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1.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257348, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34555058

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The implementation of Universal Health Coverage in SA has sought to focus on promoting affordable health care services that are accessible to all citizens. In this regard, pharmacists are expected to play a pivotal function in the revitalization of primary health care (PHC) during this transition by the expansion of their practice roles. OBJECTIVES: To assess the readiness and perceptions of pharmacists to expand their roles in an integrated health care system. To determine the availability and pricing of primary health care services currently provided within a community pharmacy environment and to evaluate suitable reimbursement for the provision of such services by a community pharmacist. METHODS: Community pharmacists' across SA were invited to participate in an online survey-based study. The survey consisted of both open- and closed-ended questions. Descriptive statistics for closed-ended questions were generated and analysed using Microsoft Excel® and Survey Monkey®. Responses for the open-ended questions were transcribed, analysed, and reported as emerging themes. RESULTS: Six hundred and sixty-four pharmacists' responded to the online survey. Seventy-five percent of pharmacists' reported that with appropriate training, a transition into a more patient-centered role might be beneficial in the re-engineering of the PHC system. However, in order to adopt these new roles, appropriate reimbursement structures are required. The current fee levied by pharmacists in community pharmacies that offered these PHC services was found to be lower to that recommended by the South African Pharmacy Council; this disparity is primarily due to a lack of information and policy standardisation. Therefore, in order to ensure that fees levied are fair, comprehensive service package guidelines are required. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides baseline data for policy makers on pharmacists' readiness to transition into expanded roles. Furthermore, it can be used as a foundation to establish appropriate reimbursement frameworks for pharmacists providing PHC services.

2.
J Oncol Pharm Pract ; : 10781552211041977, 2021 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34569362

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Community pharmacists may play a vital role in early detection and prevention of cancer. Findings from our pre-assessment studies showed that the Ghanaian community have inadequate knowledge of cancer. We assessed the impact of a brief educational intervention on knowledge level of cancer among Ghanaian community pharmacists. METHOD: The study was a descriptive interventional study. Knowledge of cancer, signs and symptoms, risk factors and cancer screening tests were assessed before in a pre-assessment study and after a brief online education in our current study. A total of 435 community pharmacists were recruited in both studies. RESULTS: The mean ± SD total knowledge score of cancer increased from 9.03 ± 2.65 to 12.97 ± 1.43 out of a maximum score of 15 points. The mean ± SD total knowledge score of signs and symptoms of cancer increased from 4.15 ± 2.14 to 6.86 ± 0.76 out of a maximum score of 7 points. For the total knowledge score of causes and risk factors of cancer, the mean ± SD score increased from 8.13 ± 3.31 to 11.59 ± 0.87 out of a maximum score of 12 points. Lastly, the mean ± SD total knowledge score of cancer screening tests increased from 9.04 ± 5.01 to 16.39 ± 0.86 out of a maximum score of 18 points. CONCLUSION: There were overall statistically significant improvements of participants knowledge in all aspects of cancer in this study compared to the pre-assessment study. Our study presents evidence of the effectiveness of a brief educational intervention tailor-made for Ghanaian community pharmacists.

3.
S Afr Fam Pract (2004) ; 63(1): e1-e3, 2021 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34212751

RESUMO

In the wake of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, the links between poor hygiene, unclean environments and human health cannot be overemphasised, particularly in South Africa with its high incidence of infectious diseases and overburdened health system. One very controllable factor that is often overlooked is the poor disposal of litter and waste management and its adverse effects on public health. By wearing masks, regular handwashing and sanitising, as well as making sure that neighbourhoods and public spaces are clean and safe, the spread of COVID-19 and other diseases can be prevented.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/organização & administração , Saúde Ambiental/organização & administração , Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental , Saúde Pública/métodos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Higiene/normas , Condições Sociais , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , África do Sul/epidemiologia
4.
Value Health Reg Issues ; 25: 142-149, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34130039

