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4.
Eur Heart J ; 2019 Dec 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31883328

RESUMO

AIMS: Most reports estimating national incidence rates of coronary (CAD) and peripheral arterial disease (PAD) have focused on stable outpatients or acute or elective hospital admissions, but not on the overall burden of disease. In this study, we report the changing trends in the population-level incidence of CAD and PAD, respectively from 2006 to 2015, statin utilization for secondary prevention and survival outcomes using multiple nationally representative data sources from the UK (primary care encounters, hospital admissions, and procedure-level data). METHODS AND RESULTS: A nationally representative study of linked primary and secondary care electronic health records of 4.6 million individuals from the UK. We calculated crude and standardized annual incidence rates separately for CAD and PAD. Statin use for secondary prevention, trends in annual major vascular event rates, and mortality between 2006 and 2015, were estimated for CAD and PAD, respectively. We identified 160 376 and 70 753 patients with incident CAD and PAD, respectively. The age- and sex-standardized incidence of CAD was similar in 2006 (443 per 100 000 person-years) and 2015 [436 per 100 000 person-years; adjusted incidence rate ratio (IRR) 0.98, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.96-1.00]. In contrast, there was a 15% decline in the standardized incidence of PAD (236 per 100 000 person-years in 2006 to 202 per 100 000 person-years in 2015; adjusted IRR 0.85, 95% CI 0.82-0.88). The proportion of incident CAD and PAD patients prescribed long-term statins, was only 66% and 55%, respectively and was less common amongst women, patients aged >70 years, with heart failure, chronic lung disease, or depression. Cardiovascular mortality declined by 43% for incident CAD (adjusted IRR 0.57, 95% CI 0.50-0.64) between 2006 and 2015 but did not decline for incident PAD (adjusted IRR 0.84, 95% CI 0.70-1.00). CONCLUSION AND RELEVANCE: In the UK, the standardized incidence of CAD appears stable but mortality rates are falling, whereas the standardized incidence of PAD is falling but mortality rates are not.

5.
J Med Ethics ; 2019 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31719155

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: International sharing of health data opens the door to the study of the so-called 'Big Data', which holds great promise for improving patient-centred care. Failure of recent data sharing initiatives indicates an urgent need to invest in societal trust in researchers and institutions. Key to an informed understanding of such a 'social license' is identifying the views patients and the public may hold with regard to data sharing for health research. METHODS: We performed a narrative review of the empirical evidence addressing patients' and public views and attitudes towards the use of health data for research purposes. The literature databases PubMed (MEDLINE), Embase, Scopus and Google Scholar were searched in April 2019 to identify relevant publications. Patients' and public attitudes were extracted from selected references and thematically categorised. RESULTS: Twenty-seven papers were included for review, including both qualitative and quantitative studies and systematic reviews. Results suggest widespread-though conditional-support among patients and the public for data sharing for health research. Despite the fact that participants recognise actual or potential benefits of data research, they expressed concerns about breaches of confidentiality and potential abuses of the data. Studies showed agreement on the following conditions: value, privacy, risk minimisation, data security, transparency, control, information, trust, responsibility and accountability. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that a social license for data-intensive health research cannot simply be presumed. To strengthen the social license, identified conditions ought to be operationalised in a governance framework that incorporates the diverse patient and public values, needs and interests.

8.
Pharmacy (Basel) ; 7(4)2019 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31766121

RESUMO

Persons experiencing homelessness have a high prevalence of severe mental health problems, alcohol dependence, substance misuse and infectious hepatitis C, and face up to twelve times higher mortality rates compared to the general population. They also face barriers to accessing healthcare. However, clinical pharmacy services are currently not available to homeless populations in England. The aim of this study was to conduct public involvement sessions with persons experiencing homelessness with a view to inform the design of patient-centred clinical pharmacy healthcare services. Qualitative methodology was used, using a focus group with homeless persons from emergency shelters and one to one engagement with those sleeping rough, using a topic guide. A total of nine homeless persons took part-seven males and two females. The participants of the sessions said that patient-centred clinical pharmacy services delivered for homeless persons would address many of their unmet needs around access to medicines, their understanding of prescribed medicines and holistic management of their health. The service would be able to make a positive impact on their health outcomes by screening for health conditions, facilitating better integration across services, referral and liaison with other services, and minimising misuse of prescribed medicines. The findings of this study will be used to inform the development, implementation and evaluation of a patient-centred clinical pharmacy service tailored to meet the specific needs of the homeless population.

