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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(7): e19136, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32049833

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Virtual reality (VR)-based rehabilitation is a promising approach for improving recovery in many conditions to optimize functional results, enhancing the clinical and social benefits of surgery. OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy of an early rehabilitation performed by the VR-based rehabilitation versus the traditional rehabilitation provided by physical therapists after primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA). METHODS: In this randomized controlled clinical trial, 85 subjects met the inclusion criteria and were randomized 3 to 4 days after TKA to an inpatient VR-based rehabilitation and a traditional rehabilitation. Participants in both groups received 60 minutes/day sessions until discharge (around 10 days after surgery). The primary outcome was the pain intensity. The secondary outcomes were: the disability knee, the health related quality of life, the global perceived effect, the functional independent measure, the drugs assumption, the isometric strength of quadriceps and hamstrings, the flexion range of motion, and the ability to perform proprioception exercises. Outcomes were assessed at baseline (3-4 days after TKA) and at discharge. RESULTS: VR-based or traditional rehabilitation, with 13% of dropout rate, shown no statistically significant pain reduction between groups (P = .2660) as well as in all other outcomes, whereas a statistically significant improvement was present in the global proprioception (P = .0020), in favor of the VR-based rehabilitation group. CONCLUSIONS: VR-based rehabilitation is not superior to traditional rehabilitation in terms of pain relief, drugs assumptions and other functional outcomes but seems to improve the global proprioception for patients received TKA. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapy, level 1b. CONSORT-compliant. TRIAL REGISTRATION: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov, ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02413996.

2.
Nutrients ; 12(2)2020 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32024027

RESUMO

Altered martial indices before orthopedic surgery are associated with higher rates of complications and greatly affect the patient's functional ability. Oral supplements can optimize the preoperative martial status, with clinical efficacy and the patient's tolerability being highly dependent on the pharmaceutical formula. Patients undergoing elective hip/knee arthroplasty were randomized to be supplemented with a 30-day oral therapy of sucrosomial ferric pyrophosphate plus L-ascorbic acid. The tolerability was 2.7% among treated patients. Adjustments for confounding factors, such as iron absorption influencers, showed a relevant response limited to older patients (≥ 65 years old), whose uncharacterized Hb loss was averted upon treatment with iron formula. Older patients with no support lost -2.8 ± 5.1%, while the intervention group gained +0.7 ± 4.6% of circulating hemoglobin from baseline (p = 0.019). Gastrointestinal diseases, medications, and possible dietary factors could affect the efficacy of iron supplements. Future opportunities may consider to couple ferric pyrophosphate with other nutrients, to pay attention in avoiding absorption disruptors, or to implement interventions to obtain an earlier martial status optimization at the population level.

3.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 20(1): 75, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32007089

RESUMO

Value-Based Medicine (VBM) is imposing itself as 'a new paradigm in healthcare management and medical practice.In this perspective paper, we discuss the role of VBM in dealing with the large productivity issue of the healthcare industry and examine some of the worldwide industrial and technological trends linked with VBM introduction. To clarify the points, we discuss examples of VBM management of stroke patients.In our conclusions, we support the idea of VBM as a strategic aid to manage rising costs in healthcare, and we explore the idea that VBM, by establishing value-generating networks among different healthcare stakeholders, can serve as the long sought-after redistributive mechanism that compensate patients for the industrial exploitation of their personal medical records.

4.
Eur Spine J ; 2020 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32034510

RESUMO

Under the headline "Correlation of RANKL concentrations and VDR-FokI polymorphism on disc herniation" in the description text for Table 2, the term "allelic frequency" was used erroneously for "genotypic frequency".

