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1.
Blood ; 139(12): 1908-1919, 2022 03 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34914826

RESUMO

Patients with B-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) are at high-risk for relapse after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). We conducted a single-center phase 2 study evaluating the feasibility of 4 cycles of blinatumomab administered every 3 months during the first year after HCT in an effort to mitigate relapse in high-risk ALL patients. Twenty-one of 23 enrolled patients received at least 1 cycle of blinatumomab and were included in the analysis. The median time from HCT to the first cycle of blinatumomab was 78 days (range, 44 to 105). Twelve patients (57%) completed all 4 treatment cycles. Neutropenia was the only grade 4 adverse event (19%). Rates of cytokine release (5% G1) and neurotoxicity (5% G2) were minimal. The cumulative incidence of acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) grades 2 to 4 and 3 to 4 were 33% and 5%, respectively; 2 cases of mild (10%) and 1 case of moderate (5%) chronic GVHD were noted. With a median follow-up of 14.3 months, the 1-year overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), and nonrelapse mortality (NRM) rates were 85%, 71%, and 0%, respectively. In a matched analysis with a contemporary cohort of 57 patients, we found no significant difference between groups regarding blinatumomab's efficacy. Correlative studies of baseline and posttreatment samples identified patients with specific T-cell profiles as "responders" or "nonresponders" to therapy. Responders had higher proportions of effector memory CD8 T-cell subsets. Nonresponders were T-cell deficient and expressed more inhibitory checkpoint molecules, including T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain 3 (TIM3). We found that blinatumomab postallogeneic HCT is feasible, and its benefit is dependent on the immune milieu at time of treatment. This paper is posted on ClinicalTrials.gov, study ID: NCT02807883.


Assuntos
Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Linfoma de Células B , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras , Doença Aguda , Anticorpos Biespecíficos , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/terapia , Recidiva
2.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1329: 419-441, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34664250

RESUMO

Context-dependent reciprocal crosstalk between cancer and surrounding stromal cells in the tumor microenvironment is imperative for the regulation of various hallmarks of cancer. A myriad of growth factors, chemokines, and their receptors aids in the interaction between cancer cells and tumor microenvironmental components. Osteopontin is a chemokine-like protein, overexpressed in different types of cancers. Osteopontin plays a crucial role in orchestrating dialogue between cancer and stromal cells. Osteopontin, in tumor microenvironment, is produced in tumor as well as stromal cells. Tumor-derived osteopontin regulates proliferation, migration, activation, and differentiation of different types of stromal cells. Osteopontin secreted from tumor cells regulates the generation of cancer-associated fibroblasts from resident fibroblasts and mesenchymal stem cells. Osteopontin also shapes immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment by controlling regulatory T cells and tumor-associated macrophages. Moreover, secretion of osteopontin from tumor stroma has been highly documented. Stromal cell-derived osteopontin induces epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, angiogenesis, metastasis, and cancer stem cell enrichment. Tumor- or stroma-derived osteopontin mainly functions through binding with cell surface receptors, integrins and CD44, and activates downstream signaling events like PI-3 kinase/Akt and MAPK pathways. Presumably, disrupting the communication between the tumor cells and surrounding microenvironment by targeting osteopontin-regulated signaling using specific antibodies, small-molecule inhibitors, and chemotherapeutic agents is a novel therapeutic strategy for clinical management of cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Microambiente Tumoral , Humanos , Osteopontina/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Células Estromais
3.
Cell Rep ; 36(3): 109432, 2021 07 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34270918

