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1.
Br J Cancer ; 2021 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33398064

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) potentially interrogates site-specific response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). METHODS: Participants with newly diagnosed EOC due for platinum-based chemotherapy and interval debulking surgery were recruited prospectively in a multicentre study (n = 47 participants). Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and solid tumour volume (up to 10 lesions per participant) were obtained from DW-MRI before and after NAC (including double-baseline for repeatability assessment in n = 19). Anatomically matched lesions were analysed after surgical excision (65 lesions obtained from 25 participants). A trained algorithm determined tumour cell fraction, percentage tumour and percentage necrosis on histology. Whole-lesion post-NAC ADC and pre/post-NAC ADC changes were compared with histological metrics (residual tumour/necrosis) for each tumour site (ovarian, omental, peritoneal, lymph node). RESULTS: Tumour volume reduced at all sites after NAC. ADC increased between pre- and post-NAC measurements. Post-NAC ADC correlated negatively with tumour cell fraction. Pre/post-NAC changes in ADC correlated positively with percentage necrosis. Significant correlations were driven by peritoneal lesions. CONCLUSIONS: Following NAC in EOC, the ADC (measured using DW-MRI) increases differentially at disease sites despite similar tumour shrinkage, making its utility site-specific. After NAC, ADC correlates negatively with tumour cell fraction; change in ADC correlates positively with percentage necrosis. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01505829.

2.
ESMO Open ; 5(6)2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33262203

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To report clinician-perceived changes to cancer service delivery in response to COVID-19. DESIGN: Multidisciplinary Australasian cancer clinician survey in collaboration with the European Society of Medical Oncology. SETTING: Between May and June 2020 clinicians from 70 countries were surveyed; majority from Europe (n=196; 39%) with 1846 COVID-19 cases per million people, Australia (AUS)/New Zealand (NZ) (n=188; 38%) with 267/236 per million and Asia (n=75; 15%) with 121 per million at time of survey distribution. PARTICIPANTS: Medical oncologists (n=372; 74%), radiation oncologists (n=91; 18%) and surgical oncologists (n=38; 8%). RESULTS: Eighty-nine per cent of clinicians reported altering clinical practices; more commonly among those with versus without patients diagnosed with COVID-19 (n=142; 93% vs n=225; 86%, p=0.03) but regardless of community transmission levels (p=0.26). More European clinicians (n=111; 66.1%) had treated patients diagnosed with COVID-19 compared with Asia (n=20; 27.8%) and AUS/NZ (n=8; 4.8%), p<0.001. Many clinicians (n=307; 71.4%) reported concerns that reduced access to standard treatments during the pandemic would negatively impact patient survival. The reported proportion of consultations using telehealth increased by 7.7-fold, with 25.1% (n=108) of clinicians concerned that patient survival would be worse due to this increase. Clinicians reviewed a median of 10 fewer outpatients/week (including non-face to face) compared with prior to the pandemic, translating to 5010 fewer specialist oncology visits per week among the surveyed group. Mental health was negatively impacted for 52.6% (n=190) of clinicians. CONCLUSION: Clinicians reported widespread changes to oncology services, in regions of both high and low COVID-19 case numbers. Clinician concerns of potential negative impacts on patient outcomes warrant objective assessment, with system and policy implications for healthcare delivery at large.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33382149

RESUMO

Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors have transformed the management of recurrent ovarian cancer in patients with BRCA-mutations and beyond. Olaparib was the first PARP inhibitor to gain approval as maintenance therapy for patients with newly diagnosed, advanced BRCA-mutated ovarian cancer establishing a new standard of care. At the end of 2020, as a result of the SOLO1, PRIMA, and PAOLA-1 phase III trials, we are now in an era where three maintenance PARP inhibitor strategies have FDA and European Medicines Agency approval in the first-line setting. In this review, we provide an overview of the key PARP inhibitor trials that have changed clinical practice, discuss directing therapy according to biomarker status (BRCA and homologous recombination deficiency) and future strategies in ovarian cancer and other gynecological malignancies.