9.
BMC Med ; 17(1): 206, 2019 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31744503

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clinical guidelines and public health authorities lack recommendations on scalable approaches to defining and monitoring the occurrence and severity of bleeding in populations prescribed antithrombotic therapy. METHODS: We examined linked primary care, hospital admission and death registry electronic health records (CALIBER 1998-2010, England) of patients with newly diagnosed atrial fibrillation, acute myocardial infarction, unstable angina or stable angina with the aim to develop algorithms for bleeding events. Using the developed bleeding phenotypes, Kaplan-Meier plots were used to estimate the incidence of bleeding events and we used Cox regression models to assess the prognosis for all-cause mortality, atherothrombotic events and further bleeding. RESULTS: We present electronic health record phenotyping algorithms for bleeding based on bleeding diagnosis in primary or hospital care, symptoms, transfusion, surgical procedures and haemoglobin values. In validation of the phenotype, we estimated a positive predictive value of 0.88 (95% CI 0.64, 0.99) for hospitalised bleeding. Amongst 128,815 patients, 27,259 (21.2%) had at least 1 bleeding event, with 5-year risks of bleeding of 29.1%, 21.9%, 25.3% and 23.4% following diagnoses of atrial fibrillation, acute myocardial infarction, unstable angina and stable angina, respectively. Rates of hospitalised bleeding per 1000 patients more than doubled from 1.02 (95% CI 0.83, 1.22) in January 1998 to 2.68 (95% CI 2.49, 2.88) in December 2009 coinciding with the increased rates of antiplatelet and vitamin K antagonist prescribing. Patients with hospitalised bleeding and primary care bleeding, with or without markers of severity, were at increased risk of all-cause mortality and atherothrombotic events compared to those with no bleeding. For example, the hazard ratio for all-cause mortality was 1.98 (95% CI 1.86, 2.11) for primary care bleeding with markers of severity and 1.99 (95% CI 1.92, 2.05) for hospitalised bleeding without markers of severity, compared to patients with no bleeding. CONCLUSIONS: Electronic health record bleeding phenotyping algorithms offer a scalable approach to monitoring bleeding in the population. Incidence of bleeding has doubled in incidence since 1998, affects one in four cardiovascular disease patients, and is associated with poor prognosis. Efforts are required to tackle this iatrogenic epidemic.

10.
Heart ; 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31601729

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite simpler regimens than vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation (AF), adherence (taking drugs as prescribed) and persistence (continuation of drugs) to direct oral anticoagulants are suboptimal, yet understudied in electronic health records (EHRs). OBJECTIVE: We investigated (1) time trends at individual and system levels, and (2) the risk factors for and associations between adherence and persistence. METHODS: In UK primary care EHR (The Health Information Network 2011-2016), we investigated adherence and persistence at 1 year for oral anticoagulants (OACs) in adults with incident AF. Baseline characteristics were analysed by OAC and adherence/persistence status. Risk factors for non-adherence and non-persistence were assessed using Cox and logistic regression. Patterns of adherence and persistence were analysed. RESULTS: Among 36 652 individuals with incident AF, cardiovascular comorbidities (median CHA2DS2VASc[Congestive heart failure, Hypertension, Age≥75 years, Diabetes mellitus, Stroke, Vascular disease, Age 65-74 years, Sex category] 3) and polypharmacy (median number of drugs 6) were common. Adherence was 55.2% (95% CI 54.6 to 55.7), 51.2% (95% CI 50.6 to 51.8), 66.5% (95% CI 63.7 to 69.2), 63.1% (95% CI 61.8 to 64.4) and 64.7% (95% CI 63.2 to 66.1) for all OACs, VKA, dabigatran, rivaroxaban and apixaban. One-year persistence was 65.9% (95% CI 65.4 to 66.5), 63.4% (95% CI 62.8 to 64.0), 61.4% (95% CI 58.3 to 64.2), 72.3% (95% CI 70.9 to 73.7) and 78.7% (95% CI 77.1 to 80.1) for all OACs, VKA, dabigatran, rivaroxaban and apixaban. Risk of non-adherence and non-persistence increased over time at individual and system levels. Increasing comorbidity was associated with reduced risk of non-adherence and non-persistence across all OACs. Overall rates of 'primary non-adherence' (stopping after first prescription), 'non-adherent non-persistence' and 'persistent adherence' were 3.5%, 26.5% and 40.2%, differing across OACs. CONCLUSIONS: Adherence and persistence to OACs are low at 1 year with heterogeneity across drugs and over time at individual and system levels. Better understanding of contributory factors will inform interventions to improve adherence and persistence across OACs in individuals and populations.

