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2.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 7(7): 2105-2114, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31495420

RESUMO

Cephalosporins are commonly used antibiotics both in hospitalized patients and in outpatients. Hypersensitivity reactions to cephalosporins are becoming increasingly common with a wide range of immunopathologic mechanisms. Cephalosporins are one of the leading causes for perioperative anaphylaxis and severe cutaneous adverse reactions. Patients allergic to cephalosporins tend to tolerate cephalosporins with disparate R1 side chains but may react to other beta-lactams with common R1 side chains. Skin testing for cephalosporins has not been well validated but appears to have a good negative predictive value for cephalosporins with disparate R1 side chains. In vitro tests including basophil activation tests have lower sensitivity when compared with skin testing. Rapid drug desensitization procedures are safe and effective and have been used successfully for immediate and some nonimmediate cephalosporin reactions. Many gaps in knowledge still exist regarding cephalosporin hypersensitivity.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31279008

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Female physicians are significantly less likely than male physicians to be full professors, even after accounting for age, experience, specialty, and measures of research and clinical productivity. OBJECTIVE: We sought to evaluate sex differences in academic rank in the allergy and immunology workforce. METHODS: We used a cross-sectional physician data set containing the allergist's sex, age, years since residency, faculty appointment, authored publications, National Institutes of Health (NIH) funding, clinical trial investigation, and Medicare reimbursement to investigate sex differences in the academic allergy and immunology workforce using multilevel logistic regression models. RESULTS: Among 507 academic allergists (9.3% of practicing US allergists in 2014), 323 (63.7%) were men, and 184 (36.3%) were women. Female allergists were younger (47.9 vs 56.9 years, P < .001), had fewer total (12.5 vs 28.7, P < .001) and first/last author (8.0 vs 21.5, P < .001) average publications, were less likely to have NIH funding (13.0% vs 23.5%, P = .004), were less frequently a clinical trial investigator (10.3% vs 16.1%, P = .07), and generated less average annual Medicare revenue ($44,000 vs $23,000, P = .10). Of 152 (30.0%) full professors, 126 (82.9%) were male, and 26 (17.0%) were female. After multivariable adjustment, rates of full professorship among female and male allergists were not significantly different (absolute adjusted difference for female vs male allergists, 6.0%; 95% CI, -8.3% to 20.2%). CONCLUSIONS: Among allergists with US medical school faculty appointments, men and women were similarly likely to be full professors after accounting for factors influencing promotion. Underlying differences in research productivity and NIH funding not explained by age differences alone warrant additional investigation.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31170540

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Allergic condition management more often requires allergist guidance than allergy testing; necessary testing may be unavailable at initial drug allergy consultations. Electronic consultations (e-consults) provide expedited, problem-focused, potentially cost-saving care in other medical specialties, but have not yet been studied in Allergy/Immunology. OBJECTIVE: To describe e-consult use at an academic allergy/immunology practice. METHODS: E-consult data (August 10, 2016 through July 31, 2018) and in-person consult data (August 1, 2014 through July 31, 2018) were reviewed to determine consult volume, outcomes, indications, and timing. Referral reasons and wait times were compared with chi-square tests. RESULTS: E-consults grew from 1% to 10% of all new consults, with concurrent growth in in-person consults. Of 306 completed e-consults, 41 (13.4%) made diagnostic, therapeutic, or alternative referral recommendations, with 30 (73%) recommendations followed; 183 (59.8%) patients required an in-person Allergy/Immunology consult, and only 5 (<2%) patients saw an allergist without an e-consult recommendation to do so. E-consults were used more often than in-person consults for adverse drug reactions (66% vs 9%; P < .001), especially penicillin allergy (132, 61% of all e-consults) and immunodeficiency (15% vs 2%; P < .001). Allergists completed e-consults in a median of 11 minutes, with a median turnaround time of 22 hours. E-consult implementation was associated with a decreased median in-person consult wait time (1.5 fewer calendar days; P < .05). CONCLUSIONS: E-consults were increasingly used, particularly for historical adverse drug reactions and immunodeficiency. Implementation of an e-consult program resulted in decreased in-person wait times despite an increase in overall consult volume, supporting this model's ability to provide expedited, problem-focused care.