4.
ESMO Open ; 5(6): e001110, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33310779

RESUMO

Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor maintenance therapy is the latest breakthrough in the management of newly diagnosed advanced ovarian cancer. The results of the SOLO-1 trial in 2018 led to European Medicines Agency and Food and Drug Administration approval of olaparib as first-line maintenance therapy in patients with BRCA1/2 mutation, establishing a new standard of care. Subsequently, the results of three phase III trials (PRIMA, PAOLA-1, VELIA) evaluating the use of first-line PARP inhibitors beyond patients with BRCA1/2 mutations and as combination strategies were presented in 2019, leading to the recent approval of maintenance niraparib irrespective of biomarker status and olaparib in combination with bevacizumab in homologous recombination deficiency-positive-associated advanced ovarian cancer. An ESMO Open - Cancer Horizons round-table expert panel discussed the four phase III trials of first-line PARP inhibitor therapy and how they are changing the clinical management of advanced ovarian cancer.

5.
ESMO Open ; 5(6)2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33208489

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Over one million people in the UK identify as LGBTQ+ (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer or questioning). Research has shown that this population experience differing cancer risk factors compared with non-LGBTQ+ patients and persistent inequalities in cancer care. Literature concerning the knowledge of oncologists of this group's healthcare needs is limited; our study aimed to evaluate knowledge, attitudes and behaviours of UK oncologists about LGBTQ+ patients. METHODS: A 53-question survey was delivered via a secure online platform. Questions covered respondent demographics, knowledge, attitudes and behaviours with the majority of responses on a Likert scale. Oncologists were recruited via email from professional bodies and social media promotion. Informed consent was sought and responses fully anonymised. Multifactorial ordinal logistic regression and Fisher's exact test were used to assess for interactions between demographics and responses with Holm-Bonferroni multiple testing correction. RESULTS: 258 fully completed responses were received. Respondents had a median age of 43 years (range 28-69); 65% consultants and 35% registrars; 42% medical, and 54% clinical, oncologists. 84% felt comfortable treating LGBTQ+ patients but only 8% agreed that they were confident in their knowledge of specific LGBTQ+ patient healthcare needs. There were low rates of routine enquiry about sexual orientation (5%), gender identity (3%) and preferred pronouns (2%). 68% of oncologists felt LGBTQ+ healthcare needs should be a mandatory component of postgraduate training. CONCLUSIONS: This survey showed that UK oncologists feel comfortable treating LGBTQ+ patients but may fail to identify these patients in their clinic, making it more difficult to meet LGBTQ+ healthcare needs. There is self-awareness of deficits in knowledge of LGBTQ+ healthcare and a willingness to address this through postgraduate training. Educational resources collated and developed in accordance with this study would potentially improve the confidence of oncologists in treating LGBTQ+ patients and the cancer care these patients receive.

7.
JAMA Oncol ; 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33001143

RESUMO

Importance: Deficient mismatch mutation repair mechanisms may sensitize endometrial cancers to anti-programmed death 1 (PD-1) therapies. Dostarlimab (TSR-042) is an investigational anti-PD-1 antibody that binds with high affinity to the PD-1 receptor. Objective: To assess the antitumor activity and safety of dostarlimab for patients with deficient mismatch repair endometrial cancer. Design, Setting, and Participants: This ongoing, open-label, single-group, multicenter study began part 1 on March 7, 2016, and began enrolling patients with deficient mismatch mutation repair endometrial cancer on May 8, 2017. Median follow-up was 11.2 months (range, 0.03 [ongoing] to 22.11 [ongoing] months; based on radiological assessments). Statistical analysis was performed July 8 to August 9, 2019. Interventions: Patients received 500 mg of dostarlimab intravenously every 3 weeks for 4 doses, then 1000 mg every 6 weeks until disease progression, treatment discontinuation, or withdrawal. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary end point was objective response rate and duration of response by blinded independent central review using Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors, version 1.1. Results: As of the data cutoff, 104 women (median age, 64.0 years [range, 38-80 years]) with deficient mismatch mutation repair endometrial cancers were enrolled and treated with dostarlimab. Of these, 71 had measurable disease at baseline and at 6 months or more of follow-up and were included in the analysis. There was a confirmed response in 30 patients (objective response rate, 42.3%; 95% CI, 30.6%-54.6%); 9 patients (12.7%) had a confirmed complete response, and 21 patients (29.6%) had a confirmed partial response. Responses were durable; the median duration of response was not reached (median follow-up was 11.2 months). The estimated likelihood of maintaining a response was 96.4% at 6 months and 76.8% at 12 months. Anemia (3 of 104 [2.9%]), colitis (2 of 104 [1.9%]), and diarrhea (2 of 104 [1.9%]) were the most common grade 3 or higher treatment-related adverse events. Conclusions and Relevance: In this nonrandomized trial, dostarlimab was associated with clinically meaningful and durable antitumor activity with an acceptable safety profile for patients with deficient mismatch mutation repair endometrial cancers after prior platinum-based chemotherapy. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02715284.