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to identify adverse drug reactions (ADRs) attributable to tenofovir (TDF)- and zidovudine (AZT)-based fixed-dose combinations of highly active antiretroviral (ARV) therapy and subsequently determine the annual costs incurred in managing these ADRs and the budget implications in an outpatient ARV clinic in Mamelodi, Pretoria. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study reviewed deidentified clinical data for ADRs. Medical charts of human immunodeficiency virus-positive patients, who were receiving either TDF- or AZT-based fixed-dose combinations of ARV therapy, were analyzed. Costs were converted to US dollars using the rate of US$1 equivalent to ZAR14.3853. Based on the costs and the incidence rates of ADRs observed in the analysis, a decision tree model was established to estimate the cost impact of ADR management on the clinic's budget. RESULTS: A total of 469 patient files were analyzed (62% female vs 38% male). The mean age at the start of ARV therapy for the cohort was 36.6 years (95% confidence interval 35.74-37.45), and the mean baseline CD4 count was 380 (95% confidence interval 343-418). The incidence of ADRs to TDF- or AZT-based fixed-dose combinations of ARV therapy was found to be 24.95%. The study revealed that US$29.70 was the cost attributed to ADRs owing to TDF-based regimens, whereas US$32.53 was the cost attributed to ADRs owing to AZT-based regimens, per patient, annually. Costs attributed to gastrointestinal-related ADRs were the highest in comparison with other ADRs. The estimated total cost of ADRs attributed to AZT-based therapy was US$556.40, and the estimated total cost of ADRs attributed to TDF-based ARV therapy per annum was US$2348.80 for the 1221 patients who started receiving ARV therapy between July 2017 and June 2018 at the clinic. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the estimated costs related to ADRs in the study being lower than those in similar studies, there remains a notable budget impact, particularly in a resource-limited setting. The study findings allow for improved budget forecasts in an ARV clinic setting.

5.
BMC Cancer ; 21(1): 683, 2021 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34112117

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Access to childhood cancer medicines is a critical global health challenge. There is a lack of sufficient context-specific data in Ghana on access to essential medicines for treating childhood cancers. Here, we present an analysis of essential cancer medicine availability, pricing, and affordability using the pediatric oncology unit of a tertiary hospital as the reference point. METHOD: Data on prices and availability of 20 strength-specific essential cancer medicines and eight non-cancer medicines were evaluated using the modified World Health Organization (WHO)/Health Action International method. Two pharmacies in the hospital and four private pharmacies around the hospital were surveyed. We assessed their median price ratio using the WHO international reference price guide. The number of days wages per the government daily wage salary was used to calculate the affordability of medicines. RESULTS: The mean availability of essential cancer medicines and non-cancer medicines at the hospital pharmacies were 27 and 38% respectively, and 75 and 84% respectively for private pharmacies. The median price ratio of cancer medicines was 1.85, and non-cancer medicines was 3.75. The estimated cost of medicines for treating a 30 kg child with Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia was GHÈ» 4928.04 (US$907.56) and GHÈ» 4878.00 (US$902.62) for Retinoblastoma, requiring 417 and 413-days wages respectively for the lowest-paid unskilled worker in Ghana. CONCLUSION: The mean availability of cancer medicines at the public and private pharmacies were less than the WHO target of 80%. The median price ratio for cancer and non-cancer medicines was less than 4, yet the cost of medicines appears unaffordable in the local setting. A review of policies and the establishment of price control could improve availability and reduce medicines prices for the low-income population.

