraints, reduction/depletion of assets, and inability to pay bills. Survivors who incurred $10,000 or more in debt were significantly more likely to report social and economic impacts, including housing concerns and strained relationships. CONCLUSIONS: Our analysis demonstrates both the frequency with which cancer survivors and families must make financial sacrifices as a result of their cancer, and the variety of forms that this sacrifice can take, even for individuals who have health insurance. The many types of financial hardship create challenges that are unique to each survivor and family. IMPLICATIONS FOR CANCER SURVIVORS: Interventions that allow for personalized assistance with the specific financial and social needs of cancer survivors and their families have the potential to address a critical aspect of the long-term wellbeing of this important population.

8.
J Cancer Surviv ; 13(3): 429-437, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31144264

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Estimate prevalence of types of cancer-related financial hardship by race and test whether they are associated with limiting care due to cost. METHODS: We used data from 994 participants (411 white, 583 African American) in a hospital-based cohort study of survivors diagnosed with breast, colorectal, lung, or prostate cancer since January 1, 2013. Financial hardship included decreased income, borrowing money, cancer-related debt, and accessing assets to pay for cancer care. Limiting care included skipping doses of prescribed medication, refusing treatment, or not seeing a doctor when needed due to cost. Logistic regression models controlled for sociodemographic factors. RESULTS: More African American than white survivors reported financial hardship (50.3% vs. 41.0%, p = 0.005) and limiting care (20.0% vs. 14.2%, p = 0.019). More white than African American survivors reported utilizing assets (9.3% vs. 4.8%, p = 0.006), while more African American survivors reported cancer-related debt (30.5% vs. 18.5%, p < 0.001). Survivors who experienced financial hardship were 4.4 (95% CI: 2.9, 6.6) times as likely to limit care as those who did not. Borrowing money, cancer-related debt, and decreased income were each independently associated with limiting care, while accessing assets was not. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of some forms of financial hardship differed by race, and these were differentially associated with limiting care due to cost. IMPLICATIONS FOR CANCER SURVIVORS: The ability to use assets to pay for cancer care may protect survivors from limiting care due to cost. This has differential impacts on white and African American survivors.

9.
Eur J Cancer Care (Engl) ; 28(4): e13044, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31006931

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the challenges and needs of colorectal cancer (CRC) survivors in maintaining employment and returning to work (RTW) from the perspectives of both CRC survivors and employers in the United States. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews with CRC survivors (n = 10) and employers (n = 4) were transcribed, coded and thematically analysed using NVivo 12 software. RESULTS: Workplace challenges for survivors included the following: inadequate availability of paid and unpaid leave, limited availability of workplace accommodations, and employers' lack of knowledge about CRC and the recovery process. Survivors were concerned about the lack of adequate financial resources to take unpaid leave and the need to relearn control of bodily functions. Workplace challenges for employers of cancer survivors included the following: limited institutional flexibility to provide individualised accommodations, communication with frontline managers about leave availability for employees and communication with employees about legal protections and limitations. Employers perceived that employees were unwilling to take leave. CONCLUSION: Colorectal cancer survivors in the US face difficult, sometimes insurmountable, challenges when trying to balance their physical and financial needs within the constraints of employment. Employers recognise challenges associated with this concern. Multi-level interventions-ranging from flexible work schedules to training for frontline managers-might facilitate the RTW process.


Assuntos
Sobreviventes de Câncer , Neoplasias Colorretais/reabilitação , Retorno ao Trabalho/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Neoplasias Colorretais/psicologia , Comunicação , Emprego/psicologia , Emprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Direitos do Paciente , Presenteísmo/estatística & dados numéricos , Retorno ao Trabalho/psicologia , Licença Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos , Local de Trabalho/psicologia , Local de Trabalho/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
10.
Perm J ; 232019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30939267