8.
J Clin Oncol ; 38(30): 3528-3537, 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32749942

RESUMO

PURPOSE: In SOLO1, maintenance olaparib (300 mg twice daily) significantly improved progression-free survival (PFS) for patients with newly diagnosed BRCA1- and/or BRCA2-mutated advanced ovarian cancer compared with placebo (hazard ratio [HR], 0.30; 95% CI, 0.23 to 0.41; median not reached v 13.8 months). We investigated PFS in SOLO1 for subgroups of patients based on preselected baseline factors. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Investigator-assessed PFS subgroup analyses of SOLO1 included clinical response after platinum-based chemotherapy (complete [CR] or partial response [PR]), surgery type (upfront or interval surgery), disease status after surgery (residual or no gross residual disease), and BRCA mutation status (BRCA1 or BRCA2). Additionally, we evaluated PFS in patients with stage III disease who underwent upfront surgery and had no gross residual disease. We also report objective response rate. RESULTS: The risk of disease progression or death was reduced with olaparib compared with placebo by 69% (HR, 0.31; 95% CI, 0.21 to 0.46) and 63% (HR, 0.37; 95% CI, 0.24 to 0.58) in patients undergoing upfront or interval surgery; 56% (HR, 0.44; 95% CI, 0.25 to 0.77) and 67% (HR, 0.33; 95% CI, 0.23 to 0.46) in patients with residual or no residual disease after surgery; 66% (HR, 0.34; 95% CI, 0.24 to 0.47) and 69% in women with clinical CR or PR at baseline (HR, 0.31; 95% CI, 0.18 to 0.52); and 59% (HR, 0.41; 95% CI, 0.30 to 0.56) and 80% (HR 0.20; 95% CI, 0.10 to 0.37) in patients with a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation, respectively. CONCLUSION: Patients with newly diagnosed advanced ovarian cancer achieve substantial benefit from maintenance olaparib treatment regardless of baseline surgery outcome, response to chemotherapy, or BRCA mutation type.

9.
Gynecol Oncol ; 159(1): 101-111, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32861537

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the phase 3 trial ARIEL3, maintenance treatment with the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor rucaparib provided clinical benefit versus placebo for patients with recurrent, platinum-sensitive ovarian cancer. Here, we evaluate the impact of age on the clinical utility of rucaparib in ARIEL3. METHODS: Patients with platinum-sensitive, recurrent ovarian carcinoma with ≥2 prior platinum-based chemotherapies who responded to their last platinum-based therapy were enrolled in ARIEL3 and randomized 2:1 to rucaparib 600 mg twice daily or placebo. Exploratory, post hoc analyses of progression-free survival (PFS), patient-centered outcomes (quality-adjusted PFS [QA-PFS] and quality-adjusted time without symptoms or toxicity [Q-TWiST]), and safety were conducted in three age subgroups (<65 years, 65-74 years, and ≥75 years). RESULTS: Investigator-assessed PFS was significantly longer with rucaparib than placebo in patients aged <65 years (rucaparib n = 237 vs placebo n = 117; median, 11.1 vs 5.4 months; hazard ratio [HR]: 0.33 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.25-0.43]; P < 0.0001) and 65-74 years (n = 113 vs n = 64; median, 8.3 vs 5.3 months; HR 0.43 [95% CI 0.29-0.63]; P < 0.0001) and numerically longer in patients aged ≥75 years (n = 25 vs n = 8; median, 9.2 vs 5.5 months; HR 0.47 [95% CI 0.16-1.35]; P = 0.1593). QA-PFS and Q-TWiST were significantly longer with rucaparib than placebo across all age subgroups. Safety of rucaparib was generally similar across the age subgroups. CONCLUSIONS: Efficacy, patient-centered outcomes, and safety of rucaparib were similar between age subgroups, indicating that all eligible women with recurrent ovarian cancer should be offered this therapeutic option, irrespective of age. https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01968213.