5.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 144(2): 381-392, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31247266

RESUMO

Many notable advances in drug allergy, urticaria, angioedema, and anaphylaxis were reported in 2018. Broad-spectrum antibiotic use and, consequently, antibiotic resistance are widespread, and algorithms to clarify ß-lactam allergy and optimize antibiotic use were described. Meaningful data emerged on the pathogenesis of delayed drug hypersensitivity reactions. Progress not only in defining biomarkers but also in understanding the effect on quality of life and developing better treatments has been made for patients with chronic idiopathic urticaria. Patients with hereditary angioedema (HAE) have gained additional access to highly efficacious therapies, with associated improvements in quality of life, and some progress was made in our understanding of recurrent angioedema in patients with normal laboratory results. Guidelines have defined clear goals to help providers optimize therapies in patients with HAE. The epidemiology and triggers of anaphylaxis and the mechanisms underlying anaphylaxis were elucidated further. In summary, these disorders (and labels) cause substantial burdens for individual persons and even society. Fortunately, publications in 2018 have informed on advancements in diagnosis and management and have provided better understanding of mechanisms that potentially could yield new therapies. This progress should lead to better health outcomes and paths forward in patients with drug allergy, urticaria, HAE, and anaphylaxis.

7.
J Patient Saf ; 2019 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30720546

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The epidemiology of hospital adverse reactions (ARs), particularly allergic reactions, or hypersensitivity reactions (HSRs), is poorly defined. To determine priorities for allergy safety in healthcare, we identified and described safety reports of allergic reactions. METHODS: We searched the safety report database of a large academic medical center from April 2006 to March 2016 using 101 complete, truncated, and/or misspelled key words related to allergic symptoms, treatments, and culprits (e.g., medications, foods). Patient and event data were summarized for ARs and two types of ARs, HSRs and side effects/toxicities. RESULTS: Among 9111 key word search-identified events, 876 (10%) were ARs, of which 436 (5%) were HSRs and the remaining 440 (5%) were side effect reactions or toxicities. Whereas the most common HSRs were simple cutaneous reactions (83%), the following severe immediate HSRs were also identified: shortness of breath (16%), anaphylaxis (14%), and angioedema (12%). Most HSRs were caused by drugs (81%), with antibiotics (26%), particularly ß-lactams (11%), and vancomycin (8%), commonly implicated. Other causes of drug HSRs included contrast agents (24%), chemotherapeutics (7%), and opioids (6%). Nondrug HSRs were from blood products (8%), latex (3%), and devices (3%). Food reactions were rarely identified (1%). CONCLUSIONS: We identified ARs, HSRs, and side effects/toxicities, contained in a decade of safety reports at an academic medical center. Allergy safety in the healthcare setting should target approaches to common and severe reactions, with a focus on the safe administration of ß-lactams, vancomycin, contrast agents, chemotherapeutics, and opioids. Priority nondrug HSR culprits include blood products, latex, and devices.

11.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 7(1): 46-60.e4, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30573422

RESUMO

Drug allergy pathways are standardized approaches for patients reporting prior drug allergies with the aim of quality improvement and promotion of antibiotic stewardship. At the International Drug Allergy Symposium during the 2018 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology/World Allergy Organization Joint Congress in Orlando, Florida, drug allergy pathways were discussed from international perspectives with a focus on beta-lactam allergy pathways and pragmatic approaches for acute care hospitals. In this expert consensus document, we review current pathways, and detail important considerations in devising, implementing, and evaluating beta-lactam allergy pathways for hospitalized patients. We describe the key patient and institutional factors that must be considered in risk stratification, the central feature of pathway design. We detail shared obstacles to widespread beta-lactam allergy pathway implementation and identify potential solutions to address these challenges.