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Interventions are required that address patients' medically related financial needs. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate a Financial Navigator pilot addressing patients' concerns/needs regarding medical care costs in an integrated health care system. METHODS: Adults (aged ≥ 18 years) enrolled at Kaiser Permanente Northwest, who had a concern/need about medical care costs and received care in 1 of 3 clinical departments at the intervention or comparison clinic were recruited between August 1, 2016, and October 31, 2016. Baseline and 30-day follow-up participant surveys were administered to assess medical and nonmedical socioeconomic needs, satisfaction with medical care, and satisfaction with assistance with cost concerns. Physicians at both clinics were invited to complete a survey on medical care costs. We assessed participant characteristics and survey responses using descriptive statistics and 30-day change in satisfaction measures using multivariable linear regression models. RESULTS: Eighty-five intervention and 51 comparison participants completed the baseline survey. At baseline, intervention participants reported transportation (52.9%), housing (38.2%), and social isolation (32.4%) needs; comparison participants identified employment (33.3%), food (33.3%), and housing (33.3%) needs. Intervention participants reported higher satisfaction with care (p = 0.01) and higher satisfaction with cost concerns assistance (p = 0.01) vs comparison participants at 30-day follow-up, controlling for baseline responses. Although most physicians (80%) reported discussing medical care costs with their patients, only 18% reported knowing about their patients' financial well-being. CONCLUSION: We demonstrated the promise of a novel Financial Navigator pilot intervention to address medical care cost concerns and needs, and underscored the prevalence of nonmedical social needs in an economically vulnerable population.


Assuntos
Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
11.
JCO Clin Cancer Inform ; 3: 1-9, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30869998

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We previously developed and validated informatic algorithms that used International Classification of Diseases 9th revision (ICD9)-based diagnostic and procedure codes to detect the presence and timing of cancer recurrence (the RECUR Algorithms). In 2015, ICD10 replaced ICD9 as the worldwide coding standard. To understand the impact of this transition, we evaluated the performance of the RECUR Algorithms after incorporating ICD10 codes. METHODS: Using publicly available translation tables along with clinician and other expertise, we updated the algorithms to include ICD10 codes as additional input variables. We evaluated the performance of the algorithms using gold standard recurrence measures associated with a contemporary cohort of patients with stage I to III breast, colorectal, and lung (excluding IIIB) cancer and derived performance measures, including the area under the receiver operating curve, average absolute prediction error, and correct classification rate. These values were compared with the performance measures derived from the validation of the original algorithms. RESULTS: A total of 659 colorectal, 280 lung, and 2,053 breast cancer cases were identified. Area under the receiver operating curve derived from the updated algorithms was 89.0% (95% CI, 82.3% to 95.7%), 88.9% (95% CI, 79.3% to 98.2%), and 80.5% (95% CI, 72.8% to 88.2%) for the colorectal, lung, and breast cancer algorithms, respectively. Average absolute prediction errors for recurrence timing were 2.7 (SE, 11.3%), 2.4 (SE, 10.4%), and 5.6 months (SE, 21.8%), respectively, and timing estimates were within 6 months of actual recurrence for more than 80% of colorectal, more than 90% of lung, and more than 50% of breast cancer cases using the updated algorithm. CONCLUSION: Performance measures derived from the updated and original algorithms had overlapping confidence intervals, suggesting that the ICD9 to ICD10 transition did not affect the RECUR Algorithm performance.

12.
Popul Health Manag ; 22(6): 536-539, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30897047

RESUMO

More than 3 million older US adults injure themselves by falling each year. Falls are a major cause of morbidity and mortality for this population, and account for nearly $30 billion in Medicare expenditures annually. Falls have been linked to frailty and vitamin D deficiency, both of which are linked to low nutrient intake and food insecurity. This retrospective, observational study is the first the authors know of to directly assess the relationship between food insecurity and falls. The study sample consisted of 26,525 Medicare Advantage members at Kaiser Permanente Northwest, a group model health maintenance organization, who had completed a quality of care survey between April 2013 and March 2017 and who maintained continuous enrollment in the 12 months prior to the survey date. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to assess the association between self-reported food insecurity and falls; electronic health record variables for age, sex, socioeconomic status, comorbidity, and health care utilization were included as covariates. Medicare Advantage members who reported food insecurity had 1.69 times higher odds of experiencing a fall in the past year than those without food insecurity, in adjusted analysis. Age, sex, comorbidity, and health care utilization also were significantly associated with falls. Food insecurity is significantly associated with falls among Medicare Advantage members. Routine assessment for food insecurity within the health care system, with subsequent referral to food resources, may help reduce rates of falls in older populations.