RESUMO

Adoptive cell therapy with virus-specific T cells has been used successfully to treat life-threatening viral infections, supporting application of this approach to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We expand severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) T cells from the peripheral blood of COVID-19-recovered donors and non-exposed controls using different culture conditions. We observe that the choice of cytokines modulates the expansion, phenotype, and hierarchy of antigenic recognition by SARS-CoV-2 T cells. Culture with interleukin (IL)-2/4/7, but not under other cytokine-driven conditions, results in more than 1,000-fold expansion in SARS-CoV-2 T cells with a retained phenotype, function, and hierarchy of antigenic recognition compared with baseline (pre-expansion) samples. Expanded cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) are directed against structural SARS-CoV-2 proteins, including the receptor-binding domain of Spike. SARS-CoV-2 T cells cannot be expanded efficiently from the peripheral blood of non-exposed controls. Because corticosteroids are used for management of severe COVID-19, we propose an efficient strategy to inactivate the glucocorticoid receptor gene (NR3C1) in SARS-CoV-2 CTLs using CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing.

4.
Free Radic Biol Med ; 172: 136-151, 2021 08 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34097996

RESUMO

Prostate cancer (PCa) is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in men. Available therapies yield limited outcome. We explored anti-PCa activity in a polyphenol-rich fraction of Bergenia ligulata (PFBL), a plant used in Indian traditional and folk medicine for its anti-inflammatory and antineoplastic properties. PFBL constituted of about fifteen different compounds as per LCMS analysis induced apoptotic death in both androgen-dependent LNCaP and androgen-refractory PC3 and DU145 cells with little effect on NKE and WI38 cells. Further investigation revealed that PFBL mediates its function through upregulating ROS production by enhanced catalytic activity of Monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A). Notably, the differential inactivation of NRF2-antioxidant response pathway by PFBL resulted in death in PC3 versus NKE cells involving GSK-3ß activity facilitated by AKT inhibition. PFBL efficiently reduced the PC3-tumor xenograft in NOD-SCID mice alone and in synergy with Paclitaxel. Tumor tissues in PFBL-treated mice showed upregulation of similar mechanism of cell death as observed in isolated PC3 cells i.e., elevation of MAO-A catalytic activity, ROS production accompanied by activation of ß-TrCP-GSK-3ß axis of NRF2 degradation. Blood counts, liver, and splenocyte sensitivity analyses justified the PFBL safety in the healthy mice. To our knowledge this is the first report of an activity that crippled NRF2 activation both in vitro and in vivo in response to MAO-A activation. Results of this study suggest the development of a novel treatment protocol utilizing PFBL to improve therapeutic outcome for patients with aggressive PCa which claims hundreds of thousands of lives each year.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Neoplasias da Próstata , Animais , Glicogênio Sintase Quinase 3 beta , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Camundongos SCID , Monoaminoxidase , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/genética , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/tratamento farmacológico
5.
J Clin Invest ; 131(14)2021 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34138753

RESUMO

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), the most aggressive brain cancer, recurs because glioblastoma stem cells (GSCs) are resistant to all standard therapies. We showed that GSCs, but not normal astrocytes, are sensitive to lysis by healthy allogeneic natural killer (NK) cells in vitro. Mass cytometry and single-cell RNA sequencing of primary tumor samples revealed that GBM tumor-infiltrating NK cells acquired an altered phenotype associated with impaired lytic function relative to matched peripheral blood NK cells from patients with GBM or healthy donors. We attributed this immune evasion tactic to direct cell-to-cell contact between GSCs and NK cells via αv integrin-mediated TGF-ß activation. Treatment of GSC-engrafted mice with allogeneic NK cells in combination with inhibitors of integrin or TGF-ß signaling or with TGFBR2 gene-edited allogeneic NK cells prevented GSC-induced NK cell dysfunction and tumor growth. These findings reveal an important mechanism of NK cell immune evasion by GSCs and suggest the αv integrin/TGF-ß axis as a potentially useful therapeutic target in GBM.