6.
Syst Rev ; 10(1): 138, 2021 05 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33957988

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With the burden of prostate cancer, it has become imperative to exploit cost-effective ways to tackle this menace. Women have demonstrated their ability to recognize early cancer signs, and it is, therefore, relevant to include women in strategies to improve the early detection of prostate cancer. This systematic review seeks to gather evidence from studies that investigated women's knowledge about (1) the signs and symptoms, (2) causes and risk factors, and (3) the screening modalities of prostate cancer. Findings from the review will better position women in the fight against the late detection of prostate cancer. METHODS: The convergent segregated approach to the conduct of mixed-methods systematic reviews was employed. Five databases, namely, MEDLINE (EBSCOhost), CINAHL (EBSCOhost), PsycINFO (EBSCOhost), Web of Science, and EMBASE (Ovid), were searched from January 1999 to December 2019 for studies conducted with a focus on the knowledge of women on the signs and symptoms, the causes and risk factors, and the screening modalities of prostate cancer. RESULTS: Of 2201 titles and abstracts screened, 22 full-text papers were retrieved and reviewed, and 7 were included: 3 quantitative, 1 qualitative, and 3 mixed-methods studies. Both quantitative and qualitative findings indicate that women have moderate knowledge of the signs and symptoms and the causes and risk factors of prostate cancer. However, women recorded poor knowledge about prostate cancer screening modalities or tools. CONCLUSIONS: Moderate knowledge of women on the signs and symptoms and the causes and risk factors of prostate cancer was associated with education. These findings provide vital information for the prevention and control of prostate cancer and encourage policy-makers to incorporate health promotion and awareness campaigns in health policies to improve knowledge and awareness of prostate cancer globally. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: Open Science Framework (OSF) registration DOI: https://doi.org/10.17605/OSF.IO/BR456.


Assuntos
Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Neoplasias da Próstata , Escolaridade , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento , Antígeno Prostático Específico , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico
7.
Value Health Reg Issues ; 25: 118-125, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33965656

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine the price, availability, and affordability of antineoplastic medicines in private and public sector pharmacies in Harare Metropolitan Province, Zimbabwe. METHODS: The study was based on the methodology recommended by the World Health Organization and Health Action International. A total of 32 antineoplastic medicines in 3 public central hospitals and 150 private pharmacies were surveyed. The median price ratio, percentage availability, affordability, and percentage markups were calculated. RESULTS: Availability at the public institutions was 28%, whereas the private sector ranged from 1.3% to 42.7%. The median price ratio in the private sector ranged from 0.6 to 11, whereas the public sector ranged from 0.73 to 2.25. Affordability in the public sector ranged from 1 to 10 days wage and from 1 to 490 days wage in the private sector. The average percentage markup was 51.3% in the private sector and 34% in the public sector. CONCLUSION: Antineoplastic medicines were more available in the private sector than in the public sector, but more affordable in the public sector. The average percentage markups for antineoplastic medicines demonstrated that medicines were not overpriced in the public sector, but in the private sector were sold at prices higher than the international reference price.

8.
Curr Pharm Teach Learn ; 13(3): 292-301, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33641741

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Pharmacy academics are consistently challenged to incorporate innovative, active-learning strategies to encourage student participation while imparting knowledge. To achieve this, a board game entitled "PharmacyPhlash" was developed by academics teaching in an undergraduate bachelor of pharmacy program. The study sought to document student experience on playing a pilot version of the game and to understand the design strengths and weaknesses as well as the ability of the game to achieve envisaged educational and competency outcomes. EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITY AND SETTING: Third-year pharmacy students were invited to participate in the pilot study. Student experience was evaluated using a questionnaire to determine general characteristics of game-playing, students' perceived engagement in the game and its ability to fulfil its anticipated design objectives, how playing the game helped or limited learning, aspects students enjoyed/did not enjoy about the activity, and suggestions for improvement. FINDINGS: Ten participants (six males, four females) volunteered for the pilot. Overall, playing the game improved understanding and application of knowledge and promoted sharing of knowledge and collaboration. Students were able to link pharmacy practice and pharmacology knowledge. It enhanced learners' ability to think and communicatee concisely and quickly. The competitive aspect of the game was the main negative associated with playing the game. Suggestions for improving the game included making it shorter, including mixed groups of students from different levels of study, and introducing a referee to oversee the game. SUMMARY: The current study found that students reported high levels of satisfaction from playing the game.