5.
J Leukoc Biol ; 2020 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32034807

RESUMO

Bone and the immune system are closely linked: bone regulates the hematopoietic stem cells, which are precursors of immune cells, and several immunoregulatory cytokines influence the differentiation of bone cells, thus defining the osteoimmunological system. Cytokines and growth factors produced by immune and bone cells promote tumors in bone, supporting the vicious cycle of bone metastasis. Therefore osteoimmunological molecules linking the immune and bone systems could have diagnostic and prognostic potential for bone metastases. The osteoimmunologic Wnt pathway has been recently described as an important pathway with a vital role in bone carcinogenesis and metastatic progression. We examined the Wnt inhibitor DKK-1, sclerostin and several other osteoimmunological biomarkers involved in bone metastatic progression: RANKL, OPG, OPN, matrix metalloproteinase MMP-3 and the Receptor of Advanced Glycosylated End-products sRAGE. OPN and sclerostin proved good biomarkers of metastatic bone progression; the RANKL/OPG ratio was a good indicator of bone erosion in the metastatic process, while sRAGE had a protective role against metastatic progression in bone. These results serve to define a panel of new osteoimmunological biomarkers that could be useful in assessing the progress of osteolytic bone metastases.

6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(4)2020 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32054062

RESUMO

Fibromyalgia is one of the most important "rheumatic" disorders, after osteoarthritis. The etiology of the disease is still not clear. At the moment, the most defined pathological mechanism is the alteration of central pain pathways, and emotional conditions can trigger or worsen symptoms. Increasing evidence supports the role of mast cells in maintaining pain conditions such as musculoskeletal pain and central sensitization. Importantly, mast cells can mediate microglia activation through the production of proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-1ß, IL-6, and TNFα. In addition, levels of chemokines and proinflammatory cytokines are enhanced in serum and could contribute to inflammation at systemic level. Despite the well-characterized relationship between the nervous system and inflammation, the mechanism that links the different pathological features of fibromyalgia, including stress-related manifestations, central sensitization, and dysregulation of the innate and adaptive immune responses is largely unknown. This review aims to provide an overview of the current understanding of the role of adaptive immune cells, in particular T cells, in the physiopathology of fibromyalgia. It also aims at linking the latest advances emerging from basic science to envisage new perspectives to explain the role of T cells in interconnecting the psychological, neurological, and inflammatory symptoms of fibromyalgia.

7.
Adv Clin Chem ; 94: 155-218, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31952571

RESUMO

Bone and skeletal muscle are integrated organs and their coupling has been considered mainly a mechanical one in which bone serves as attachment site to muscle while muscle applies load to bone and regulates bone metabolism. However, skeletal muscle can affect bone homeostasis also in a non-mechanical fashion, i.e., through its endocrine activity. Being recognized as an endocrine organ itself, skeletal muscle secretes a panel of cytokines and proteins named myokines, synthesized and secreted by myocytes in response to muscle contraction. Myokines exert an autocrine function in regulating muscle metabolism as well as a paracrine/endocrine regulatory function on distant organs and tissues, such as bone, adipose tissue, brain and liver. Physical activity is the primary physiological stimulus for bone anabolism (and/or catabolism) through the production and secretion of myokines, such as IL-6, irisin, IGF-1, FGF2, beside the direct effect of loading. Importantly, exercise-induced myokine can exert an anti-inflammatory action that is able to counteract not only acute inflammation due to an infection, but also a condition of chronic low-grade inflammation raised as consequence of physical inactivity, aging or metabolic disorders (i.e., obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus). In this review article, we will discuss the effects that some of the most studied exercise-induced myokines exert on bone formation and bone resorption, as well as a brief overview of the anti-inflammatory effects of myokines during the onset pathological conditions characterized by the development a systemic low-grade inflammation, such as sarcopenia, obesity and aging.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31917194