Assuntos
Glioblastoma/imunologia , Integrinas/imunologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Proteínas de Neoplasias/imunologia , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/imunologia , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/imunologia , Animais , Feminino , Glioblastoma/genética , Glioblastoma/patologia , Glioblastoma/terapia , Xenoenxertos , Humanos , Integrinas/genética , Células Matadoras Naturais/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Transplante de Neoplasias , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/patologia , Receptor do Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta Tipo II/genética , Receptor do Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta Tipo II/imunologia , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/genética
6.
Front Immunol ; 12: 631353, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34017325

RESUMO

Acute graft-vs.-host (GVHD) disease remains a common complication of allogeneic stem cell transplantation with very poor outcomes once the disease becomes steroid refractory. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) represent a promising therapeutic approach for the treatment of GVHD, but so far this strategy has had equivocal clinical efficacy. Therapies using MSCs require optimization taking advantage of the plasticity of these cells in response to different microenvironments. In this study, we aimed to optimize cord blood tissue derived MSCs (CBti MSCs) by priming them using a regimen of inflammatory cytokines. This approach led to their metabolic reprogramming with enhancement of their glycolytic capacity. Metabolically reprogrammed CBti MSCs displayed a boosted immunosuppressive potential, with superior immunomodulatory and homing properties, even after cryopreservation and thawing. Mechanistically, primed CBti MSCs significantly interfered with glycolytic switching and mTOR signaling in T cells, suppressing T cell proliferation and ensuing polarizing toward T regulatory cells. Based on these data, we generated a Good Manufacturing Process (GMP) Laboratory protocol for the production and cryopreservation of primed CBti MSCs for clinical use. Following thawing, these cryopreserved GMP-compliant primed CBti MSCs significantly improved outcomes in a xenogenic mouse model of GVHD. Our data support the concept that metabolic profiling of MSCs can be used as a surrogate for their suppressive potential in conjunction with conventional functional methods to support their therapeutic use in GVHD or other autoimmune disorders.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Reprogramação Celular/métodos , Reprogramação Celular/fisiologia , Sangue Fetal/citologia , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/prevenção & controle , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Animais , Reprogramação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Reprogramação Celular/imunologia , Citocinas/farmacologia , Feminino , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Transplante de Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/imunologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Controle de Qualidade
7.
Clin Cancer Res ; 27(13): 3744-3756, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33986022

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Natural killer (NK)-cell recognition and function against NK-resistant cancers remain substantial barriers to the broad application of NK-cell immunotherapy. Potential solutions include bispecific engagers that target NK-cell activity via an NK-activating receptor when simultaneously targeting a tumor-specific antigen, as well as enhancing functionality using IL12/15/18 cytokine pre-activation. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We assessed single-cell NK-cell responses stimulated by the tetravalent bispecific antibody AFM13 that binds CD30 on leukemia/lymphoma targets and CD16A on various types of NK cells using mass cytometry and cytotoxicity assays. The combination of AFM13 and IL12/15/18 pre-activation of blood and cord blood-derived NK cells was investigated in vitro and in vivo. RESULTS: We found heterogeneity within AFM13-directed conventional blood NK cell (cNK) responses, as well as consistent AFM13-directed polyfunctional activation of mature NK cells across donors. NK-cell source also impacted the AFM13 response, with cNK cells from healthy donors exhibiting superior responses to those from patients with Hodgkin lymphoma. IL12/15/18-induced memory-like NK cells from peripheral blood exhibited enhanced killing of CD30+ lymphoma targets directed by AFM13, compared with cNK cells. Cord-blood NK cells preactivated with IL12/15/18 and ex vivo expanded with K562-based feeders also exhibited enhanced killing with AFM13 stimulation via upregulation of signaling pathways related to NK-cell effector function. AFM13-NK complex cells exhibited enhanced responses to CD30+ lymphomas in vitro and in vivo. CONCLUSIONS: We identify AFM13 as a promising combination with cytokine-activated adult blood or cord-blood NK cells to treat CD30+ hematologic malignancies, warranting clinical trials with these novel combinations.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Biespecíficos/uso terapêutico , Imunoterapia/métodos , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Leucemia/terapia , Linfoma/terapia , Sangue/efeitos dos fármacos , Sangue/imunologia , Células Cultivadas , Terapia Combinada , Citocinas/farmacologia , Sangue Fetal/efeitos dos fármacos , Sangue Fetal/imunologia , Humanos , Antígeno Ki-1/imunologia , Receptores de IgG/imunologia
8.
J Clin Oncol ; 39(24): 2710-2719, 2021 08 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33929874