11.
BMJ Open ; 9(10): e031373, 2019 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31630109

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are among the leading causes of death globally. Electronic health records (EHRs) provide a rich data source for research on CVD risk factors, treatments and outcomes. Researchers must be confident in the validity of diagnoses in EHRs, particularly when diagnosis definitions and use of EHRs change over time. Our systematic review provides an up-to-date appraisal of the validity of stroke, acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and heart failure (HF) diagnoses in European primary and secondary care EHRs. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will systematically review the published and grey literature to identify studies validating diagnoses of stroke, ACS and HF in European EHRs. MEDLINE, EMBASE, SCOPUS, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, OpenGrey and EThOS will be searched from the dates of inception to April 2019. A prespecified search strategy of subject headings and free-text terms in the title and abstract will be used. Two reviewers will independently screen titles and abstracts to identify eligible studies, followed by full-text review. We require studies to compare clinical codes with a suitable reference standard. Additionally, at least one validation measure (sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value or negative predictive value) or raw data, for the calculation of a validation measure, is necessary. We will then extract data from the eligible studies using standardised tables and assess risk of bias in individual studies using the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies 2 tool. Data will be synthesised into a narrative format and heterogeneity assessed. Meta-analysis will be considered when a sufficient number of homogeneous studies are available. The overall quality of evidence will be assessed using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation tool. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This is a systematic review, so it does not require ethical approval. Our results will be submitted for peer-review publication. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42019123898.

12.
BMJ Open ; 9(9): e030596, 2019 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31542753

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of drug interventions that may modify the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in adults with CKD stages 3 and 4. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS: Searching MEDLINE, EMBASE, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, Health Technology Assessment, Science Citation Index, Social Sciences Citation Index, Conference Proceedings Citation Index and Clinical Trials Register, from March 1999 to July 2018, we identified randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of drugs for hypertension, lipid modification, glycaemic control and sodium bicarbonate, compared with placebo, no drug or a drug from another class, in ≥40 adults with CKD stages 3 and/or 4, with at least 2 years of follow-up and reporting renal function (primary outcome), proteinuria, adverse events, maintenance dialysis, transplantation, cardiovascular events, cardiovascular mortality or all-cause mortality. Two reviewers independently screened citations and extracted data. For continuous outcomes, we used the ratio of means (ROM) at the end of the trial in random-effects meta-analyses. We assessed methodological quality with the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool and confidence in the evidence using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) framework. RESULTS: We included 35 RCTs and over 51 000 patients. Data were limited, and heterogeneity varied. Final renal function (estimated glomerular filtration rate) was 6% higher in those taking glycaemic control drugs (ROM 1.06, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.10, I2=0%, low GRADE confidence) and 4% higher in those taking lipid-modifying drugs (ROM 1.04, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.08, I2=88%, very low GRADE confidence). For RCTs of antihypertensive drugs, there were no significant differences in renal function. Treatment with lipid-modifying drugs led to a 36% reduction in cardiovascular disease and 26% reduction in all-cause mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Glycaemic control and lipid-modifying drugs may slow the progression of CKD, but we found no pooled evidence of benefit nor harm from antihypertensive drugs. However, given the data limitations, further research is needed to confirm these findings. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42015017501.