12.
Allergy Asthma Proc ; 40(1): 7-13, 2019 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30582490

RESUMO

Hereditary angioedema (HAE) is a rare, autosomal dominant, genetic disorder associated with a deficiency in C1 inhibitor protein. HAE is characterized by recurrent and unpredictable episodes of swelling of the extremities, abdomen, face, and upper airway. There are several newly approved drugs as well as investigational products that are currently under study for the management of patients with HAE, with the potential to optimize care and improve quality of life for patients with HAE. We reviewed the evolution of HAE treatment options in the United States and discussed mechanisms of action, routes of administration, and efficacy of these therapies.


Assuntos
Angioedemas Hereditários/terapia , Fatores Etários , Angioedemas Hereditários/diagnóstico , Angioedemas Hereditários/etiologia , Angioedemas Hereditários/prevenção & controle , Terapia Combinada , Gerenciamento Clínico , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Serviços Preventivos de Saúde , Qualidade de Vida , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
BioDrugs ; 33(1): 33-43, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30539362

RESUMO

Hereditary angioedema (HAE) with C1 esterase inhibitor (C1-INH) deficiency (C1-INH-HAE) is a rare disease characterized by diminished levels or dysfunctional activity of C1-INH, leading to dysregulated plasma kallikrein activity within the kallikrein-kinin pathway. Symptoms manifest as painful, potentially life-threatening swelling of subcutaneous tissues throughout the body and/or submucosal edema in the upper airway or gastrointestinal tract. Attacks recur with unpredictable frequency, intensity, and duration, placing a heavy burden on patients' daily lives. Despite improved availability of medications for on-demand treatment during attacks and prophylaxis of future attacks, unmet needs remain. Lanadelumab, a fully human monoclonal antibody, may help address some of the limitations of existing prophylactic options (e.g., the need for intravenous administration or frequent dosing). Preclinical studies demonstrate that it is highly potent and specifically inhibits plasma kallikrein, and findings from phase Ia and Ib studies suggest this agent is well tolerated and provides sustained inhibition of plasma kallikrein, allowing for less frequent dosing. The phase III HELP Study (NCT02586805) evaluating the efficacy and safety of lanadelumab in preventing HAE attacks has been completed, and its open-label extension (NCT02741596) is ongoing. Lanadelumab is now approved in the USA and Canada for prophylaxis to prevent attacks of HAE in patients aged ≥ 12 years. This review provides an overview of the discovery and clinical development of lanadelumab, from preclinical through phase Ib studies, characterizing its safety/tolerability, efficacy, and pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles. It also highlights how this agent may positively impact clinical care of patients with C1-INH-HAE.


Assuntos
Angioedemas Hereditários/tratamento farmacológico , Angioedemas Hereditários/prevenção & controle , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Calicreína Plasmática/antagonistas & inibidores , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Angioedemas Hereditários/patologia , Angioedemas Hereditários/fisiopatologia , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/farmacocinética , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/farmacologia , Ensaios Clínicos Fase I como Assunto , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Calicreína Plasmática/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto Jovem
14.
JAMA ; 320(20): 2108-2121, 2018 11 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30480729