RESUMO

PURPOSE: BK virus-associated hemorrhagic cystitis (BKV-HC) is a common complication of allogenic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (AHSCT), particularly in recipients of alternative donor transplants, which are being performed in increasing numbers. BKV-HC typically results in painful hematuria, urinary obstruction, and renal dysfunction, without a definitive therapeutic option. METHODS: We performed a clinical trial (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02479698) to assess the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of administering most closely HLA-matched third-party BKV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs), generated from 26 healthy donors and banked for off-the-shelf use. The cells were infused into 59 patients who developed BKV-HC following AHSCT. Comprehensive clinical assessments and correlative studies were performed. RESULTS: Response to BKV-CTL infusion was rapid; the day 14 overall response rate was 67.7% (40 of 59 evaluable patients), which increased to 81.6% among evaluable patients at day 45 (40 of 49 evaluable patients). No patient lost a previously achieved response. There were no cases of de novo grade 3 or 4 graft-versus-host disease, graft failure, or infusion-related toxicities. BKV-CTLs were identified in patient blood samples up to 3 months postinfusion and their in vivo expansion predicted for clinical response. A matched-pair analysis revealed that, compared with standard of care, after accounting for prognostic covariate effects, treatment with BKV-CTLs resulted in higher probabilities of response at all follow-up timepoints as well as significantly lower transfusion requirement. CONCLUSION: Off-the-shelf BKV-CTLs are a safe and effective therapy for the management of patients with BKV-HC after AHSCT.


Assuntos
Cistite/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos Hemorrágicos/tratamento farmacológico , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/metabolismo , Alotransplante de Tecidos Compostos Vascularizados/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
9.
Front Immunol ; 12: 626098, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33717142

RESUMO

Natural killer (NK) cells are innate lymphocytes recognized for their important role against tumor cells. NK cells expressing chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) have enhanced effector function against various type of cancer and are attractive contenders for the next generation of cancer immunotherapies. However, a number of factors have hindered the application of NK cells for cellular therapy, including their poor in vitro growth kinetics and relatively low starting percentages within the mononuclear cell fraction of peripheral blood or cord blood (CB). To overcome these limitations, we genetically-engineered human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-A- and HLA-B- K562 cells to enforce the expression of CD48, 4-1BBL, and membrane-bound IL-21 (mbIL21), creating a universal antigen presenting cell (uAPC) capable of stimulating their cognate receptors on NK cells. We have shown that uAPC can drive the expansion of both non-transduced (NT) and CAR-transduced CB derived NK cells by >900-fold in 2 weeks of co-culture with excellent purity (>99.9%) and without indications of senescence/exhaustion. We confirmed that uAPC-expanded research- and clinical-grade NT and CAR-transduced NK cells have higher metabolic fitness and display enhanced effector function against tumor targets compared to the corresponding cell fractions cultured without uAPCs. This novel approach allowed the expansion of highly pure GMP-grade CAR NK cells at optimal cell numbers to be used for adoptive CAR NK cell-based cancer immunotherapy.


Assuntos
Células Apresentadoras de Antígenos/metabolismo , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/metabolismo , Receptores de Antígenos Quiméricos/genética , Animais , Engenharia Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células , Citotoxicidade Imunológica , Sangue Fetal , Antígenos HLA/genética , Humanos , Células K562 , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Receptores de Células Matadoras Naturais/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Transdução Genética , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
10.
Blood ; 137(5): 624-636, 2021 02 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32902645