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of cognitive functioning on gait recovery after total hip arthroplasty. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Rehabilitation hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Patients (N=40) who underwent a total hip arthroplasty, with normal cognitive functioning and without any other relevant medical condition, were recruited and studied before surgery and at the beginning and the end of the rehabilitation program. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Gait speed (10-Meter Walk Test [10MWT]) and gait functional mobility (Timed Up and Go [TUG] test), measured at the time of discharge from the rehabilitation unit, were the primary outcomes. The candidate predictors were the cognitive and psychological variables collected in the presurgery phase, together with other potentially informative measures such as age, education, perceived pain, body mass index, presurgical gait speed and functional mobility. RESULTS: Our results suggest the existence of a direct relationship between cognitive functioning, with specific reference to high-level frontal executive functions, and the postoperative gait progress: the better the cognitive functioning in the preoperative phase, the better the course of recovery in terms of gait speed and functional mobility. In particular, the performance of the Frontal Assessment Battery test, together with age, perceived pain. Presurgical gait speed and functional mobility, was the best predictor of recovery of walking measured by 10MWT and TUG. CONCLUSIONS: The present study highlights the importance of cognitive functioning, together with clinical and demographic features, in the postsurgical recovery of walking, even in the absence of cognitive decline. In particular, these data show the crucial role of higher-order cognitive processes, such as executive functions, involved in the formulation of motor plans and their integration with proprioceptive and visual cues.

9.
Hum Brain Mapp ; 2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31922648

RESUMO

Gait control becomes more demanding in healthy older adults, yet what cognitive or motor process leads to this age-related change is unknown. The present study aimed to investigate whether it might depend on specific decay in the quality of gait motor representation and/or a more general reduction in the efficiency of lower limb motor control. Younger and older healthy participants performed in fMRI a virtual walking paradigm that combines motor imagery (MI) of walking and standing on the spot with the presence (Dynamic Motor Imagery condition, DMI) or absence (pure MI condition) of overtly executed ankle dorsiflexion. Gait imagery was aided by the concomitant observation of moving videos simulating a stroll in the park from a first-person perspective. Behaviorally, older participants showed no sign of evident depletion in the quality of gait motor representations, and absence of between-group differences in the neural correlates of MI. However, while younger participants showed increased frontoparietal activity during DMI, older participants displayed stronger activation of premotor areas when controlling the pure execution of ankle dorsiflexion, regardless of the imagery task. These data suggest that reduced automaticity of lower limb motor control in healthy older subjects leads to the recruitment of additional premotor resources even in the absence of basic gait functional disabilities.

10.
Clin Chem Lab Med ; 58(2): 178-187, 2020 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31525152

RESUMO

Serum or plasma? An old question looking for new answers. There is a continual debate on what type of sample a clinical laboratory should use. While serum is still considered the gold standard and remains the required sample for some assays, laboratories must consider turn-around time, which is an important metric for laboratory performance and, more importantly, plays a critical role in patient care. In addition, a body of evidence emphasise the choice of plasma in order to prevent modifications of some analytes due to the coagulation process and related interferences. Advantages and disadvantages of serum and plasma are discussed on the basis of current literature and evidence. In addition, data are provided on the current utilisation of the samples (serum or plasma) in Italy and in other countries. Finally, a rationale for a possible switch from serum to plasma is provided.

11.
J Affect Disord ; 262: 286-292, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31733921

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to test, through a chronobiologic approach, the existence of a significant circannual rhythm of tics and obsessive-compulsive symptoms in patients with Obsessive-Compulsive Tic Disorder (OCTD). The chronotype effect on tics and OC symptoms during seasons was also studied. METHODS: Patients with a diagnosis of OCTD (N = 37; mean age = 18.78 ± 8.61) underwent four clinical evaluations: Winter (WIN), Spring (SPR), Summer (SUM) and Autumn (AUT). Tics were evaluated through Yale Global Tic Severity Scale (YGTSS) and OC symptoms through Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS). Patients' chronotype was assessed by the Horne-Ostberg morningness-eveningness questionnaire (MEQ), which categorizes subjects according to the individuals'chronotype, being morning-type, evening-type, and neither-type. RESULTS: A statistically significant circannual rhythm was observed for OC symptoms (p = 0.007), with the acrophase occurring between AUT and WIN. Y-BOCS differed along the year (p = 0.0003 and η2p = 0.40) with lower results in SUM compared to WIN (p < 0.05) and AUT (p < 0.01). Tics displayed no circannual rhythm and YGTSS scores were comparable among seasons. Patients were classified as 15 morning-types (40.5%) 15 neither-types (40.5%) and 7 evening-types (19.0%). YGTSS data were similar for all chronotypes while Y-BOCS results were greater during SUM in evening-types than morning-type patients (p < 0.05; 15.7 ± 5.2 vs 3.4 ± 6.0). LIMITATIONS: It is essential to investigate the existence of tics and OC symptoms circannual rhythms over the course of more than one year with a larger sample. CONCLUSIONS: OC symptoms displayed a significant circannual rhythm and were influenced by patients' chronotype. On the contrary, tics resulted similar among seasons and chronotypes.