13.
Inorg Chem ; 58(18): 12040-12052, 2019 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31483638

RESUMO

Metal halide compounds with photovoltaic properties prepared from solution have received increased attention for utilization in solar cells. In this work, low-toxicity cesium bismuth iodides are synthesized from solution, and their photovoltaic and optical properties as well as electronic and crystal structures are investigated. The X-ray diffraction patterns reveal that a CsI/BiI3 precursor ratio of 1.5:1 can convert pure rhombohedral BiI3 to pure hexagonal Cs3Bi2I9, but any ratio intermediate of this stoichiometry and pure BiI3 yields a mixture containing the two crystalline phases Cs3Bi2I9 and BiI3, with their relative fraction depending on the CsI/BiI3 ratio. Solar cells from the series of compounds are characterized, showing the highest efficiency for the compounds with a mixture of the two structures. The energies of the valence band edge were estimated using hard and soft X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy for more bulk and surface electronic properties, respectively. On the basis of these measurements, together with UV-vis-near-IR spectrophotometry, measuring the band gap, and Kelvin probe measurements for estimating the work function, an approximate energy diagram has been compiled clarifying the relationship between the positions of the valence and conduction band edges and the Fermi level.

14.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 21(33): 18328-18337, 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31397457

RESUMO

The selection of a suitable two dimensional anode material is one of the key steps in the development of alkali metal ion batteries to achieve superior performance with an ultrahigh rate of charging/discharging capability. Here, we have used state of the art density functional theory (DFT) to explore the feasibility of two dimensional (2D) honeycomb boron arsenide (h-BAs) as a potential anode for alkali-metal (Li/Na/K)-ion batteries. The structural and dynamic stability has been confirmed from the formation energy and the non-negative phonon frequency. The h-BAs monolayer exhibits negative adsorption-energy values of -0.422, -0.321 and -0.814 eV, for the Li, Na, and K-ions, respectively. Subsequently, during the charging process the adsorption-energy increases considerably without an energy-barrier when any of the A-atoms achieve a crucial distance (∼8 Å). In addition, it has been observed that insertion of the mono alkali metal atom into the h-BAs surface results in the semi-conducting nature of the monolayer being transformed into a metallic-state. The low energy barriers for Li (0.522 eV), Na (0.248), and K (0.204 eV) active ion migration imply high diffusion over the h-BAs surface, hence suggesting it has a high charge/discharge capability. Moreover, we have obtained low average operating voltages of 0.49 V (Li), 0.35 V (Na) and 0.26 V (K) and high theoretical capacities of 522.08 mA h g-1 (for Li and Na) and 209.46 mA h g-1 (for K) in this study. The aforementioned findings indicate that a h-BAs monolayer could be a promising anode material in the search for low cost and high performance alkali metal ion batteries.

15.
Europace ; 2019 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31408153

RESUMO

AIMS: To evaluate population-based electronic health record (EHR) definitions of atrial fibrillation (AF) and valvular heart disease (VHD) subtypes, time trends in prevalence and prognosis. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 76 019 individuals with AF were identified in England in 1998-2010 in the CALIBER resource, linking primary and secondary care EHR. An algorithm was created, implemented, and refined to identify 18 VHD subtypes using 406 diagnosis, procedure, and prescription codes. Cox models were used to investigate associations with a composite endpoint of incident stroke (ischaemic, haemorrhagic, and unspecified), systemic embolism (SSE), and all-cause mortality. Among individuals with AF, the prevalence of AF with concomitant VHD increased from 11.4% (527/4613) in 1998 to 17.6% (7014/39 868) in 2010 and also in individuals aged over 65 years. Those with mechanical valves, mitral stenosis (MS), or aortic stenosis had highest risk of clinical events compared to AF patients with no VHD, in relative [hazard ratio (95% confidence interval): 1.13 (1.02-1.24), 1.20 (1.05-1.36), and 1.27 (1.19-1.37), respectively] and absolute (excess risk: 2.04, 4.20, and 6.37 per 100 person-years, respectively) terms. Of the 95.2% of individuals with indication for warfarin (men and women with CHA2DS2-VASc ≥1 and ≥2, respectively), only 21.8% had a prescription 90 days prior to the study. CONCLUSION: Prevalence of VHD among individuals with AF increased from 1998 to 2010. Atrial fibrillation associated with aortic stenosis, MS, or mechanical valves (compared to AF without VHD) was associated with an excess absolute risk of stroke, SSE, and mortality, but anticoagulation was underused in the pre-direct oral anticoagulant (DOAC) era, highlighting need for urgent clarity regarding DOACs in AF and concomitant VHD.