13.
Cancer ; 125(10): 1737-1747, 2019 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30663039

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The current study examined medical financial hardship in cancer survivors and those without a cancer history in the United States. METHODS: The 2013 to 2016 National Health Interview Survey was used to identify cancer survivors (stratified by ages 18-49 years [1424 survivors], ages 50-64 years [2916 survivors], and ages ≥65 years [6014 survivors]) and individuals without a cancer history (ages 18-64 years [66,951 individuals], ages 50-64 years [31,741 individuals], and ages ≥65 years [25,744 individuals]). Medical financial hardship was categorized into 3 domains: 1) material (eg, problems paying medical bills); 2) psychological (eg, worrying about paying medical bills); and 3) behavioral (eg, delaying/forgoing care due to cost). Generalized ordinal logistic regressions were used to examine the associations between cancer history, hardship, and health insurance deductibles/health savings accounts (among privately insured cancer survivors aged 18-64 years only). RESULTS: Compared with those without a cancer history, cancer survivors were more likely to report any material (ages 18-49 years: 43.4% vs 30.1%; ages 50-64 years: 32.8% vs 27.8%; and ages ≥65 years: 17.3% vs 14.7%), psychological (ages 18-49 years: 53.5% vs 47.1%), and behavioral (ages 18-49 years: 30.6% vs 21.8%; and ages 50-64 years: 27.2% vs 23.4%) measure of financial hardship, and multiple domains of hardship (age groups 18-49 years and 50-64 years; all P < .01). Among privately insured survivors, having a high-deductible health plan without a health savings account was found to be associated with greater hardship compared with having low-deductible insurance. CONCLUSIONS: Younger cancer survivors are particularly vulnerable to material, psychological, and behavioral medical financial hardship. Interventions designed to reduce financial hardship should consider multiple domains of hardship as well as insurance benefit design.

14.
Urology ; 125: 222-229, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30471370

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the relative contributions of patient and surgeon factors for predicting selection of ileal conduit (IC), neobladder (NB), or continent pouch (CP) urinary diversions (UD) for patients diagnosed with muscle-invasive/high-risk nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer. This information is needed to enhance research comparing cancer survivors' outcomes across different surgical treatment options. METHODS: Bladder cancer patients' age ≥21 years with cystectomy/UD performed from January 2010 to June 2015 in 3 Kaiser Permanente regions were included. All patient and surgeon data were obtained from electronic health records. A mixed effects logistic regression model was used treating surgeon as a random effect and region as a fixed effect. RESULTS: Of 991 eligible patients, 794 (80%) received IC. One hundred sixty-nine surgeons performed the surgeries and accounted for a sizeable proportion of the variability in patient receipt of UD (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.26). The multilevel model with only patient factors showed good fit (area under the curve = 0.93, Hosmer-Lemeshow test P = .44), and older age, female sex, estimated glomerular filtration rate <45, 4+ comorbidity index score, and stage III/IV tumors were associated with higher odds of receiving an IC vs neobladder/continent pouch. However, including surgeon factors (annual cystectomy volume, specialty training, clinical tenure) had no association (P = .29). CONCLUSION: In this community setting, patient factors were major predictors of UD received. Surgeons also played a substantial role, yet clinical training and experience were not major predictors. Surgeon factors such as beliefs about UD options and outcomes should be explored.