12.
Biochem Med (Zagreb) ; 30(1): 010703, 2020 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31839723

RESUMO

Introduction: Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) are emerging as potential biomarkers. However, the lack of preanalytical and analytical standardization limits their use. The aim of this study was to determine the expression of different miRNAs in plasma according to different collection and storage conditions. Materials and methods: Venous blood from 10 volunteers was collected in tubes spray-coated with dipotassium salt of ethylendiaminetetraacetic acid, either with (plasma-preparation tube, PPT) or without (K2EDTA) gel separator. Platelet-poor plasma (PPP) was also obtained from K2EDTA plasma. After storage under different conditions, miRNA-enriched total RNA was isolated from plasma and reverse transcribed. A panel of 179 miRNAs was assayed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and the results were analysed by GenEx software. Detectability and stability of miRNAs were determined. Results: The number of undetected miRNAs was: 18, 24, and 22 in PPT; 83, 43, and 20 in K2EDTA; and 76, 106, and 104 in PPP samples, for plasma immediately frozen at - 80°C and plasma stored for 24h at room temperature or 4°C, respectively. Circulating miRNA expression in PPT samples was not affected by storage delay or temperature, while the percentage of up- and down-regulated miRNA in K2EDTA and PPP samples ranged from 2%, and 1% to 7%, and 5%, respectively. Conclusions: Sample matrix, temperature and delay in storage strongly influence the expression level of plasma miRNAs. Our results indicate PPT tubes as the most suitable matrix to improve total miRNA detectability and stability, independently of temperature.


Assuntos
Coleta de Amostras Sanguíneas/métodos , MicroRNA Circulante/sangue , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Plaquetas/citologia , Coleta de Amostras Sanguíneas/instrumentação , MicroRNA Circulante/isolamento & purificação , MicroRNA Circulante/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Fase Pré-Analítica , Temperatura Ambiente
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31817294

RESUMO

Fragility fractures pose a serious threat to patient health, quality of life, and healthcare sustainability. In order to reduce their clinical, social, and economic burden, a Fracture Liaison Service (FLS) was introduced in a high volume orthopedic hospital in 2017. The purpose of this retrospective observational study is to describe the FLS protocol, introduce its preliminary outcomes, and provide an early evaluation in light of international guidelines and recommendations. All the performances suggested by the International Osteoporosis Foundation (IOF) are provided under the same institution by which a patient is admitted for surgery. Clinical indicators from patient history and administrative indicators from the hospital database have been used to estimate the spread of fragility fracture prevention and the degree of patient compliance to these programs. The research included 403 patients. Although, almost 1/3 were admitted for the second fragility fracture, only half received anti-osteoporotic treatment before it. The degree of prevention was even lower in the case of patients admitted for the first fragility fracture. The risk of being affected by a secondary fracture was seven times higher when patients did not attend any follow-up or diagnostic exam. In order to identify the main determinants of compliance with FLS and perform a cost-effectiveness analysis on a larger sample, it is fundamental to integrate data from different providers.

