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1.
Sleep Med ; 80: 265-272, 2021 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33610073

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to examine the association of bedtime with mortality and major cardiovascular events. METHODS: Bedtime was recorded based on self-reported habitual time of going to bed in 112,198 participants from 21 countries in the Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study. Participants were prospectively followed for 9.2 years. We examined the association between bedtime and the composite outcome of all-cause mortality, non-fatal myocardial infarction, stroke and heart failure. Participants with a usual bedtime earlier than 10PM were categorized as 'earlier' sleepers and those who reported a bedtime after midnight as 'later' sleepers. Cox frailty models were applied with random intercepts to account for the clustering within centers. RESULTS: A total of 5633 deaths and 5346 major cardiovascular events were reported. A U-shaped association was observed between bedtime and the composite outcome. Using those going to bed between 10PM and midnight as the reference group, after adjustment for age and sex, both earlier and later sleepers had a higher risk of the composite outcome (HR of 1.29 [1.22, 1.35] and 1.11 [1.03, 1.20], respectively). In the fully adjusted model where demographic factors, lifestyle behaviors (including total sleep duration) and history of diseases were included, results were greatly attenuated, but the estimates indicated modestly higher risks in both earlier (HR of 1.09 [1.03-1.16]) and later sleepers (HR of 1.10 [1.02-1.20]). CONCLUSION: Early (10 PM or earlier) or late (Midnight or later) bedtimes may be an indicator or risk factor of adverse health outcomes.

2.
J Hypertens ; 2020 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33186328

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The association between indoor air pollution resulting from household solid fuel use for heating and cooking with hypertension or blood pressure (BP) remains less clear. This study aims to rectify these knowledge gaps in a large Chinese population. METHODS: During 2005-2009, 44 007 individuals aged 35-70 years with complete information on household solid fuel use for cooking and heating were recruited from 279 urban and rural communities of 12 centers. Solid fuel referred to charcoal, coal, wood, agriculture crop, animal dung or shrub. Annual concentration of ambient atmospheric particulate matter that have a diameter of less than 2.5 µm for all communities was collected. Generalized linear mixed models using community as the random effect were performed to estimate the association with hypertension prevalence or BP after considering ambient atmospheric particulate matter that have a diameter of less than 2.5 µm and a comprehensive set of potential confounding factors at the individual and household level. RESULTS: A total of 47.6 and 61.2% of participants used household solid fuel for heating and cooking, respectively. Solid fuel use for heating was not associated with an increase in hypertension prevalence (adjusted odds ratio = 1.08, 95% confident interval: 0.98, 1.20) or elevated SBP (0.62 mmHg, 95% confident interval: -0.24, 1.48). No association was found between solid fuel for cooking and hypertension or BP, and no additional risk was observed among participants who had both exposures to solid fuel for heating and cooking compared with those used for heating only. CONCLUSION: The current large Chinese study revealed a statistically insignificant increase in the association between solid fuel use for heating and hypertension prevalence or BP. As this cross-sectional study has its inherent limitation on causality, findings from this study would have to be confirmed by prospective cohort studies.

3.
Lancet ; 396(10256): 968-976, 2020 10 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33010842

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is an endogenous counter-regulator of the renin-angiotensin hormonal cascade. We assessed whether plasma ACE2 concentrations were associated with greater risk of death or cardiovascular disease events. METHODS: We used data from the Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) prospective study to conduct a case-cohort analysis within a subset of PURE participants (from 14 countries across five continents: Africa, Asia, Europe, North America, and South America). We measured plasma concentrations of ACE2 and assessed potential determinants of plasma ACE2 levels as well as the association of ACE2 with cardiovascular events. FINDINGS: We included 10 753 PURE participants in our study. Increased concentration of plasma ACE2 was associated with increased risk of total deaths (hazard ratio [HR] 1·35 per 1 SD increase [95% CI 1·29-1·43]) with similar increases in cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular deaths. Plasma ACE2 concentration was also associated with higher risk of incident heart failure (HR 1·27 per 1 SD increase [1·10-1·46]), myocardial infarction (HR 1·23 per 1 SD increase [1·13-1·33]), stroke (HR 1·21 per 1 SD increase [1·10-1·32]) and diabetes (HR 1·44 per 1 SD increase [1·36-1·52]). These findings were independent of age, sex, ancestry, and traditional cardiac risk factors. With the exception of incident heart failure events, the independent relationship of ACE2 with the clinical endpoints, including death, remained robust after adjustment for BNP. The highest-ranked determinants of ACE2 concentrations were sex, geographic ancestry, and body-mass index (BMI). When compared with clinical risk factors (smoking, diabetes, blood pressure, lipids, and BMI), ACE2 was the highest ranked predictor of death, and superseded several risk factors as a predictor of heart failure, stroke, and myocardial infarction. INTERPRETATION: Increased plasma ACE2 concentration was associated with increased risk of major cardiovascular events in a global study. FUNDING: Canadian Institute of Health Research, Heart & Stroke Foundation of Canada, and Bayer.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida
4.
JAMA Cardiol ; 2020 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32997098