RESUMO

Importance: Current treatments for long-term prophylaxis in hereditary angioedema have limitations. Objective: To assess the efficacy of lanadelumab, a fully human monoclonal antibody that selectively inhibits active plasma kallikrein, in preventing hereditary angioedema attacks. Design, Setting, and Participants: Phase 3, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled trial conducted at 41 sites in Canada, Europe, Jordan, and the United States. Patients were randomized between March 3, 2016, and September 9, 2016; last day of follow-up was April 13, 2017. Randomization was 2:1 lanadelumab to placebo; patients assigned to lanadelumab were further randomized 1:1:1 to 1 of the 3 dose regimens. Patients 12 years or older with hereditary angioedema type I or II underwent a 4-week run-in period and those with 1 or more hereditary angioedema attacks during run-in were randomized. Interventions: Twenty-six-week treatment with subcutaneous lanadelumab 150 mg every 4 weeks (n = 28), 300 mg every 4 weeks (n = 29), 300 mg every 2 weeks (n = 27), or placebo (n = 41). All patients received injections every 2 weeks, with those in the every-4-week group receiving placebo in between active treatments. Main Outcome and Measures: Primary efficacy end point was the number of investigator-confirmed attacks of hereditary angioedema over the treatment period. Results: Among 125 patients randomized (mean age, 40.7 years [SD, 14.7 years]; 88 females [70.4%]; 113 white [90.4%]), 113 (90.4%) completed the study. During the run-in period, the mean number of hereditary angioedema attacks per month in the placebo group was 4.0; for the lanadelumab groups, 3.2 for the every-4-week 150-mg group; 3.7 for the every-4-week 300-mg group; and 3.5 for the every-2-week 300-mg group. During the treatment period, the mean number of attacks per month for the placebo group was 1.97; for the lanadelumab groups, 0.48 for the every-4-week 150-mg group; 0.53 for the every-4-week 300-mg group; and 0.26 for the every-2-week 300-mg group. Compared with placebo, the mean differences in the attack rate per month were -1.49 (95% CI, -1.90 to -1.08; P < .001); -1.44 (95% CI, -1.84 to -1.04; P < .001); and -1.71 (95% CI, -2.09 to -1.33; P < .001). The most commonly occurring adverse events with greater frequency in the lanadelumab treatment groups were injection site reactions (34.1% placebo, 52.4% lanadelumab) and dizziness (0% placebo, 6.0% lanadelumab). Conclusions and Relevance: Among patients with hereditary angioedema type I or II, treatment with subcutaneous lanadelumab for 26 weeks significantly reduced the attack rate compared with placebo. These findings support the use of lanadelumab as a prophylactic therapy for hereditary angioedema. Further research is needed to determine long-term safety and efficacy. Trial Registration: EudraCT Identifier: 2015-003943-20; ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02586805.

15.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 13(1): 180, 2018 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30314518

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Real-world data on usage and associated outcomes with hereditary angioedema (HAE)-specific medications introduced to the United States (US) market since 2009 are very limited. The purpose of this retrospective study was to evaluate real-world treatment patterns of HAE-specific medications in the US and to assess their impact on healthcare resource utilization (HCRU). This analysis used IMS PharMetrics PlusTM database records (2006-2014) of patients with HAE, ≥1 insurance claim for an HAE-specific medication, and continuous insurance enrollment for ≥3 months following the first HAE prescription claim. RESULTS: Of 631 total patients, 434 (68.8%) reported C1-INH(IV) use; 396 (62.8%) reported using ecallantide and/or icatibant. There were 306 episodes of prophylactic use of C1-INH(IV) (defined by continuous refills averaging ≥1500 IU/week for ≥13 weeks) in 155 patients; use of ≥1 on-demand rescue medication was implicated during 53% (163/306) of those episodes. Sixty-eight (20.2%) of 336 C1-INH(IV) users eligible for the HCRU analysis were hospitalized at least once, and 191 (56.8%) visited the emergency department (ED). Eighteen patients (5.4%) had a central venous access device (CVAD); of these, 5 (27.7%) required hospitalization and 14 (77.7%) had an ED visit. The adjusted relative risk of hospitalization and/or ED visits for patients with a CVAD was 2.6 (95% CI: 0.17, 39.23) compared to C1-INH(IV) users without a CVAD. CONCLUSIONS: Despite widespread availability of modern HAE medications in the US, we identified a subset of patients requiring long-term prophylaxis who continue to be burdened by frequent rescue medication usage and/or complications related to the use of CVADs for intravenous HAE medication.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30075337