9.
J Oncol Pharm Pract ; : 1078155220983413, 2021 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33430692

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Though there are controversies, cancer screening has been suggested to decrease mortality. Over the years, the most accessible primary healthcare provider; the community pharmacist, has developed an interest in being part of cancer screening activities and prevention of a wide range of other non-communicable diseases. To achieve this, community pharmacists need a working knowledge of the basic screening test and recommendations. Also, it's important to acknowledge the barriers that may prevent the implementation of cancer-screening efforts at the community pharmacy. This study aims to determine the knowledge and barriers to cancer screening among Ghanaian community pharmacists. METHODOLOGY: Knowledge and barriers to cancer screening was assessed using an online questionnaire in 435 community pharmacists. Descriptive statistics and Pearson's chi-squared tests were used to analyze the data. RESULTS: The reliability and validity assessment of the questionnaire after data collection revealed a Cronbach's alpha value of 0.82 for knowledge on cancer screening. The SD and mean age of study participants were 2.48 ± 20.08. Only 25.7% of the participants had good knowledge. The most identified barrier was the lack of established guidelines (60.9%). There was no association between participants' demographics and their knowledge scores. CONCLUSIONS: Community pharmacists can potentially have a large impact on early detection of cancer through screening. However, they have to improve their knowledge on general screening guidelines and be aware of available educational resources to increase their knowledge. It is also important for all stakeholders to come together to establish local screening modalities and recommendations for the country.

10.
Ther Innov Regul Sci ; 54(6): 1359-1362, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33258095

RESUMO

The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is rapidly spreading throughout the world after emerging in China in December 2019. Currently, there are no approved treatments for COVID-19 based on large clinical trial data, and hence, management involves infection prevention and control measures and supportive care. With anecdotal reports and in vitro studies suggesting that certain medicines already in use for treatment of other conditions could be viable treatment options, there has been an increased demand for these therapies which could have adverse consequences on patients and healthcare systems. Toxicity from these medicines resulting from a mad rush for them at community pharmacies and pressure on physicians to prescribe for individuals who do not have the infection are worth noting. Furthermore, the indiscriminate use of these medicines could result in viral resistance as well as acute shortage such that patients who routinely take them for other conditions may not get them.


Assuntos
Antivirais , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Infecções por Coronavirus , Pneumonia Viral , Antivirais/efeitos adversos , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , China , Cloroquina/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Prova Pericial , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapêutico , Pandemias , Farmacovigilância , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Projeção , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Syst Rev ; 9(1): 253, 2020 11 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33143724

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer accounts for about 10% of cancers affecting and claiming the lives of men. Studies have reported that women are better than men in recognition of the early manifestations of various cancers. Besides, women have been recognized to show a profound interest in their partners' health and hence, make observations that men do not know. Several studies have reported on the knowledge gaps of prostate cancer among patients and the general population. It is vital to comprehensively review the available evidence and identify research gaps in our current understanding of knowledge of women on prostate cancer. METHODS: A search of bibliographic databases, MEDLINE (EBSCOhost), CINAHL (EBSCOhost), PsycINFO (EBSCOhost), Web of Science, and EMBASE (Ovid) will be undertaken from January 1999 to December 2019. The search will be limited to studies published in the English language. Duplication of studies will be removed using the EndNote citation manager. After deduplication, citations will be screened independently by two authors according to prespecified criteria. Data extraction and quality assessment of the selected studies will be done independently by two authors. Meta-analytic methods will be used where appropriate. The convergent segregated method of synthesis will be adopted in this review. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Primary data collection will not be involved in this study, hence formal ethical clearance will not be needed. The results of the study will be presented through a peer-reviewed journal and conference presentation. PATIENT AND PUBLIC INVOLVEMENT: Patients or the public will not be engaged in the conduct of this study. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Open Science Framework (OSF) registration DOI: https://doi.org/10.17605/OSF.IO/EYHF2.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Próstata , Projetos de Pesquisa , Humanos , Masculino , Literatura de Revisão como Assunto
12.
S Afr Fam Pract (2004) ; 62(1): e1-e4, 2020 10 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33179954