10.
J Clin Oncol ; 38(30): 3494-3505, 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32840418

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate quality-adjusted progression-free survival (QA-PFS) and quality-adjusted time without symptoms or toxicity (Q-TWiST) in a post hoc exploratory analysis of the phase III ARIEL3 study of rucaparib maintenance treatment versus placebo. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with platinum-sensitive, recurrent ovarian carcinoma were randomly assigned to rucaparib (600 mg twice per day) or placebo. QA-PFS was calculated as progression-free survival function × the 3-level version of the EQ-5D questionnaire (EQ-5D-3L) index score function. Q-TWiST analyses were performed defining TOX as the mean duration in which a patient experienced grade ≥ 3 treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) or the mean duration in which a patient experienced grade ≥ 2 TEAEs of nausea, vomiting, fatigue, and asthenia. Q-TWiST was calculated as µTOX × TOX + TWiST, with µTOX calculated using EQ-5D-3L data. RESULTS: The visit cutoff was Apr 15, 2017. Mean QA-PFS was significantly longer with rucaparib versus placebo in the intent-to-treat (ITT) population (375 randomly assigned to rucaparib v 189 randomly assigned to placebo; difference, 6.28 months [95% CI, 4.85 to 7.47 months]); BRCA-mutant cohort (130 rucaparib v 66 placebo; 9.37 months [95% CI, 6.65 to 11.85 months]); homologous recombination deficient (HRD) cohort (236 rucaparib v 118 placebo; 7.93 months [95% CI, 5.93 to 9.53 months]); and BRCA wild-type/loss of heterozygosity (LOH) low patient subgroup (107 rucaparib v 54 placebo; 2.71 months [95% CI, 0.31 to 4.44 months]). With TOX defined using grade ≥ 3 TEAEs, the difference in mean Q-TWiST (rucaparib v placebo) was 6.88 months (95% CI, 5.71 to 8.23 months), 9.73 months (95% CI, 7.10 to 11.94 months), 8.11 months (95% CI, 6.36 to 9.49 months), and 3.35 months (95% CI, 1.66 to 5.40 months) in the ITT population, BRCA-mutant cohort, HRD cohort, and BRCA wild-type/LOH low patient subgroup, respectively. Q-TWiST with TOX defined using select grade ≥ 2 TEAEs also consistently favored rucaparib. CONCLUSION: The significant differences in QA-PFS and Q-TWiST confirm the benefit of rucaparib versus placebo in all predefined cohorts.