16.
BMJ Open ; 9(8): e027577, 2019 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31446406

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess global health (GH) training in all postgraduate medical education in the UK. DESIGN: Mixed methodology: scoping review and curricular content analysis using two GH competency frameworks. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: A scoping review (until December 2017) was used to develop a framework of GH competencies for doctors. National postgraduate medical training curricula were analysed against this and a prior framework for GH competencies. The number of core competencies addressed and/or appearing in each programme was recorded. OUTCOMES: The scoping review identified eight relevant publications. A 16-competency framework was developed and, with a prior 5-competency framework, used to analyse each of 71 postgraduate medical curricula. Curricula were examined by a team of researchers and relevant learning outcomes were coded as one of the 5 or 16 core competencies. The number of core competencies in each programme was recorded. RESULTS: Using the 5-competency and 16-competency frameworks, 23 and 20, respectively, out of 71 programmes contained no global health competencies, most notably the Foundation Programme (equivalent to internship), a compulsory programme for UK medical graduates. Of a possible 16 competencies, the mean number across all 71 programmes was 1.73 (95% CI 1.42 to 2.04) and the highest number were in paediatrics and infectious diseases, each with five competencies. Of the 16 core competencies, global burden of disease and socioeconomic determinants of health were the two most cited with 47 and 35 citations, respectively. 8/16 competencies were not cited in any curriculum. CONCLUSIONS: Equity of care and the challenges of practising in an increasingly globalised world necessitate GH competencies for all doctors. Across the whole of postgraduate training, the majority of UK doctors are receiving minimal or no training in GH. Our GH competency framework can be used to map and plan integration across postgraduate programmes.

18.
J Am Med Inform Assoc ; 26(12): 1545-1559, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31329239

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Electronic health records (EHRs) are a rich source of information on human diseases, but the information is variably structured, fragmented, curated using different coding systems, and collected for purposes other than medical research. We describe an approach for developing, validating, and sharing reproducible phenotypes from national structured EHR in the United Kingdom with applications for translational research. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We implemented a rule-based phenotyping framework, with up to 6 approaches of validation. We applied our framework to a sample of 15 million individuals in a national EHR data source (population-based primary care, all ages) linked to hospitalization and death records in England. Data comprised continuous measurements (for example, blood pressure; medication information; coded diagnoses, symptoms, procedures, and referrals), recorded using 5 controlled clinical terminologies: (1) read (primary care, subset of SNOMED-CT [Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine Clinical Terms]), (2) International Classification of Diseases-Ninth Revision and Tenth Revision (secondary care diagnoses and cause of mortality), (3) Office of Population Censuses and Surveys Classification of Surgical Operations and Procedures, Fourth Revision (hospital surgical procedures), and (4) DM+D prescription codes. RESULTS: Using the CALIBER phenotyping framework, we created algorithms for 51 diseases, syndromes, biomarkers, and lifestyle risk factors and provide up to 6 validation approaches. The EHR phenotypes are curated in the open-access CALIBER Portal (https://www.caliberresearch.org/portal) and have been used by 40 national and international research groups in 60 peer-reviewed publications. CONCLUSIONS: We describe a UK EHR phenomics approach within the CALIBER EHR data platform with initial evidence of validity and use, as an important step toward international use of UK EHR data for health research.