RESUMO

Immune checkpoint therapy has resulted in remarkable improvements in the outcome for certain cancers. To broaden the clinical impact of checkpoint targeting, we devised a strategy that couples targeting of the cytokine-inducible Src homology 2-containing (CIS) protein, a key negative regulator of interleukin 15 (IL-15) signaling, with fourth-generation "armored" chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) engineering of cord blood-derived natural killer (NK) cells. This combined strategy boosted NK cell effector function through enhancing the Akt/mTORC1 axis and c-MYC signaling, resulting in increased aerobic glycolysis. When tested in a lymphoma mouse model, this combined approach improved NK cell antitumor activity more than either alteration alone, eradicating lymphoma xenografts without signs of any measurable toxicity. We conclude that targeting a cytokine checkpoint further enhances the antitumor activity of IL-15-secreting armored CAR-NK cells by promoting their metabolic fitness and antitumor activity. This combined approach represents a promising milestone in the development of the next generation of NK cells for cancer immunotherapy.


Assuntos
Sangue Fetal/citologia , Imunoterapia Adotiva , Interleucina-15/genética , Células Matadoras Naturais/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Neoplasias/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Supressoras da Sinalização de Citocina/antagonistas & inibidores , Aerobiose , Animais , Antígenos CD19/imunologia , Linfoma de Burkitt/patologia , Linfoma de Burkitt/terapia , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Glicólise , Humanos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/farmacologia , Interleucina-15/metabolismo , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/metabolismo , Células Matadoras Naturais/transplante , Alvo Mecanístico do Complexo 1 de Rapamicina/fisiologia , Camundongos , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Proteínas de Neoplasias/fisiologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/fisiologia , Receptores de Antígenos Quiméricos , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Proteínas Supressoras da Sinalização de Citocina/genética , Proteínas Supressoras da Sinalização de Citocina/fisiologia , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
12.
bioRxiv ; 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32995792

RESUMO

Adoptive cell therapy with viral-specific T cells has been successfully used to treat life-threatening viral infections, supporting the application of this approach against COVID-19. We expanded SARS-CoV-2 T-cells from the peripheral blood of COVID-19-recovered donors and non-exposed controls using different culture conditions. We observed that the choice of cytokines modulates the expansion, phenotype and hierarchy of antigenic recognition by SARS-CoV-2 T-cells. Culture with IL-2/4/7 but not other cytokine-driven conditions resulted in >1000 fold expansion in SARS-CoV-2 T-cells with a retained phenotype, function and hierarchy of antigenic recognition when compared to baseline (pre-expansion) samples. Expanded CTLs were directed against structural SARS-CoV-2 proteins, including the receptor-binding domain of Spike. SARS-CoV-2 T-cells could not be efficiently expanded from the peripheral blood of non-exposed controls. Since corticosteroids are used for the management of severe COVID-19, we developed an efficient strategy to inactivate the glucocorticoid receptor gene ( NR3C1 ) in SARS-CoV-2 CTLs using CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing.

13.
J Clin Invest ; 130(10): 5272-5286, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32865517

RESUMO

Human natural killer cell deficiency (NKD) arises from inborn errors of immunity that lead to impaired NK cell development, function, or both. Through the understanding of the biological perturbations in individuals with NKD, requirements for the generation of terminally mature functional innate effector cells can be elucidated. Here, we report a cause of NKD resulting from compound heterozygous mutations in minichromosomal maintenance complex member 10 (MCM10) that impaired NK cell maturation in a child with fatal susceptibility to CMV. MCM10 has not been previously associated with monogenic disease and plays a critical role in the activation and function of the eukaryotic DNA replisome. Through evaluation of patient primary fibroblasts, modeling patient mutations in fibroblast cell lines, and MCM10 knockdown in human NK cell lines, we have shown that loss of MCM10 function leads to impaired cell cycle progression and induction of DNA damage-response pathways. By modeling MCM10 deficiency in primary NK cell precursors, including patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells, we further demonstrated that MCM10 is required for NK cell terminal maturation and acquisition of immunological system function. Together, these data define MCM10 as an NKD gene and provide biological insight into the requirement for the DNA replisome in human NK cell maturation and function.