RESUMO

Importance: Patients with symptomatic lower extremity peripheral artery disease (LE-PAD) experience an increased risk of major vascular events. There is limited information on what clinical features of symptomatic LE-PAD prognosticate major vascular events and whether patients at high risk have a greater absolute benefit from low-dose rivaroxaban and aspirin. Objective: To quantify the risk of major vascular events and investigate the response to treatment with low-dose rivaroxaban and aspirin among patients with symptomatic LE-PAD based on clinical presentation and comorbidities. Design, Setting, and Participants: This is a subanalysis of a previously reported subgroup of patients with symptomatic LE-PAD who were enrolled in a large, double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial (Cardiovascular Outcomes for People Using Anticoagulation Strategies [COMPASS]) in 602 centers in 33 countries from March 2013 to January 2020. Data analysis was completed from May 2016 to June 2020. Interventions: A combination of low-dose rivaroxaban and aspirin compared with aspirin alone. Main Outcomes and Measures: Thirty-month incidence risk of myocardial infarction, stroke and cardiovascular death (MACE), major adverse limb events (MALE) including major vascular amputation, and bleeding. Results: The COMPASS trial enrolled 4129 patients with symptomatic LE-PAD (mean [SD] age, 66.8 [8.8] years; 2932 men [71.0%]). The 30-month Kaplan-Meier incidence risk of MACE or MALE, including major amputation, was 22.6% in those with prior amputation (this outcome was observed in 54 patients), 17.6% (n = 15) in those with Fontaine III or IV symptoms, and 11.8% (n = 142) in those with previous peripheral artery revascularization, classifying these features as high-risk limb presentations. The 30-month incidence risk of MACE or MALE, including major amputation, was 14.1% (n = 118) in those with kidney dysfunction, 13.5% (n = 67) in those with heart failure, 13.4% (n = 199) in those with diabetes, and 12.8% (n = 222) in those with polyvascular disease, classifying these features as high-risk comorbidities. Among patients with either high-risk limb presentations or high-risk comorbidities, treatment with rivaroxaban and aspirin compared with aspirin alone was associated with an estimated 4.2% (95% CI, 1.9%-6.2%) absolute risk reduction for MACE or MALE, including major amputation, at 30 months. Although the estimated absolute risk increase of major bleeding was higher with rivaroxaban and aspirin in combination than aspirin alone (2.0% [95% CI, 0.5%-3.9%]) for patients with either high-risk limb presentation or high-risk comorbidity, the estimated absolute risk increase of fatal or critical organ bleeding was low in this high-risk group (0.4% [95% CI, 0.2%-1.8%]), such that the net clinical benefit was estimated to be 3.2% (95% CI, 0.6%-5.3%). Conclusions and Relevance: Patients with LE-PAD with high-risk limb presentations or high-risk comorbidities had a high incidence of major vascular events. For these patients, treatment with rivaroxaban and aspirin in combination compared with aspirin alone led to a large absolute reduction in vascular risk.