14.
Biomed Res Int ; 2019: 1253710, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31828085

RESUMO

Danio rerio (zebrafish) is an elective model organism for the study of vertebrate development because of its high degree of homology with human genes and organs, including bone. Zebrafish embryos, because of the optical clarity, small size, and fast development, can be easily used in large-scale mutagenesis experiments to isolate mutants with developmental skeletal defects and in high-throughput screenings to find new chemical compounds for the ability to revert the pathological phenotype. On the other hand, the adult zebrafish represents another powerful resource for pathogenic and therapeutic studies about adult human bone diseases. In fish, some characteristics such as bone turnover, reparation, and remodeling of the adult bone tissue cannot be found at the embryonic stage. Several pathological models have been established in adult zebrafish such as bone injury models, osteoporosis, and genetic diseases such as osteogenesis imperfecta. Given the growing interest for metabolic diseases and their complications, adult zebrafish models of type 2 diabetes and obesity have been recently generated and analyzed for bone complications using scales as model system. Interestingly, an osteoporosis-like phenotype has been found to be associated with metabolic alterations suggesting that bone complications share the same mechanisms in humans and fish. Embryo and adult represent powerful resources in rapid development to study bone physiology and pathology from different points of view.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31842141

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Observational studies showed that exposure to exogenous insulin increases fracture risk. However, it remains unclear whether the observed association is a function of the severity of underlying type 2 diabetes mellitus, complications, therapies, comorbidities, or all these factors combined. That being so, and because of the relative infrequency of these events, it is important to study this further in a large-database setting. QUESTION/PURPOSES: (1) Is switching from oral antidiabetic agents to insulin associated with an increased fracture risk? (2) How soon after switching does the increased risk appear, and for how long does this increased risk persist? METHODS: Data from healthcare utilization databases of the Italian region of Lombardy were used. These healthcare utilization databases report accurate, complete, and interconnectable information of inpatient and outpatient diagnoses, therapies, and services provided to the almost 10 million residents in the region. The 216,624 patients on treatment with oral antidiabetic therapy from 2005 to 2009 were followed until 2010 to identify those who modified their antidiabetic therapy (step 1 cohort). Among the 63% (136,307 patients) who experienced a therapy modification, 21% (28,420 patients) switched to insulin (active exposure), and the remaining 79% (107,887 patients) changed to another oral medication (referent exposure). A 1:1 high-dimension propensity score matching design was adopted for balancing patients on active and referent exposure. Matching failed for 3% of patients (926 patients), so the cohort of interest was formed by 27,494 insulin-referent couples. The latter were followed until 2012 to identify those who experienced hospital admission for fracture (outcome). A Cox proportional hazard model was fitted to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) for the outcome risk associated with active-exposure (first research question). Between-exposure comparison of daily fracture hazard rates from switching until the 24 successive months was explored through the Kernel-smoothed estimator (second research question). RESULTS: Compared with patients on referent exposure, those who switched to insulin had an increased risk of experiencing any fracture (HR = 1.5 [95% CI 1.3 to 1.6]; p < 0.001). The same risk was observed for hip and vertebral fractures, with HRs of 1.6 (95% CI 1.4 to 1.8; p < 0.001) and 1.8 (95% 1.5 to 2.3; p < 0.001), respectively. Differences in the daily pattern of outcome rates mainly appeared the first 2 months after switching, when the hazard rate of patients on active exposure (9 cases for every 100,000 person-days) was higher than that of patients on referent exposure (4 cases for every 100,000 person-days). These differences persisted during the remaining follow-up, though with reduced intensity. CONCLUSIONS: We found quantitative evidence that switching from oral antidiabetic therapy to insulin is associated with an increased fracture risk, mainly in the period immediately after the start of insulin therapy. The observed association may result from higher hypoglycemia risk among patients on insulin, which leads to a greater number of falls and resulting fractures. However, although our study was based on a large sample size and highly accurate data, its observational design and the lack of clinical data suggest that future research will need to replicate or refute our findings and address the issue of causality, if any. Until then, though, prescribers and patients should be aware of this risk. Careful control of insulin dosage should be maintained and measures taken to reduce fall risk in these patients. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level III, therapeutic study.