Assuntos
Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Proteínas de Manutenção de Minicromossomo/genética , Mutação , Doenças da Imunodeficiência Primária/genética , Doenças da Imunodeficiência Primária/imunologia , Alelos , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular/genética , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular/imunologia , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Diferenciação Celular/imunologia , Linhagem Celular , Códon sem Sentido , Dano ao DNA/genética , Dano ao DNA/imunologia , Evolução Fatal , Feminino , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/imunologia , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/patologia , Lactente , Células Matadoras Naturais/metabolismo , Células Matadoras Naturais/patologia , Masculino , Proteínas de Manutenção de Minicromossomo/metabolismo , Modelos Imunológicos , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Linhagem , Doenças da Imunodeficiência Primária/patologia
14.
Blood Adv ; 4(14): 3357-3367, 2020 07 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32717029

RESUMO

Virus-specific T cells have proven highly effective for the treatment of severe and drug-refractory infections after hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT). However, the efficacy of these cells is hindered by the use of glucocorticoids, often given to patients for the management of complications such as graft-versus-host disease. To address this limitation, we have developed a novel strategy for the rapid generation of good manufacturing practice (GMP)-grade glucocorticoid-resistant multivirus-specific T cells (VSTs) using clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9) gene-editing technology. We have shown that deleting the nuclear receptor subfamily 3 group C member 1 (NR3C1; the gene encoding for the glucocorticoid receptor) renders VSTs resistant to the lymphocytotoxic effect of glucocorticoids. NR3C1-knockout (KO) VSTs kill their targets and proliferate successfully in the presence of high doses of dexamethasone both in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, we developed a protocol for the rapid generation of GMP-grade NR3C1 KO VSTs with high on-target activity and minimal off-target editing. These genetically engineered VSTs promise to be a novel approach for the treatment of patients with life-threatening viral infections post-HSCT on glucocorticoid therapy.


Assuntos
Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Repetições Palindrômicas Curtas Agrupadas e Regularmente Espaçadas , Edição de Genes , Humanos , Receptores de Glucocorticoides/genética , Linfócitos T
15.
Clin Cancer Res ; 26(14): 3565-3577, 2020 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32299815

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) antigens occur in glioblastoma but not in normal brains, making them desirable immunologic targets. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Highly functional autologous polyclonal CMV pp65-specific T cells from patients with glioblastoma were numerically expanded under good manufacturing practice compliant conditions and administered after 3 weeks of lymphodepleting dose-dense temozolomide (100 mg/m2) treatment. The phase I component used a 3+3 design, ascending through four dose levels (5 × 106-1 × 108 cells). Treatment occurred every 6 weeks for four cycles. In vivo persistence and effector function of CMV-specific T cells was determined by dextramer staining and multiparameter flow cytometry in serially sampled peripheral blood and in the tumor microenvironment. RESULTS: We screened 65 patients; 41 were seropositive for CMV; 25 underwent leukapheresis; and 20 completed ≥1 cycle. No dose-limiting toxicities were observed. Radiographic response was complete in 1 patient, partial in 2. Median progression-free survival (PFS) time was 1.3 months [95% confidence interval (CI), 0-8.3 months]; 6-month PFS was 19% (95% CI, 7%-52%); and median overall survival time was 12 months (95% CI, 6 months to not reached). Repeated infusions of CMV-T cells paralleled significant increases in circulating CMV+ CD8+ T cells, but cytokine production showing effector activity was suppressed, especially from T cells obtained directly from glioblastomas. CONCLUSIONS: Adoptive infusion of CMV-specific T cells after lymphodepletion with dose-dense temozolomide was well tolerated. But apparently CMV seropositivity does not guarantee tumor susceptibility to CMV-specific T cells, suggesting heterogeneity in CMV antigen expression. Moreover, effector function of these T cells was attenuated, indicating a requirement for further T-cell modulation to prevent their dysfunction before conducting large-scale clinical studies.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/terapia , Glioblastoma/terapia , Imunoterapia Adotiva/métodos , Proteínas da Matriz Viral/imunologia , Adulto , Citomegalovirus/imunologia , Citomegalovirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/imunologia , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/mortalidade , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/virologia , Feminino , Glioblastoma/imunologia , Glioblastoma/mortalidade , Glioblastoma/virologia , Humanos , Leucaférese , Depleção Linfocítica/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Temozolomida/administração & dosagem , Transplante Autólogo/métodos , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia
16.
N Engl J Med ; 382(6): 545-553, 2020 02 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32023374