RESUMO

The novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic is a defining point in human history, having far-reaching effects on all aspects of human life. In the race to find a vaccine, governments need to work collectively to ensure that any life-saving interventions are accessible and affordable to populations across the globe. This pandemic has created an opportunity for international cooperation in working on transparency issues both in terms of sharing manufacturing details to make devices for the diagnosis and treatment of COVID-19 and in terms of clinical trials for therapies that could prove to be effective against the disease.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19/economia , Vacinas contra COVID-19/provisão & distribuição , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Cooperação Internacional , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/terapia , Custos de Medicamentos , Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , África do Sul/epidemiologia
13.
BMC Med Educ ; 20(1): 346, 2020 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33023590

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The rapid progression of diseases and the complex, changing landscape of healthcare has increased the awareness that interprofessional collaboration is essential in ensuring safe and effective healthcare delivery. However, to develop a "collaborative practice-ready" workforce, organisations need to invest in the application of alternative approaches to the training of healthcare professionals. PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: To describe the perceptions of healthcare professionals attending an HIV interprofessional collaborative initiative at a non-governmental organization research site in South Africa and to provide suggestions regarding the improvement of this educational programme. METHODS: Focus group discussions (December 2018 to January 2019), were conducted on a purposeful sample (N = 21) consisting of healthcare professionals (clinicians, pharmacists, pharmacy assistants, and nurses), and clinical trial staff (recruiters, administrators, QC officers, psychologists, counsellors) based at a research site, who were invited to attend a continuing medical education initiative on the pathogenesis and treatment of HIV. Qualitative content analysis was carried out to identify meaning units, which were then condensed and labelled with a code. This was further grouped to form categories. RESULTS: Five categories emerged: learning something new, acquiring from each other, promoting company culture, needing company buy-in and teaching methods matter. Interprofessional collaborative learning improved technical capacity, work relationships and company culture. The diversity in learning needs of the different professionals requires a structuring of a curriculum to meet the needs of all. The success of this initiative requires company buy-in/investment and recognition from leaders and higher management with regards to time and resources. Suggestions for improvement included: formalizing the training, introducing more lectures and pitching each topic at different levels i.e. basic, intermediate or advanced, thus ensuring maximum benefit for all. CONCLUSION: Inter-professional learning was perceived as highly valuable. This initiative has the potential to develop further but requires resources and company buy-in. All staff working (clinical and non-clinical) at the NGO site were represented in the interviews, thus ensuring a richer understanding of all perspectives relevant to the study site. The small sample size confined to a single research site, however, prevents these findings from being generalized and limits the applicability of its findings.


Assuntos
Práticas Interdisciplinares , Currículo , Humanos , Relações Interprofissionais , Farmacêuticos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , África do Sul
14.
J Oncol Pharm Pract ; : 1078155220955211, 2020 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32915683

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to access the knowledge of a representative sample of community pharmacists in Ghana on general cancer, risk factors, signs and symptom and most common cancer counseling points known to community pharmacists. METHODS: A structured online questionnaire was administered to 435 registered community pharmacists in the sixteen regions of Ghana.Key findings: Mean score for knowledge of cancer among community pharmacists was 6.8 ± 1.61 points out of a maximum score of 15 points, categorizing the overall knowledge as inadequate. The overall assessment of pharmacists' knowledge revealed that 74.6% of the participants had inadequate level of knowledge on cancer. Mean score for knowledge of cancer signs and symptoms among community pharmacists was 3.55 ± 1.85 out of a maximum score of 7 points, categorizing the overall knowledge as inadequate. The overall evaluation indicated that 79.03% of pharmacists had inadequate knowledge of signs and symptoms cancer. Mean score for knowledge of risk factors of cancer among community pharmacists was 5.25 ± 1.15 out of a maximum score of 12 points, categorizing the overall knowledge as inadequate. The overall assessment of the knowledge score indicates that 70.34% of pharmacists had inadequate knowledge about causes and risk factors of cancer. Almost all participating pharmacists (96.5%) recommended counselling point was avoidance of smoking as a cancer preventive measure. An inverse significant correlation was found between age and knowledge scores of signs and symptoms of cancer (r = -0.077, P = 0.038). There was a statistically significant relationship between pharmacists' level of knowledge on cancer (whether adequate or inadequate) and the cancer items. CONCLUSIONS: Knowledge of cancer, its signs and symptoms and its risk factors were inadequate among community pharmacists in Ghana. Efforts should be made to improve knowledge of community pharmacists on cancer through continuous education. Also, undergraduate pharmacy training in oncology should encourage to close knowledge gap of community pharmacists on cancer.