11.
J Clin Oncol ; 38(32): 3753-3762, 2020 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32822286

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Low-grade serous ovarian carcinomas (LGSOCs) have historically low chemotherapy responses. Alterations affecting the MAPK pathway, most commonly KRAS/BRAF, are present in 30%-60% of LGSOCs. The purpose of this study was to evaluate binimetinib, a potent MEK1/2 inhibitor with demonstrated activity across multiple cancers, in LGSOC. METHODS: This was a 2:1 randomized study of binimetinib (45 mg twice daily) versus physician's choice chemotherapy (PCC). Eligible patients had recurrent measurable LGSOC after ≥ 1 prior platinum-based chemotherapy but ≤ 3 prior chemotherapy lines. The primary end point was progression-free survival (PFS) by blinded independent central review (BICR); additional assessments included overall survival (OS), overall response rate (ORR), duration of response (DOR), clinical-benefit rate, biomarkers, and safety. RESULTS: A total of 303 patients were randomly assigned to an arm of the study at the time of interim analysis (January 20, 2016). Median PFS by BICR was 9.1 months (95% CI, 7.3 to 11.3) for binimetinib and 10.6 months (95% CI, 9.2 to 14.5) for PCC (hazard ratio,1.21; 95%CI, 0.79 to 1.86), resulting in early study closure according to a prespecified futility boundary after 341 patients had enrolled. Secondary efficacy end points were similar in the two groups: ORR 16% (complete response [CR]/partial responses[PRs], 32) versus 13% (CR/PRs, 13); median DOR, 8.1 months (range, 0.03 to ≥ 12.0 months) versus 6.7 months (0.03 to ≥ 9.7 months); and median OS, 25.3 versus 20.8 months for binimetinib and PCC, respectively. Safety results were consistent with the known safety profile of binimetinib; the most common grade ≥ 3 event was increased blood creatine kinase level (26%). Post hoc analysis suggests a possible association between KRAS mutation and response to binimetinib. Results from an updated analysis (n = 341; January 2019) were consistent. CONCLUSION: Although the MEK Inhibitor in Low-Grade Serous Ovarian Cancer Study did not meet its primary end point, binimetinib showed activity in LGSOC across the efficacy end points evaluated. A higher response to chemotherapy than expected was observed and KRAS mutation might predict response to binimetinib.

12.
J Clin Oncol ; 38(30): 3468-3493, 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32790492

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To provide recommendations on the use of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors (PARPis) for management of epithelial ovarian, tubal, or primary peritoneal cancer (EOC). METHODS: Randomized, controlled, and open-labeled trials published from 2011 through 2020 were identified in a literature search. Guideline recommendations were based on the review of the evidence, US Food and Drug Administration approvals, and consensus when evidence was lacking. RESULTS: The systematic review identified 17 eligible trials. RECOMMENDATIONS: The guideline pertains to patients who are PARPi naïve. All patients with newly diagnosed, stage III-IV EOC whose disease is in complete or partial response to first-line, platinum-based chemotherapy with high-grade serous or endometrioid EOC should be offered PARPi maintenance therapy with niraparib. For patients with germline or somatic pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants in BRCA1 (g/sBRCA1) or BRCA2 (g/sBRCA2) genes should be treated with olaparib. The addition of olaparib to bevacizumab may be offered to patients with stage III-IV EOC with g/sBRCA1/2 and/or genomic instability and a partial or complete response to chemotherapy plus bevacizumab combination. Maintenance therapy (second line or more) with single-agent PARPi may be offered for patients with EOC who have not received a PARPi and have responded to platinum-based therapy regardless of BRCA mutation status. Treatment with a PARPi should be offered to patients with recurrent EOC that has not recurred within 6 months of platinum-based therapy, who have not received a PARPi and have a g/sBRCA1/2, or whose tumor demonstrates genomic instability. PARPis are not recommended for use in combination with chemotherapy, other targeted agents, or immune-oncology agents in the recurrent setting outside the context of a clinical trial. Recommendations for managing specific adverse events are presented. Data to support reuse of PARPis in any setting are needed.Additional information is available at www.asco.org/gynecologic-cancer-guidelines.