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anti-CD19 chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy has shown remarkable clinical efficacy in B-cell cancers. However, CAR T cells can induce substantial toxic effects, and the manufacture of the cells is complex. Natural killer (NK) cells that have been modified to express an anti-CD19 CAR have the potential to overcome these limitations. METHODS: In this phase 1 and 2 trial, we administered HLA-mismatched anti-CD19 CAR-NK cells derived from cord blood to 11 patients with relapsed or refractory CD19-positive cancers (non-Hodgkin's lymphoma or chronic lymphocytic leukemia [CLL]). NK cells were transduced with a retroviral vector expressing genes that encode anti-CD19 CAR, interleukin-15, and inducible caspase 9 as a safety switch. The cells were expanded ex vivo and administered in a single infusion at one of three doses (1×105, 1×106, or 1×107 CAR-NK cells per kilogram of body weight) after lymphodepleting chemotherapy. RESULTS: The administration of CAR-NK cells was not associated with the development of cytokine release syndrome, neurotoxicity, or graft-versus-host disease, and there was no increase in the levels of inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-6, over baseline. The maximum tolerated dose was not reached. Of the 11 patients who were treated, 8 (73%) had a response; of these patients, 7 (4 with lymphoma and 3 with CLL) had a complete remission, and 1 had remission of the Richter's transformation component but had persistent CLL. Responses were rapid and seen within 30 days after infusion at all dose levels. The infused CAR-NK cells expanded and persisted at low levels for at least 12 months. CONCLUSIONS: Among 11 patients with relapsed or refractory CD19-positive cancers, a majority had a response to treatment with CAR-NK cells without the development of major toxic effects. (Funded by the M.D. Anderson Cancer Center CLL and Lymphoma Moonshot and the National Institutes of Health; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03056339.).


Assuntos
Antígenos CD19 , Células Matadoras Naturais/transplante , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/terapia , Linfoma não Hodgkin/terapia , Receptores de Antígenos Quiméricos/antagonistas & inibidores , Idoso , Aloenxertos , Terapia Baseada em Transplante de Células e Tecidos , Feminino , Sangue Fetal , Vetores Genéticos , Humanos , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/imunologia , Linfoma não Hodgkin/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Indução de Remissão/métodos , Retroviridae/genética , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante
17.
Blood Adv ; 3(23): 4117-4130, 2019 12 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31821460

RESUMO

Natural killer (NK) cells are highly heterogeneous, with vast phenotypic and functional diversity at the single-cell level. They are involved in the innate immune response against malignant and virus-infected cells. To understand the effect of NK diversity during immune recovery on the antitumor response after cord blood transplantation (CBT), we used high-dimensional mass cytometry and the metrics of NK cell diversity to study the NK cell repertoire in serial samples from 43 CBT recipients. A higher-diversity index based on single-cell combinatorial phenotypes was significantly associated with a lower risk for relapse after CBT (P = .005). Cytomegalovirus reactivation was a major factor in the development of a more diverse NK repertoire after CBT. Notably, we identified a group of patients whose CB-derived NK cells after transplantation possessed an immature phenotype (CB-NKim), characterized by poor effector function and a low diversity index. Frequencies of CB-NKim of 11.8% or higher during the early post-CBT recovery phase were highly predictive for relapse (area under the curve [AUC], 0.979), a finding that was validated in a second independent cohort of patients (n = 25; AUC, 0.977). Moreover, we showed that the maturation, diversity, and acquisition of effector function by CB-NKim early after CBT were driven by interleukin 15. Our data indicate that the diversity of the NK cell repertoire after CBT contributes importantly to the risk for subsequent relapse. We suggest that the use of diversity metrics and high-dimensional mass cytometry may be useful tools in predicting clinical outcomes and informing the design of therapeutic strategies to prevent relapse after CBT.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco de Sangue do Cordão Umbilical/métodos , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Humanos , Recidiva
19.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3106, 2019 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31308374