16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(22)2019 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31717649

RESUMO

(1) Background: In literature it is reported that 20-30% of psoriatic patients evolve to psoriatic arthritis over time. Currently, no specific biochemical markers can either predict progression to psoriatic arthritis or response to therapies. This study aimed to identify osteoimmunological markers applicable to clinical practice, giving a quantitative tool for evaluating pathological status and, eventually, to provide prognostic support in diagnosis. (2) Methods: Soluble (serum) bone and cartilage markers were quantified in 50 patients with only psoriasis, 50 psoriatic patients with psoriatic arthritis, and 20 healthy controls by means of multiplex and enzyme-linked immunoassays. (3) Results: Differences in the concentrations of matrix metalloproteases (MMPs), tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs), receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B- ligand (RANK-L), procollagen type I N propeptide (PINP), C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTx-I), dickkopf-related protein 1 (DKK1), and sclerostin (SOST) distinguished healthy controls from psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis patients. We found that MMP2, MMP12, MMP13, TIMP2, and TIMP4 distinguished psoriasis from psoriatic arthritis patients undergoing a systemic treatment, with a good diagnostic accuracy (Area under the ROC Curve (AUC) > 0.7). Then, chitinase-3-like protein 1 (CHI3L1) and MMP10 distinguished psoriasis from psoriatic arthritis not undergoing systemic therapy and, in the presence of onychopathy, MMP8 levels were higher in psoriasis than in psoriatic arthritis. However, in these latter cases, the diagnostic accuracy of the identified biomarkers was low (0.5 < AUC < 0.7). (4) Conclusions. By highlighting never exploited differences, the wide osteoimmunological biomarkers panel provides a novel clue to the development of diagnostic paths in psoriasis and psoriasis-associated arthropathic disease.

17.
Front Genet ; 10: 1044, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31737038

RESUMO

Aging is associated with an increased incidence of age-related bone diseases. Current diagnostics (e.g., conventional radiology, biochemical markers), because limited in specificity and sensitivity, can distinguish between healthy or osteoporotic subjects but they are unable to discriminate among different underlying causes that lead to the same bone pathological condition (e.g., bone fracture risk). Among recent, more sensitive biomarkers, miRNAs - the non-coding RNAs involved in the epigenetic regulation of gene expression, have emerged as fundamental post-transcriptional modulators of bone development and homeostasis. Each identified miRNA carries out a specific role in osteoblast and osteoclast differentiation and functional pathways (osteomiRs). miRNAs bound to proteins or encapsulated in exosomes and/or microvesicles are released into the bloodstream and biological fluids where they can be detected and measured by highly sensitive and specific methods (e.g., quantitative PCR, next-generation sequencing). As such, miRNAs provide a prompt and easily accessible tool to determine the subject-specific epigenetic environment of a specific condition. Their use as biomarkers opens new frontiers in personalized medicine. While miRNAs circulating levels are lower than those found in the tissue/cell source, their quantification in biological fluids may be strategic in the diagnosis of diseases that affect tissues, such as bone, in which biopsy may be especially challenging. For a biomarker to be valuable in clinical practice and support medical decisions, it must be (easily) measurable, validated by independent studies, and strongly and significantly associated with a disease outcome. Currently, miRNAs analysis does not completely satisfy these criteria, however. Starting from in vitro and in vivo observations describing their biological role in bone cell development and metabolism, this review describes the potential use of bone-associated circulating miRNAs as biomarkers for determining predisposition, onset, and development of osteoporosis and bone fracture risk. Moreover, the review focuses on their clinical relevance and discusses the pre-analytical, analytical, and post-analytical issues in their measurement, which still limits their routine application. Taken together, research and clinical findings may be helpful for creating miRNA-based diagnostic tools in the diagnosis and treatment of bone diseases.