16.
J Oncol Pharm Pract ; 26(6): 1361-1368, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31902286

RESUMO

METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted using electronic questionnaire to assess the perception and perceived barriers of Ghanaian community pharmacists towards provision of cancer health promotion. KEY FINDINGS: The majority of community pharmacists (77.30%) believe that cancer health promotion is an important part of their daily practice. The survey participants were more likely to have a positive perception of the role of the pharmacist if they were older, male, Christian, or had completed the PharmD program (p < 0.05 for all parameters). Lack of cancer educational materials (69%) was the major perceived barrier in providing cancer health promotion services. CONCLUSION: Ghanaian community pharmacists recognise to play an important role in the provision of cancer health promotion service.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Serviços Comunitários de Farmácia , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/terapia , Farmacêuticos/psicologia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Gana/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Papel Profissional , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
Afr Health Sci ; 20(1): 227-237, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33402911

RESUMO

Background: Despite the significant role played by vaccines in global health, concerns over vaccine safety have increased tremendously over the years. There have been occasions where vaccines have caused rare, adverse reactions some of which have led to hospitalizations and even death. It is therefore important to establish the safety profile of routinely used vaccines in order to allay fears pertaining to their use. Objectives: This review was aimed at pooling together the safety data of selected vaccines used for routine immunization in Africa, a region of the world with paucity of vaccine safety data. Methods: Adverse Events Following Immunization safety data was searched for rotavirus, yellow fever, measles, rubella, tuberculosis (Bacillus Calmette Guerin-BCG), pneumococcal, Haemophilus Influenza type b, polio, meningococcal and the influenza A (H1N1) vaccines in PUBMED, Google Scholar, Clinical trials.gov and Cochrane controlled register of trials databases. Results: A total of twenty-four serious AEFIs and twenty-three minor AEFIs were identified from the review. The strength of association between AEFIs and vaccine was high for tuberculosis vaccine and moderate for all other vaccines. Conclusion: Even though AEFIs (including mild and severe) were identified in the review, all the vaccines studied were generally well tolerated.


Assuntos
Vacina contra Difteria, Tétano e Coqueluche/efeitos adversos , Imunização/efeitos adversos , Vacina contra Sarampo-Caxumba-Rubéola/efeitos adversos , Sarampo/prevenção & controle , Vacinação/efeitos adversos , Vacinas/efeitos adversos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Vacina contra Difteria, Tétano e Coqueluche/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Vacina contra Sarampo-Caxumba-Rubéola/administração & dosagem , Medição de Risco , Vacinas/administração & dosagem
18.
Value Health Reg Issues ; 19: 87-91, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31357098

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The South African pharmaceutical market, like many other low- and middle-income countries, has long been synonymous with high medicine prices. In response to this, the government had instituted several policies to improve medicine pricing transparency and to lower medicine prices. Importantly among the new policies was the introduction of the single exit price mechanism and provisions for the increased uptake of generic medicines. Despite some early successes, the increasing presence of pseudo-generics in the South African pharmaceutical market appears to be hindering the process. OBJECTIVE: This study sought to describe the price differentials among the originator, pseudo-generics, and true generics registered in South Africa in an effort to create consumer and prescriber awareness of this phenomenon. METHODS: Private-sector medicine prices for the originator, pseudo-generics, and true generics were sourced from the South African Medicine Price Registry. RESULTS: The study revealed that of most medicines with a true generic competitor (n = 10 of 14), the pseudo-generics were priced more than even the highest-priced generics. CONCLUSION: The increasing presence of pseudo-generics in the South African pharma market warrants further oversight and consumer and prescriber awareness.