RESUMO

Immune responses need to be controlled tightly to prevent autoimmune diseases, yet underlying molecular mechanisms remain partially understood. Here, we identify biallelic mutations in three patients from two unrelated families in differentially expressed in FDCP6 homolog (DEF6) as the molecular cause of an inborn error of immunity with systemic autoimmunity. Patient T cells exhibit impaired regulation of CTLA-4 surface trafficking associated with reduced functional CTLA-4 availability, which is replicated in DEF6-knockout Jurkat cells. Mechanistically, we identify the small GTPase RAB11 as an interactor of the guanine nucleotide exchange factor DEF6, and find disrupted binding of mutant DEF6 to RAB11 as well as reduced RAB11+CTLA-4+ vesicles in DEF6-mutated cells. One of the patients has been treated with CTLA-4-Ig and achieved sustained remission. Collectively, we uncover DEF6 as player in immune homeostasis ensuring availability of the checkpoint protein CTLA-4 at T-cell surface, identifying a potential target for autoimmune and/or cancer therapy.


Assuntos
Antígeno CTLA-4/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/deficiência , Fatores de Troca do Nucleotídeo Guanina/deficiência , Doenças da Imunodeficiência Primária/genética , Antígeno B7-1/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/imunologia , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Fatores de Troca do Nucleotídeo Guanina/genética , Fatores de Troca do Nucleotídeo Guanina/imunologia , Homeostase , Humanos , Células Jurkat , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Linfócitos T/fisiologia , Proteínas rab de Ligação ao GTP/genética , Proteínas rab de Ligação ao GTP/metabolismo
20.
Int J Biochem Cell Biol ; 107: 38-52, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30529656

RESUMO

Breast cancer remains to be a dreadful disease even with several advancements in radiation and chemotherapies, owing to the drug resistance and tumor relapse caused by breast cancer stem cells. Cancer stem cells are a minute population of cells of solid tumors which show self-renewal and differentiation properties as well as tumorigenic potential. Several signaling pathways including Notch, Hippo, Wnt and Hedgehog and tumor-stroma exchanges play a critical role in the self-renewal and differentiation of cancer stem cells in breast cancer. Cancer stem cells can grow anchorage-independent manner so they disseminate to different parts of the body to form secondary tumors. Cancer stem cells promote angiogenesis by dedifferentiating to endothelial cells as well as secreting proangiogenic and angiogenic factors. Moreover, multidrug resistance genes and drug efflux transporters expressed in breast cancer stem cells confer resistance to various conventional chemotherapeutic drugs. Indeed, these therapies are recognised to enhance the percent of cancer stem cell population in tumors leading to cancer relapse with increased aggressiveness. Hence, devising the therapeutic interventions to target cancer stem cells would be useful in increasing patients' survival rates. In addition, targeting the self-renewal pathways and tumor-stromal cross-talk helps in eradicating this population. Reversal of the cancer stem cell-mediated drug resistance would increase the sensitivity to various conventional drugs for the effective management of breast cancer. In this review, we have discussed the cancer stem cell origin and their involvement in angiogenesis, metastasis and therapy-resistance. We have also summarized different therapeutic approaches to eradicate the same for the successful treatment of breast cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/patologia , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Progressão da Doença , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Humanos , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
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