18.
J Clin Med ; 8(10)2019 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31614612

RESUMO

An early cancer diagnosis is essential to treat and manage patients, but it is difficult to achieve this goal due to the still too low specificity and sensitivity of classical methods (imaging, actual biomarkers), together with the high invasiveness of tissue biopsies. The discovery of novel, reliable, and easily collectable cancer markers is a topic of interest, with human biofluids, especially blood, as important sources of minimal invasive biomarkers such as circulating microRNAs (miRNAs), the most promising. MiRNAs are small non-coding RNAs and known epigenetic modulators of gene expression, with specific roles in cancer development/progression, which are next to be implemented in the clinical routine as biomarkers for early diagnosis and the efficient monitoring of tumor progression and treatment response. Unfortunately, several issues regarding their validation process are still to be resolved. In this review, updated findings specifically focused on the clinical relevance of circulating miRNAs as prognostic and diagnostic biomarkers for the most prevalent cancer types (breast, lung, and prostate cancers in adults, and osteosarcoma in children) are described. In addition, deep analysis of pre-analytical, analytical, and post-analytical issues still affecting the circulation of miRNAs' validation process and routine implementation is included.

19.
J Sports Sci ; 37(23): 2711-2719, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31608830

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of sleep hygiene (SH) education on sleep quality in soccer players after a late-evening small-sided-game (SSG) training session. Twenty-nine non-professional players were recruited and allocated to either an experimental group (EG, n = 17) that received SH education, or a control group (CG, n = 12). SSG consisted of 3 × 4 min in a 4vs4, with 3 min of recovery and was performed at 8.00 p.m. Sleep quality was monitored via actigraphy and sleep diary entries before (PRE) and two nights after (POST1, POST2) the SSG. Sleep latency (SL) differed between the two groups at POST1 (4.9 ± 5.4 vs. 15.5 ± 16.1 for EG and CG, respectively; p = 0.017, effect size [ES] = 2.0); SL values were lower at POST1 compared to PRE for the EG (-47%; p = 0.021, ES = 0.6). Subjective sleep quality was better in the EG than the CG at POST1 (8.6 ± 1.0 vs. 7.1 ± 2.0 for EG and CG, respectively; p = 0.016, ES = 0.9) with a significant improvement over PRE-values (+11.0%, p = 0.004, ES = 0.8). Although SL and subjective sleep quality did not decrease significantly from POST1 to POST2 values at POST2 no longer differed significantly form baseline and, hence, indicate that observed effects may be short-lasting. No other objective sleep indices were influenced by late-evening training or SH practices implemented by the EG. Soccer players may benefit from acute SH strategies to reduce the time to sleep onset after late-evening training sessions.


Assuntos
Condicionamento Físico Humano/métodos , Higiene do Sono/fisiologia , Latência do Sono/fisiologia , Futebol/fisiologia , Actigrafia , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
20.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(39): e17105, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31574809

RESUMO

We aimed to determine the accuracy and failure of OAK device, an automated screening, for the assessment of fall risk in a prospective cohort of healthy adults aged over 65 years. The algorithm for fall risk assessment of the centers for disease control and prevention (CDC) was used as reference standard. Of the 183 individuals recruited, the CDC algorithm classified 80 as being at moderate/high risk and 103 at low risk of falling. OAK device failure incidence was 4.9% (confidence interval [CI] upper limit 7.7%), below the preset threshold for futility-early termination of the study (i.e., not above 15%). The OAK device showed a sensitivity of 84% and a specificity of 67% (receiver operating characteristic [ROC] area 82%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 76-88%), not reaching the preplanned target sensitivity (not lower than 85%). Diagnostic accuracy was not far from the sensitivity levels similar to those obtained with other fall risk assessment. However, some limitations can be considered.ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02655796.


Assuntos
Acidentes por Quedas , Teste de Esforço/métodos , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Medição de Risco/métodos , Idoso , Desenho de Equipamento , Falha de Equipamento , Teste de Esforço/instrumentação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/instrumentação , Estudos Prospectivos , Curva ROC , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
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