13.
Clin Cancer Res ; 26(20): 5411-5423, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32554541

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Gene expression-based molecular subtypes of high-grade serous tubo-ovarian cancer (HGSOC), demonstrated across multiple studies, may provide improved stratification for molecularly targeted trials. However, evaluation of clinical utility has been hindered by nonstandardized methods, which are not applicable in a clinical setting. We sought to generate a clinical grade minimal gene set assay for classification of individual tumor specimens into HGSOC subtypes and confirm previously reported subtype-associated features. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Adopting two independent approaches, we derived and internally validated algorithms for subtype prediction using published gene expression data from 1,650 tumors. We applied resulting models to NanoString data on 3,829 HGSOCs from the Ovarian Tumor Tissue Analysis consortium. We further developed, confirmed, and validated a reduced, minimal gene set predictor, with methods suitable for a single-patient setting. RESULTS: Gene expression data were used to derive the predictor of high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma molecular subtype (PrOTYPE) assay. We established a de facto standard as a consensus of two parallel approaches. PrOTYPE subtypes are significantly associated with age, stage, residual disease, tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes, and outcome. The locked-down clinical grade PrOTYPE test includes a model with 55 genes that predicted gene expression subtype with >95% accuracy that was maintained in all analytic and biological validations. CONCLUSIONS: We validated the PrOTYPE assay following the Institute of Medicine guidelines for the development of omics-based tests. This fully defined and locked-down clinical grade assay will enable trial design with molecular subtype stratification and allow for objective assessment of the predictive value of HGSOC molecular subtypes in precision medicine applications.See related commentary by McMullen et al., p. 5271.

14.
Lancet Oncol ; 21(5): 710-722, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32359490

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In ARIEL3, rucaparib maintenance treatment significantly improved progression-free survival versus placebo. Here, we report prespecified, investigator-assessed, exploratory post-progression endpoints and updated safety data. METHODS: In this ongoing (enrolment complete) randomised, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial, patients aged 18 years or older who had platinum-sensitive, high-grade serous or endometrioid ovarian, primary peritoneal, or fallopian tube carcinoma and an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0 or 1 who had received at least two previous platinum-based chemotherapy regimens and responded to their last platinum-based regimen were randomly assigned (2:1) to oral rucaparib (600 mg twice daily) or placebo in 28-day cycles using a computer-generated sequence (block size of six with stratification based on homologous recombination repair gene mutation status, progression-free interval following penultimate platinum-based regimen, and best response to most recent platinum-based regimen). Patients, investigators, site staff, assessors, and the funder were masked to assignments. The primary endpoint of investigator-assessed progression-free survival has been previously reported. Prespecified, exploratory outcomes of chemotherapy-free interval (CFI), time to start of first subsequent therapy (TFST), time to disease progression on subsequent therapy or death (PFS2), and time to start of second subsequent therapy (TSST) and updated safety were analysed (visit cutoff Dec 31, 2017). Efficacy analyses were done in all patients randomised to three nested cohorts: patients with BRCA mutations, patients with homologous recombination deficiencies, and the intention-to-treat population. Safety analyses included all patients who received at least one dose of study treatment. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01968213. FINDINGS: Between April 7, 2014, and July 19, 2016, 564 patients were enrolled and randomly assigned to rucaparib (n=375) or placebo (n=189). Median follow-up was 28·1 months (IQR 22·0-33·6). In the intention-to-treat population, median CFI was 14·3 months (95% CI 13·0-17·4) in the rucaparib group versus 8·8 months (8·0-10·3) in the placebo group (hazard ratio [HR] 0·43 [95% CI 0·35-0·53]; p<0·0001), median TFST was 12·4 months (11·1-15·2) versus 7·2 months (6·4-8·6; HR 0·43 [0·35-0·52]; p<0·0001), median PFS2 was 21·0 months (18·9-23·6) versus 16·5 months (15·2-18·4; HR 0·66 [0·53-0·82]; p=0·0002), and median TSST was 22·4 months (19·1-24·5) versus 17·3 months (14·9-19·4; HR 0·68 [0·54-0·85]; p=0·0007). CFI, TFST, PFS2, and TSST were also significantly longer with rucaparib than placebo in the BRCA-mutant and homologous recombination-deficient cohorts. The most frequent treatment-emergent adverse event of grade 3 or higher was anaemia or decreased haemoglobin (80 [22%] patients in the rucaparib group vs one [1%] patient in the placebo group). Serious treatment-emergent adverse events were reported in 83 (22%) patients in the rucaparib group and 20 (11%) patients in the placebo group. Two treatment-related deaths have been previously reported in this trial; there were no new treatment-related deaths. INTERPRETATION: In these exploratory analyses over a median follow-up of more than 2 years, rucaparib maintenance treatment led to a clinically meaningful delay in starting subsequent therapy and provided lasting clinical benefits versus placebo in all three analysis cohorts. Updated safety data were consistent with previous reports. FUNDING: Clovis Oncology.