19.
Learn Health Syst ; 3(2): e10074, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31245602

RESUMO

Introduction: Big data and growth in telecommunications have increased the enormous promise of an informatics approach to health care. India and the United Kingdom are two countries facing these challenges of implementing learning health systems and big data health research. Analysis: At present, these opportunities are more likely to be exploited in the private sector or in public-private partnerships (eg, Public Health Foundation of India [PHFI]) than public sector ventures alone. In both India and the United Kingdom, the importance of health informatics (HIs), a relatively new discipline, is being recognised and there are national initiatives in academic and health sectors to fill gaps in big data health research. The challenges are in many ways greater in India but outweighed by three potential benefits in health-related scientific research: (a) increased productivity; (b) a learning health system with better use of data and better health outcomes; and (c) to fill workforce gaps in both research and practice. Conclusions: Despite several system-level obstacles, in India, big data research in health care can improve the status quo, whether in terms of patient outcomes or scientific discovery. Collaboration between India and the United Kingdom in HI can result in mutual benefits to academic and health care delivery organisations in both countries and can serve as examples to other countries embracing the promises and the pitfalls of health care research in the digital era.

20.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 4: CD005351, 2019 04 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30950507

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV) has been used to treat respiratory distress due to acute cardiogenic pulmonary oedema (ACPE). We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis update on NPPV for adults presenting with ACPE. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the safety and effectiveness of NPPV compared to standard medical care (SMC) for adults with ACPE. The primary outcome was hospital mortality. Important secondary outcomes were endotracheal intubation, treatment intolerance, hospital and intensive care unit length of stay, rates of acute myocardial infarction, and adverse event rates. SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL (CRS Web, 20 September 2018), MEDLINE (Ovid, 1946 to 19 September 2018), Embase (Ovid, 1974 to 19 September 2018), CINAHL Plus (EBSCO, 1937 to 19 September 2018), LILACS, WHO ICTRP, and clinicaltrials.gov. We also reviewed reference lists of included studies. We applied no language restrictions. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included blinded or unblinded randomised controlled trials in adults with ACPE. Participants had to be randomised to NPPV (continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) or bilevel NPPV) plus standard medical care (SMC) compared with SMC alone. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently screened and selected articles for inclusion. We extracted data with a standardised data collection form. We evaluated the risks of bias of each study using the Cochrane 'Risk of bias' tool. We assessed evidence quality for each outcome using the GRADE recommendations. MAIN RESULTS: We included 24 studies (2664 participants) of adult participants (older than 18 years of age) with respiratory distress due to ACPE, not requiring immediate mechanical ventilation. People with ACPE presented either to an Emergency Department or were inpatients. ACPE treatment was provided in an intensive care or Emergency Department setting. There was a median follow-up of 13 days for hospital mortality, one day for endotracheal intubation, and three days for acute myocardial infarction. Compared with SMC, NPPV may reduce hospital mortality (risk ratio (RR) 0.65, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.51 to 0.82; participants = 2484; studies = 21; I2 = 6%; low quality of evidence) with a number needed to treat for an additional beneficial outcome (NNTB) of 17 (NNTB 12 to 32). NPPV probably reduces endotracheal intubation rates (RR 0.49, 95% CI 0.38 to 0.62; participants = 2449; studies = 20; I2 = 0%; moderate quality of evidence) with a NNTB of 13 (NNTB 11 to 18). There is probably little or no difference in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) incidence with NPPV compared to SMC for ACPE (RR 1.03, 95% CI 0.91 to 1.16; participants = 1313; studies = 5; I2 = 0%; moderate quality of evidence). We are uncertain as to whether NPPV increases hospital length of stay (mean difference (MD) -0.31 days, 95% CI -1.23 to 0.61; participants = 1714; studies = 11; I2 = 55%; very low quality of evidence). Adverse events were generally similar between NPPV and SMC groups, but evidence was of low quality. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Our review provides support for continued clinical application of NPPV for ACPE, to improve outcomes such as hospital mortality and intubation rates. NPPV is a safe intervention with similar adverse event rates to SMC alone. Additional research is needed to determine if specific subgroups of people with ACPE have greater benefit of NPPV compared to SMC. Future research should explore the benefit of NPPV for ACPE patients with hypercapnia.


Assuntos
Pressão Positiva Contínua nas Vias Aéreas/métodos , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Edema Pulmonar/terapia , Adulto , Pressão Positiva Contínua nas Vias Aéreas/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Intubação Intratraqueal/estatística & dados numéricos , Tempo de Internação , Ventilação não Invasiva , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
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