Assuntos
Cistectomia , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/cirurgia , Derivação Urinária , Idoso , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária , Prestação Integrada de Cuidados de Saúde , Feminino , Previsões , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Invasividade Neoplásica , Seleção de Pacientes , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/patologia , Derivação Urinária/métodos , Derivação Urinária/estatística & dados numéricos
15.
Cancer ; 124(21): 4181-4191, 2018 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30475400

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cancer costs should be discussed by patients and providers, but information is not readily available. Results from recently published studies (in the last 5 years) on direct and indirect cancer costs may help guide these discussions. METHODS: The authors reviewed studies published between 2013 and 2017 that reported direct health care costs and indirect (productivity losses) costs. The annual mean total and net costs of cancer were summarized for all payers and for survivors only by age (ages 18-64 and ≥65 years), by phase of care (initial [ie, 12 months from diagnosis], continuing, and end-of-life [ie, 12 months before death]), or for recently diagnosed (within 1-2 years of diagnosis) and longer term survivors. RESULTS: For all payers combined, costs for cancers like breast, prostate, colorectal, and lung cancers were $20,000 to $100,000 in the initial phase, $1000 to $30,000 annually in the continuing phase, and ≥$60,000 in the end-of-life phase. Annual out-of-pocket costs to recently diagnosed survivors were >$1000 for medical care and time costs, approximately $2000 for productivity losses, and from $2500 to >$4000 for employment disability, depending on age. For longer term survivors, the cost of medical care was approximately $1500 for older survivors and $747 for younger survivors, time costs were $831 to $955 for older survivors and $459 to $630 for younger survivors, and productivity losses were approximately $800. Disability among long-term survivors was similar to that among short-term survivors. Limitations of the reviewed studies included older data and under-representation of higher cost cancers. CONCLUSIONS: Frequently updated cost information for all cancer types is needed to guide discussions of anticipated short-term and long-term cancer-related costs with survivors. Cancer 2018;000:000-000. © 2018 American Cancer Society.


Assuntos
Continuidade da Assistência ao Paciente/economia , Procedimentos Clínicos/economia , Emprego/economia , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Neoplasias/economia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Sobreviventes de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Continuidade da Assistência ao Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Procedimentos Clínicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Eficiência , Emprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Gastos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
16.
J Cancer Surviv ; 12(6): 794-802, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30338462

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the implications of a cancer diagnosis on medication adherence for pre-existing comorbid conditions, we explored statin adherence patterns prior to and following a new diagnosis of breast, colorectal, or prostate cancer among a multi-ethnic cohort. METHODS: We identified adults enrolled at Kaiser Permanente Northern California who were prevalent statin medication users, newly diagnosed with breast, colorectal, or prostate cancer between 2000 and 2012. Statin adherence was measured using the proportion of days covered (PDC) during the 2-year pre-cancer diagnosis and the 2-year post-cancer diagnosis. Adherence patterns were assessed using generalized estimating equations, for all cancers combined and stratified by cancer type and race/ethnicity, adjusted for demographic, clinical, and tumor characteristics. RESULTS: Among 10,177 cancer patients, statin adherence decreased from pre- to post-cancer diagnosis (adjusted odds ratio (ORadj):0.91, 95% confidence interval (95% CI):0.88-0.94). Statin adherence decreased from pre- to post-cancer diagnosis among breast (ORadj:0.94, 95% CI:0.90-0.99) and colorectal (ORadj:0.79, 95% CI:0.74-0.85) cancer patients. No difference in adherence was observed among prostate cancer patients (ORadj:1.01, 95% CI:0.97-1.05). Prior to cancer diagnosis, adherence to statins was generally higher among non-Hispanic whites and multi-race patients than other groups. However, statin adherence after diagnosis decreased only among these two populations (ORadj:0.85, 95% CI:0.85-0.92 and ORadj:0.86, 95% CI:0.76-0.97), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: We found substantial variation in statin medication adherence following diagnosis by cancer type and race/ethnicity among a large cohort of prevalent statin users in an integrated health care setting. IMPLICATIONS FOR CANCER SURVIVORS: Improving our understanding of comorbidity management and polypharmacy across diverse cancer patient populations is warranted to develop tailored interventions that improve medication adherence and reduce disparities in health outcomes.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Hipercolesterolemia/tratamento farmacológico , Hipercolesterolemia/epidemiologia , Adesão à Medicação , Neoplasias da Próstata/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias da Mama/complicações , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Mama/etnologia , California/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Neoplasias Colorretais/complicações , Neoplasias Colorretais/etnologia , Grupos de Populações Continentais/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Hipercolesterolemia/complicações , Masculino , Adesão à Medicação/etnologia , Adesão à Medicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Neoplasias da Próstata/complicações , Neoplasias da Próstata/etnologia
17.
Health Serv Res ; 53(6): 5106-5128, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30043542