Assuntos
Comércio , Custos de Medicamentos/tendências , Medicamentos Genéricos/economia , Competição Econômica , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Setor Privado , África do Sul
19.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 7(1)2019 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30857257

RESUMO

The spontaneous reporting of suspected adverse events following immunization (AEFI) by healthcare professionals (HCPs) is vital in monitoring post-licensure vaccine safety. The main objective of this study was to assess the knowledge and perceptions of AEFIs among healthcare professionals (HCPs) in Africa, using the situation in Ghana as a case study. The study was of a cross-sectional quantitative design, and was carried out from 1 July 2017 to 31 December 2017 with doctors, pharmacists, and nurses as the study participants. A 28-item paper-based questionnaire, delivered by hand to study participants, was the data collection tool in the study. The study was conducted in 4 hospitals after ethical approval was granted. The desired sample size was 686; however, 453 consented to partake in the study. Data were analyzed using SPSS (software version 22, IBM, Armonk, NY, USA), and chi-square and binary logistic regression tests were used for tests of association between HCPs' characteristics and their knowledge and perceptions. Detailed knowledge of AEFIs was ascertained with a set of 9 questions, with 8 or 9 correctly answered questions signifying high knowledge, 5 to 7 correctly answered questions signifying moderate knowledge, and below 5 correctly answered questions signifying low knowledge. A set of 10 questions also ascertained HCPs' positive and negative perceptions of AEFI. Results revealed that knowledge of AEFIs was high in 49 (10.8%) participants, moderate in 213 (47.0%) participants, and low in 191 (42.2%) participants. There was no statistically significant correlation between AEFI knowledge and professions. The highest negative perception was the lack of desire to learn more about how to diagnose, report, investigate, and manage AEFI, whereas the lowest was the lack of belief that surveillance improves public trust in immunization programs. There was a general awareness of AEFIs among HCPs in this study. However, negative perceptions and the lack of highly knowledgeable HCPs regarding AEFIs were possible setbacks to AEFI diagnosis, management, prevention, and reporting. More training and sensitization of HCPs on AEFIs and vaccine safety will be beneficial in improving the situation. Future research should focus on assessing the training materials and methodology used in informing HCPs about AEFIs and vaccine safety.

20.
Front Public Health ; 7: 13, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30775358

RESUMO

Background: GLOBOCAN estimates that 16,600 cases of cancer occur annually in Ghana. Community pharmacists are the first point of contact to the public due to their accessibility, wide spread and credibility. They are often looked upon to provide first aid and treatment of common illness. They provide health information and support on diseases, e.g., cancer. Their role also extends to the patients' relatives. Thus, the level of knowledge and awareness of community pharmacists are of paramount importance in order to assure best healthcare advice is provided to the public. Goals of this pilot study were; (1) to collect a preliminary data on knowledge of risk factors, signs, and symptoms of cancer, (2) to ascertain the adequacy of the research survey in determining their level of knowledge, (3) to assess the viability of a full-scale study on community pharmacists. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted using a self-administered questionnaire to assess the knowledge of signs and symptoms and risk factors of cancer among 150 community pharmacists. Key Findings: Score for knowledge on cancer among community pharmacists indicated that 76.7% had poor knowledge. Responses of community pharmacists toward a list of warning signs and symptom of cancer indicated poor level of knowledge (82%). Community pharmacists recorded poor level of knowledge (65.3%) on causes and risk factors for cancer. Correlation analysis shows that age has a relation with level of knowledge on signs and symptoms of cancer. Conclusion: This pilot study provided a valuable data which indicated that community pharmacists in Ghana have poor level of knowledge on cancer. The findings obtained from the study agree with findings of other studies conducted in this area which suggest that survey instrument was adequate to assess the knowledge level of community pharmacist in Ghana. Though the response was low, data obtained indicate a viability and need of conducting a full-scale research in this workforce to get a better assessment of the level of knowledge of community pharmacists on cancer in Ghana.

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