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The study of allergic drug reactions has been limited because of challenges in identifying and confirming cases. OBJECTIVE: To determine the utility of International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) codes for identifying inpatient allergic drug reactions and to compare findings with previous data in the emergency department. METHODS: By reviewing medical records of inpatients with ICD-9-CM codes and E codes suggestive of allergic drug reactions at a large urban academic medical center, we determined codes that yielded the most drug allergy cases and identified culprit drugs. RESULTS: In 2005 and 2010, 3337 and 5282 possible allergic drug reactions during hospitalization were identified and 1367 were reviewed. Allergic drug reactions were found in 409 (30.1%) of the reviewed charts, with 172 (29.7%) in 2005 and 237 (30.5%) in 2010. The codes that identified the highest percentage of true allergic drug reactions were dermatitis due to drug (693.0), allergic urticaria (708), angioneurotic edema (995.1), and anaphylaxis (995.0). Antibiotics were the most common cause (44.4%); however, multiple drug classes were often identified as likely culprit drugs. CONCLUSION: Specific ICD-9-CM codes can identify patients with allergic drug reactions, with antibiotics accounting for almost half of true reactions. Most patients with codes 693.0, 995.1, 708, and 995.0 had allergic drug reactions, with 693.0 as the highest yield code. An aggregate of multiple specific codes consistently identifies a cohort of patients with confirmed allergic drug reactions.

17.
Allergy Asthma Proc ; 39(3): 212-223, 2018 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29669666

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We conducted our first patient survey at the 2013 hereditary angioedema (HAE) patient summit and learned that, despite several novel therapies, the burden of disease was high. OBJECTIVE: To determine, from the patient's perspective, if any improvements in the current state of HAE care occurred over a two-year period between HAE patient summits. METHODS: A patient survey was conducted at the 2015 Hereditary Angioedema Association conference by using paper surveys that aimed at understanding the current state of HAE care. Questions included patient characteristics, burden of disease, and satisfaction with care and treatment options. Comparisons between patients with HAE with C1-inhibitor (HAE-C1INH) and patients with HAE with normal C1-inhibitor (HAE-nlC1INH), as well as between patients with HAE in 2013 and 2015, were performed by using χ2 tests. RESULTS: There were 232 surveys distributed, and 143 surveys were identified as complete for inclusion and analysis from patients with self-reported HAE. Most patients had type I or type II HAE (67.5% [n = 106]), with a smaller number of patients with HAE-nlC1INH (23.6% [n = 37]). In 2015, almost half of the patients with HAE-C1INH (47.1%) and 56.7% of the patients with HAE-nlC1INH experienced a delay of ≥10 years between initial symptoms and diagnosis. Among the patients with HAE-C1INH, 25% reported one or more attacks per week and another 48% reported experiencing one or more attacks per month (fewer than one attack per week). The patients with HAE-nlC1INH reported attacks more frequently than did the patients with HAE-C1INH (p = 0.002), with 59.5% who reported attacks at least once a week. Emergency care was reported one or more times per month in 5% of the patients with HAE-C1INH and in 24.3% of the patients with HAE-nlC1INH. CONCLUSION: Similar to 2013, although significant progress has been made, there is still a high burden of disease that faces patients with HAE.

18.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 6(5): 1733-1741.e3, 2018 Sep - Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29391286