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To address the knowledge gap regarding medical care costs for advanced cancer patients, we compared costs for recurrent versus de novo stage IV breast, colorectal, and lung cancer patients. DATA SOURCES/STUDY SETTING: Virtual Data Warehouse (VDW) information from three Kaiser Permanente regions: Colorado, Northwest, and Washington. STUDY DESIGN: We identified patients aged ≥21 with de novo or recurrent breast (nde novo  = 352; nrecurrent  = 765), colorectal (nde novo  = 1,072; nrecurrent  = 542), and lung (nde novo  = 4,041; nrecurrent  = 340) cancers diagnosed 2000-2012. We estimated average total monthly and annual costs in the 12 months preceding, month of, and 12 months following the index de novo/recurrence date, stratified by age at diagnosis (<65, ≥65). Generalized linear repeated-measures models controlled for demographics and comorbidity. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the pre-index period, monthly costs were higher for recurrent than for de novo breast (<65: +$2,431; ≥65: +$1,360), colorectal (<65: +$3,219; ≥65: +$2,247), and lung cancer (<65: +$3,086; ≥65: +$2,260) patients. Conversely, during the index and post-index periods, costs were higher for de novo patients. Average total annual pre-index costs were five- to ninefold higher for recurrent versus de novo patients <65. CONCLUSIONS: Cost differences by type of advanced cancer and by age suggest heterogeneous patterns of care that merit further investigation.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Neoplasias Colorretais/terapia , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/terapia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos
18.
J Psychosoc Oncol ; 36(3): 287-303, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29634413

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We examined the longitudinal association between sociodemographic factors and an expanded definition of underemployment among those with and without cancer history in the United States. METHODS: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey data (2007-2013) were used in multivariable regression analyses to compare employment status between baseline and two-year follow-up among adults aged 25-62 years at baseline (n = 1,614 with and n = 39,324 without cancer). Underemployment was defined as becoming/staying unemployed, changing from full to part-time, or reducing part-time work significantly. Interaction effects between cancer history/time since diagnosis and predictors known to be associated with employment patterns, including age, gender/marital status, education, and health insurance status at baseline were modeled. RESULTS: Approximately 25% of cancer survivors and 21% of individuals without cancer reported underemployment at follow-up (p = 0.002). Multivariable analyses indicated that those with a cancer history report underemployment more frequently (24.7%) than those without cancer (21.4%, p = 0.002) with underemployment rates increasing with time since cancer diagnosis. A significant interaction between gender/marital status and cancer history and underemployment was found (p = 0.0004). There were no other significant interactions. Married female survivors diagnosed >10 years ago reported underemployment most commonly (38.7%), and married men without cancer reported underemployment most infrequently (14.0%). A wider absolute difference in underemployment reports for married versus unmarried women as compared to married versus unmarried men was evident, with the widest difference apparent for unmarried versus married women diagnosed >10 years ago (18.1% vs. 38.7%). CONCLUSION: Cancer survivors are more likely to experience underemployment than those without cancer. Longer time since cancer diagnosis and gender/marital status are critical factors in predicting those at greatest risk of underemployment. The impact of cancer on work should be systematically studied across sociodemographic groups and recognized as a component of comprehensive survivorship care.