Assuntos
Carcinoma/tratamento farmacológico , Indóis/administração & dosagem , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Carcinoma/patologia , Progressão da Doença , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Indóis/efeitos adversos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Platina/administração & dosagem , Platina/efeitos adversos , Inibidores de Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/administração & dosagem , Inibidores de Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/efeitos adversos , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Future Oncol ; 16(11): 643-654, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32228096

RESUMO

Aim: Describe rates of prespecified adverse events in patients who switched from olaparib capsules to tablets. Patients & methods: Retrospective, observational cohort analysis using self-controlled, pre-post design. Data on patients with ovarian cancer who switched from olaparib capsules to tablets between January 2015 and February 2019 were obtained from a US claims database. Results: Among all patients (n = 48), proportion with any prespecified adverse event was 45.8% (95% confidence interval: 31.4-60.8) during initial 90 days' capsule use and 35.4% (22.2-50.5) during initial 90 days' tablets use; difference -10.4% (-28.8-9.0). Conclusion: Switching from olaparib capsules to tablets was manageable with no evidence of increased toxicity. This real-world study supports the manageable tolerability of olaparib in women with ovarian cancer.

16.
Clin Cancer Res ; 26(15): 3908-3917, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32156746

RESUMO

Small-cell carcinoma of the ovary, hypercalcemic type (SCCOHT) is a rare and highly aggressive ovarian malignancy. In almost all cases, it is associated with somatic and often germline pathogenic variants in SMARCA4, which encodes for the SMARCA4 protein (BRG1), a subunit of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex. Approximately 20% of human cancers possess pathogenic variants in at least one SWI/SNF subunit. Because of their role in regulating many important cellular processes including transcriptional control, DNA repair, differentiation, cell division, and DNA replication, SWI/SNF complexes with mutant subunits are thought to contribute to cancer initiation and progression. Fewer than 500 cases of SCCOHT have been reported in the literature and approximately 60% are associated with hypercalcemia. SCCOHT primarily affects females under 40 years of age who usually present with symptoms related to a pelvic mass. SCCOHT is an aggressive cancer, with long-term survival rates of 30% in early-stage cases. Although various treatment approaches have been proposed, there is no consensus on surveillance and therapeutic strategy. An international group of multidisciplinary clinicians and researchers recently formed the International SCCOHT Consortium to evaluate current knowledge and propose consensus surveillance and therapeutic recommendations, with the aim of improving outcomes. Here, we present an overview of the genetics of this cancer, provide updates on new treatment targets, and propose management guidelines for this challenging cancer.

17.
Nat Rev Clin Oncol ; 17(6): 349-359, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32152484

RESUMO

Folate receptor α (FRα) came into focus as an anticancer target many decades after the successful development of drugs targeting intracellular folate metabolism, such as methotrexate and pemetrexed. Binding to FRα is one of several methods by which folate is taken up by cells; however, this receptor is an attractive anticancer drug target owing to the overexpression of FRα in a range of solid tumours, including ovarian, lung and breast cancers. Furthermore, using FRα to better localize effective anticancer therapies to their target tumours using platforms such as antibody-drug conjugates, small-molecule drug conjugates, radioimmunoconjugates and, more recently, chimeric antigen receptor T cells could further improve the outcomes of patients with FRα-overexpressing cancers. FRα can also be harnessed for predictive biomarker research. Moreover, imaging FRα radiologically or in real time during surgery can lead to improved functional imaging and surgical outcomes, respectively. In this Review, we describe the current status of research into FRα in cancer, including data from several late-phase clinical trials involving FRα-targeted therapies, and the use of new technologies to develop FRα-targeted agents with improved therapeutic indices.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Receptor 1 de Folato/metabolismo , Imunoconjugados/uso terapêutico , Fatores Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Imagem Molecular , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/diagnóstico por imagem , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/metabolismo , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/terapia , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/diagnóstico por imagem , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/metabolismo , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/terapia , Neoplasias do Endométrio/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias do Endométrio/metabolismo , Neoplasias do Endométrio/terapia , Feminino , Corantes Fluorescentes , Ácido Fólico , Antagonistas do Ácido Fólico/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Imunoterapia Adotiva , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/terapia , Maitansina/análogos & derivados , Maitansina/uso terapêutico , Mesotelioma/diagnóstico por imagem , Mesotelioma/metabolismo , Mesotelioma/terapia , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Neoplasias/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias/terapia , Imagem Óptica , Neoplasias Ovarianas/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Ovarianas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Ovarianas/terapia , Cintilografia , Nanomedicina Teranóstica , Moduladores de Tubulina/uso terapêutico
19.
Gynecol Oncol ; 156(3): 545-551, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31932108