5.
Pharmgenomics Pers Med ; 13: 337-343, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32922063

RESUMO

Purpose: Neutropenia is a common event in patients undergoing cytotoxic chemotherapy for the treatment of a hematological malignancy. Some polymorphisms, as IL-6 -572C>G (rs1800796), IL-1ß -31 G>A (rs1143627), and CARD8 304T>A (rs2043211), in genes related to the inflammatory process, could affect the level of absolute neutrophil count (ANC) after chemotherapy. Since an efficient inflammatory process enhances neutrophil survival, we hypothesize that these polymorphisms are associated with ANC. Patients and Methods: We carried out a prospective cohort study in two hospitals in Santiago, Chile. The patients included were adults diagnosed with acute myeloblastic leukemia, acute lymphoblastic leukemia, or non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, undergoing cytotoxic chemotherapy. We use a multilevel linear regression model to test our hypothesis. The best model was selected using the Akaike's information criterion (AIC). Results: We analyzed 1726 hemograms and ANCs from 172 hospitalizations from 32 patients. The results show that CC and CG genotypes of IL-6 -572 C>G polymorphism are associated with higher ANCs compared with the GG genotype (Ln (ANC) ~ 0.81 IC95% 0.02-1.55). Similarly, TT and AT genotypes of CARD8 304T>A polymorphism were related to higher ANCs compared with AA (Ln (ANC) ~ 0.95 IC95% 0.02-1.82). IL-1ß genetic polymorphism had no statistically significant association with ANC. Conclusion: IL-6 rs1800796 -572C>G and CARD8 rs2043211 304T>A polymorphisms are associated with the absolute neutrophil count in patients undergoing cytotoxic chemotherapy for treatment of hematological malignancies. Our findings might be useful to improve the safety of chemotherapy through predictive ANC models.

6.
West J Nurs Res ; : 193945920954782, 2020 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32909523

RESUMO

Applying the Behavior Change Technique Taxonomy has the potential to facilitate identification of effective childhood obesity intervention components. This article evaluates the feasibility of coding Childhood Obesity Prevention and Treatment Consortium interventions and compares reliability between external taxonomy-familiar coders and internal intervention-familiar coders. After training, coder pairs independently coded prespecified portions of intervention materials. An adjudication process was used to explore coding discrepancies. Reliability between internal and external coders was moderate (prevalence and bias-adjusted kappa .38 to .55). Reliability for specific target behaviors varied with substantial agreement for physical activity (.63 to .76) and moderate for dietary intake (.44 to .63). Applying the taxonomy to these interventions was feasible, but agreement was modest. Coding discrepancies highlight the importance of refining coding to capture the complexities of childhood obesity interventions, which often engage multiple recipients (e.g., parents and/or children) and address multiple behaviors (e.g., diet, physical activity, screen time).

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32744208

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the behavior of restricted mean survival time (RMST) and designs of a two-state Markov microsimulation model through a 2 × 4 × 2 full factorial experiment. METHOD: By projecting patient-wise 15-year-post-trial survival, we estimated life-year-gained between an intervention and a control group using data from the Cardiovascular Outcomes for People Using Anticoagulation Strategies Study (COMPASS). Projections considered either in-trial events or post-trial medications. They were compared based on three factors: (i) choice of probability of death, (ii) lengths of cycle, and (iii) usage of half-a-cycle age correction. Three-way analysis of variance and post-hoc Tukey's Honest Significant Difference test compared means among factors. RESULTS: When both in-trial events and post-trial study medications were considered, monthly, quarterly, or semiannually were not different from one other in projected life-year-gained. However, the annual one was different from the others: mean and 95 percent confidence interval 252.2 (190.5-313.9) days monthly, 251.8 (192.0-311.6) quarterly, 249.1 (189.7-308.5) semiannually, and 240.8 (178.5-303.1) annually. The other two factors also impacted life-year-gained: background probability (269.1 [260.3-277.9] days projected with REACH-based-probabilities, 227.7 [212.6-242.8] with a USA life table); half-a-cycle age correction (245.5 [199.0-292] with correction and 251.4 [209.1-293.7] without correction). When not considering post-trial medications, only the choice of probability of death appeared to impact life-year-gained. CONCLUSION: For a large trial or cohort, to optimally project life-year-gained, one should consider using (i) annual projections, (ii) life table probabilities, (iii) in-trial events, and (iv) post-trial medication use.