Assuntos
Sobreviventes de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Emprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Estado Civil/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Sexuais , Estados Unidos
19.
J Natl Compr Canc Netw ; 16(4): 402-410, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29632060

RESUMO

Background: The high economic burden of cancer is projected to continue growing. Cost-of-care estimates are key inputs for comparative effectiveness and economic analyses that aim to inform policies associated with cancer care. Existing estimates are based largely on SEER-Medicare data in the elderly, leaving a knowledge gap regarding costs for patients aged <65 years. Methods: We estimated total and net medical care costs using data on individuals diagnosed with breast, colorectal, lung, or prostate cancer (n=45,522) and noncancer controls (n=314,887) enrolled in 1 of 4 participating health plans. Net costs were defined as the difference in mean total costs between patients with cancer and controls. The phase-of-care approach and Kaplan-Meier Sample Average method were used to estimate mean total and net 1- and 5-year costs (in 2015 US dollars) by cancer site, stage at diagnosis, and age group (<65 and ≥65 years). Results: Total and net costs were consistently highest for lung cancer and lowest for prostate cancer. Net costs were higher across all cancer sites for patients aged <65 years than those aged ≥65 years. Medical care costs for all cancers increased with advanced stage at diagnosis. Conclusions: This study improves understanding of medical care costs for the 4 most common invasive cancers in the United States. Higher costs among patients aged <65 years highlight limitations of relying on SEER-Medicare data alone to understand the national burden of cancer, whereas higher costs for patients with advanced-stage cancer underscore the importance of early detection to curtail high long-term costs. These cost estimates can be used in the development and evaluation of interventions and policies across the cancer care continuum.


Assuntos
Prestação Integrada de Cuidados de Saúde/economia , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Custos e Análise de Custo , Prestação Integrada de Cuidados de Saúde/métodos , Humanos , Medicare , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/terapia , Programa de SEER , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
20.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 27(11): 1275-1282, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29593011

RESUMO

Background: Cancer survivors increasingly report financial hardship as a consequence of the high cost of cancer care, yet the financial experience of rural cancer survivors remains largely unstudied. The purpose of this study was to investigate potential rural disparities in the likelihood of financial hardship and nonadherence to surveillance colonoscopy.Methods: Individuals diagnosed with localized or regional colorectal cancer between 2004 and 2012 were ascertained by the population-based New Mexico Tumor Registry. Participants completed a mailed questionnaire or telephone survey about their colorectal cancer survivorship experience, including treatment-related financial hardship and receipt of surveillance colonoscopy. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs).Results: Compared with urban colorectal cancer survivors (n = 168), rural colorectal cancer survivors (n = 109) were slightly older; more likely to be married (65% vs. 59%) and have an annual income <$30,000 (37% vs. 27%); and less likely to be employed (35% vs. 41%), have a college degree (28% vs. 38%), or a high level of health literacy (39% vs. 51%). Rural survivors were twice as likely as urban survivors to report treatment-related financial hardship (OR, 1.86; 95% CI, 1.06-3.28) and nonadherence to surveillance colonoscopy guidelines (OR, 2.28; 95% CI, 1.07-4.85). In addition, financial hardship was independently associated with nonadherence to surveillance colonoscopy (OR, 2.17; 95% CI, 1.01-4.85).Conclusions: Substantial rural disparities in the likelihood of financial hardship and nonadherence to surveillance colonoscopy exist.Impact: Treatment-related financial hardship among rural colorectal cancer survivors may negatively affect adherence to guideline-recommended follow-up care. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 27(11); 1275-82. ©2018 AACR.


Assuntos
Colonoscopia/economia , Colonoscopia/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias Colorretais/economia , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/tendências , Colonoscopia/métodos , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , População Rural , Sobreviventes
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