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Vascular co-option is a resistance mechanism to anti-angiogenic agents, but combinations of anti-vascular agents may overcome this resistance. We report a phase 1b and randomised phase 2 trial to determine the safety and efficacy of pazopanib with fosbretabulin. METHODS: Eligible patients had recurrent, epithelial ovarian cancer with a platinum-free interval (PFI) of 3 to 12 months. Patients were stratified according to PFI (>6 versus ≤6 months) and prior bevacizumab use. RESULTS: Twelve patients were treated in the phase 1b. Commonest grade ≥ 2 adverse events (AEs) were hypertension (100%), neutropenia (50%), fatigue (50%), vomiting (50%). There was one DLT (grade 3 fatigue). The recommended phase 2 dose level was fosbretabulin 54 mg/m2 on days 1, 8 and 15 and pazopanib 600 mg once daily (od), every 28 days, which was then compared to pazopanib 800 mg od in a randomised phase 2 trial. Twenty-one patients were randomised (1:1) in the phase 2 trial. In phase 1b and phase 2, four patients treated with pazopanib and fosbretabulin developed reversible, treatment-related cardiac AEs, leading to premature discontinuation of the study. In the phase 2 trial, the median PFS was 7.6 months (95% CI 4.1-not estimated) versus 3.7 months (95% CI 1.0-8.1) in favour of the experimental arm (HR 0.30, 95% CI 0.09-1.03, P = .06). CONCLUSIONS: It remains unclear whether pazopanib with with fosbretabulin is an efficacious regimen to treat epithelial ovarian cancer. Effective cardiac risk mitigation is needed to increase the tolerability and maximize patient safety in future trials.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/tratamento farmacológico , Pirimidinas/uso terapêutico , Sulfonamidas/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Angiogênese/administração & dosagem , Inibidores da Angiogênese/efeitos adversos , Inibidores da Angiogênese/uso terapêutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/sangue , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/irrigação sanguínea , Cardiotoxicidade/etiologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Humanos , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Neovascularização Patológica/sangue , Neovascularização Patológica/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/sangue , Neoplasias Ovarianas/irrigação sanguínea , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Pirimidinas/efeitos adversos , Estilbenos/administração & dosagem , Estilbenos/efeitos adversos , Sulfonamidas/efeitos adversos , Taxa de Sobrevida
20.
J Pathol Clin Res ; 6(1): 3-11, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31577852

RESUMO

Development of resistance to platinum and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors via secondary BRCA gene mutations that restore functional homologous recombination has been observed in a number of cancer types. Here we report a case of somatic BRCA2 mutation in a patient with high grade serous ovarian carcinoma. A secondary mutation predicted to restore the BRCA2 open reading frame was detected at low frequency (2.3%) in whole exome sequencing of a peritoneal biopsy at disease progression after treatment that included carboplatin and olaparib. We used digital droplet PCR (ddPCR) to verify the presence and frequency of this mutation in the biopsy sample at progression and also used this approach to assess the presence of the secondary mutation in preceding biopsies at diagnosis and first relapse. We found no evidence for the secondary mutation being present prior to the final progression biopsy, suggesting that this mutation was acquired late in the course of treatment. ddPCR provides a sensitive and specific technique to investigate the presence of low frequency mutations in a time series of biopsies.

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