8.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 112(1): 208-219, 2020 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32433740

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The association of nuts with cardiovascular disease and deaths has been investigated mostly in Europe, the USA, and East Asia, with few data available from other regions of the world or from low- and middle-income countries. OBJECTIVE: To assess the association of nuts with mortality and cardiovascular disease (CVD). METHODS: The Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology study is a large multinational prospective cohort study of adults aged 35-70 y from 16 low-, middle-, and high-income countries on 5 continents. Nut intake (tree nuts and ground nuts) was measured at the baseline visit, using country-specific validated FFQs. The primary outcome was a composite of mortality or major cardiovascular event [nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, or heart failure]. RESULTS: We followed 124,329 participants (age = 50.7 y, SD = 10.2; 41.5% male) for a median of 9.5 y. We recorded 10,928 composite events [deaths (n = 8,662) or major cardiovascular events (n = 5,979)]. Higher nut intake (>120 g per wk compared with <30 g per mo) was associated with a lower risk of the primary composite outcome of mortality or major cardiovascular event [multivariate HR (mvHR): 0.88; 95% CI: 0.80, 0.96; P-trend = 0.0048]. Significant reductions in total (mvHR: 0.77; 95% CI: 0.69, 0.87; P-trend <0.0001), cardiovascular (mvHR: 0.72; 95% CI: 0.56, 0.92; P-trend = 0.048), and noncardiovascular mortality (mvHR: 0.82; 95% CI: 0.70, 0.96; P-trend = 0.0046) with a trend to reduced cancer mortality (mvHR: 0.81; 95% CI: 0.65, 1.00; P-trend = 0.081) were observed. No significant associations of nuts were seen with major CVD (mvHR: 0.91; 95% CI: 0.81, 1.02; P-trend = 0.14), stroke (mvHR: 0.98; 95% CI: 0.84, 1.14; P-trend = 0.76), or MI (mvHR: 0.86; 95% CI: 0.72, 1.04; P-trend = 0.29). CONCLUSIONS: Higher nut intake was associated with lower mortality risk from both cardiovascular and noncardiovascular causes in low-, middle-, and high-income countries.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Nozes/metabolismo , Adulto , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Extremo Oriente/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos
9.
Gastroenterology ; 2020 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32294476

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Although functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs), now called disorders of gut-brain interaction, have major economic effects on health care systems and adversely affect quality of life, little is known about their global prevalence and distribution. We investigated the prevalence of and factors associated with 22 FGIDs, in 33 countries on 6 continents. METHODS: Data were collected via the Internet in 24 countries, personal interviews in 7 countries, and both in 2 countries, using the Rome IV diagnostic questionnaire, Rome III irritable bowel syndrome questions, and 80 items to identify variables associated with FGIDs. Data collection methods differed for Internet and household groups, so data analyses were conducted and reported separately. RESULTS: Among the 73,076 adult respondents (49.5% women), diagnostic criteria were met for at least 1 FGID by 40.3% persons who completed the Internet surveys (95% confidence interval [CI], 39.9-40.7) and 20.7% of persons who completed the household surveys (95% CI, 20.2-21.3). FGIDs were more prevalent among women than men, based on responses to the Internet survey (odds ratio, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.6-1.7) and household survey (odds ratio, 1.3; 95% CI, 1.3-1.4). FGIDs were associated with lower quality of life and more frequent doctor visits. Proportions of subjects with irritable bowel syndrome were lower when the Rome IV criteria were used, compared with the Rome III criteria, in the Internet survey (4.1% vs 10.1%) and household survey (1.5% vs 3.5%). CONCLUSIONS: In a large-scale multinational study, we found that more than 40% of persons worldwide have FGIDs, which affect quality of life and health care use. Although the absolute prevalence was higher among Internet respondents, similar trends and relative distributions were found in people who completed Internet vs personal interviews.