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hereditary angioedema with C1-inhibitor deficiency (C1-INH-HAE) impairs health-related quality of life (HRQoL). OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess HRQoL outcomes in patients self-administering subcutaneous C1-INH (C1-INH[SC]; HAEGARDA) for routine prevention of HAE attacks. METHODS: Post hoc analysis of data from the placebo-controlled, crossover phase III COMPACT study (Clinical Studies for Optimal Management of Preventing Angioedema with Low-Volume Subcutaneous C1-Inhibitor Replacement Therapy). Ninety patients with C1-INH-HAE were randomized to 1 of 4 treatment sequences: C1-INH(SC) 40 or 60 IU/kg twice weekly for 16 weeks, preceded or followed by 16 weeks of twice weekly placebo injections. All HAE attacks were treated with open-label on-demand treatment as necessary. HRQoL assessments at week 14 (last visit) included the European Quality of Life-5 Dimensions Questionnaire (EQ-5D-3L), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), the Work Productivity and Activity Impairment Questionnaire (WPAI), and the Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire for Medication (TSQM). RESULTS: Compared with placebo (on-demand treatment alone), treatment with twice weekly C1-INH(SC) (both doses combined) was associated with better EQ-5D visual analog scale general health, less HADS anxiety, less WPAI presenteeism, work productivity loss, and activity impairment, and greater TSQM effectiveness and overall treatment satisfaction. More patients self-reported a "good/excellent" response during routine prevention with C1-INH(SC) compared with on-demand only (placebo prophylaxis) management. For each HRQoL measure, a greater proportion of patients had a clinically meaningful improvement during C1-INH(SC) treatment compared with placebo. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with frequent HAE attacks, a treatment strategy of routine prevention with self-administered twice weekly C1-INH(SC) had a greater impact on improving multiple HAE-related HRQoL impairments, most notably anxiety and work productivity, compared with on-demand treatment alone (placebo prophylaxis).

19.
Curr Allergy Asthma Rep ; 18(2): 12, 2018 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29464437

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The goal of this paper is to review the major adverse cutaneous reactions that have been reported to the most commonly used biologics. RECENT FINDINGS: Anti-TNF agents and immune checkpoint inhibitors have significant, immune-mediated cutaneous manifestations that can necessitate discontinuation. Anti-TNF agents, IL-6 inhibitors, and IL-12/23 inhibitors can paradoxically cause psoriasis flares or unmask previously undiagnosed psoriasis. IL-17 inhibitors are unique in increasing risk for Candida infections. Benign injection site reactions, non-specific rash, cellulitis, and hypersensitivity reactions are relatively common adverse events. A wide variety of cutaneous reactions caused by biologics have been reported, ranging from benign injection site reactions to life-threatening cutaneous reactions necessitating discontinuation of the implicated biologic agent.

20.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 6(4): 1266-1273.e2, 2018 Jul - Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28986119

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hypersensitivity reactions (HSRs) are a common impediment to paclitaxel therapy. Management strategies to guide care after a paclitaxel-induced HSR are needed. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to evaluate the utility and safety of risk stratification on the basis of severity of the initial HSR. METHODS: A risk stratification pathway was developed on the basis of a retrospective review of the management and outcome of 130 patients with paclitaxel-induced HSRs at Massachusetts General Hospital. This pathway was then studied prospectively in patients referred to Allergy/Immunology with paclitaxel-induced HSRs. RESULTS: The study population (n = 35) had a mean age of 56.1 ± 12 years and most were women (n = 33 [94%]). All 5 patients (15%) with grade 1 initial HSRs were successfully reexposed to paclitaxel, 1 patient at the standard infusion rate and 4 patients at 50% of the standard infusion rate. Thirty patients (85%) with grade 2 to 4 initial HSRs underwent initial paclitaxel desensitization based on the risk stratification pathway. No patients developed severe HSRs using the pathway. Eleven (31%) patients had HSRs that were mild to moderate in nature (grade 1, n = 4 [11%]; grade 2, n = 6 [17%]; grade 3, n = 1 [3%]) during their first desensitization. Sixteen (46%) of the 35 patients safely returned to the outpatient infusion setting for paclitaxel treatment at 50% of the standard infusion rate. Seven (20%) discontinued paclitaxel before the completion of the risk stratification pathway because of disease progression, completion of therapy, or death. CONCLUSIONS: A management strategy using the initial HSR severity for risk stratification allowed patients to receive paclitaxel safely.

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