10.
Diabetes Care ; 43(2): 433-439, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31727687

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Diabetes is a major risk factor for renal function decline and failure. The availability of multiplex panels of biochemical markers provides the opportunity to identify novel biomarkers that can better predict changes in renal function than routinely available clinical markers. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The concentration of 239 biochemical markers was measured in stored serum from participants in the biomarker substudy of Outcome Reduction With Initial Glargine Intervention (ORIGIN) trial. Repeated-measures mixed-effects models were used to compute the annual change in eGFR (measured as mL/min/1.73 m2/year) for the 7,482 participants with a recorded baseline and follow-up eGFR. Linear regression models using forward selection were used to identify the independent biomarker determinants of the annual change in eGFR after accounting for baseline HbA1c, baseline eGFR, and routinely measured clinical risk factors. The incidence of the composite renal outcome (i.e., renal replacement therapy, renal death, renal failure, albuminuria progression, doubling of serum creatinine) and death within each fourth of change in eGFR predicted from these models was also estimated. RESULTS: During 6.2 years of median follow-up, the median annual change in eGFR was -0.18 mL/min/1.73 m2/year. Fifteen biomarkers independently predicted eGFR decline after accounting for cardiovascular risk factors, as did 12 of these plus 1 additional biomarker after accounting for renal risk factors. Every 0.1 mL/min/1.73 m2 predicted annual fall in eGFR predicted a 13% (95% CI 12, 14%) higher mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Adding up to 16 biomarkers to routinely measured clinical risk factors improves the prediction of annual change in eGFR in people with dysglycemia.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/análise , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/fisiopatologia , Insulina Glargina/uso terapêutico , Testes de Função Renal/métodos , Rim/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Albuminúria/sangue , Biomarcadores/sangue , Biomarcadores/urina , Creatinina/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular/fisiologia , Humanos , Hiperglicemia/complicações , Hiperglicemia/diagnóstico , Hiperglicemia/tratamento farmacológico , Hiperglicemia/fisiopatologia , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
11.
Age Ageing ; 49(2): 154-160, 2020 02 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31830268

RESUMO

New trials of dementia prevention are needed to test novel strategies and agents. Large, simple, cardiovascular trials have successfully discovered treatments with moderate but worthwhile effects to prevent heart attack and stroke. The design of these trials may hold lessons for the dementia prevention. Here we outline suitable populations, interventions and outcomes for large simple trials in dementia prevention. We consider what features are needed to maximise efficiency. Populations could be selected by age, clinical or genetic risk factors or clinical presentation. Patients and their families prioritise functional and clinical outcomes over cognitive scores and levels of biomarkers. Loss of particular functions or dementia diagnoses therefore are most meaningful to participants and potential patients and can be measured in large trials. The size of the population and duration of follow-up needed for dementia prevention trials will be a major challenge and will need collaboration between many clinical investigators, funders and patient organisations.

12.
Women Health ; 60(6): 676-691, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31814531

RESUMO

Black women typically lose small amounts of weight in behavioral weight loss interventions, partially due to low engagement in physical activity. Culturally relevant enhancement of the physical activity component may improve weight loss. This study compared the effectiveness of a culturally-relevant, physical activity-enhanced behavioral weight loss intervention to a standard behavioral weight loss intervention in Black women (n = 85) over 6 months. The study was conducted in two cohorts from March 2016 to February 2017 at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Participants had an average age of 48.30 ± 11.02 years with an average body mass index of 36.46 ± 4.50 kg/m2. Standard and enhanced groups' weight change (-2.83 kg and -2.08 kg, respectively) and change in physical activity (43.93 min/ week and 15.29 min/week, respectively) did not differ between groups. Significantly more standard group participants lost 5% of baseline weight compared to enhanced group participants. This study produced typical weight loss results in Black women. Behavioral weight loss treatment remains moderately effective for Black women. Strategies to increase attendance and self-monitoring, and the inclusion of cultural contexts to weight-related behaviors are needed to improve outcomes.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Exercício Físico , Obesidade/terapia , Perda de Peso , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Estudos de Coortes , Assistência à Saúde Culturalmente Competente/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , North Carolina
14.
Curr Dev Nutr ; 3(10): nzz104, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31598577

RESUMO

Background: Observational studies provide important information about the effects of exposures that cannot be easily studied in clinical trials, such as nutritional exposures, but are subject to confounding. Investigators adjust for confounders by entering them as covariates in analytic models. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the reporting and credibility of methods for selection of covariates in nutritional epidemiology studies. Methods: We sampled 150 nutritional epidemiology studies published in 2007/2008 and 2017/2018 from the top 5 high-impact nutrition and medical journals and extracted information on methods for selection of covariates. Results: Most studies did not report selecting covariates a priori (94.0%) or criteria for selection of covariates (63.3%). There was general inconsistency in choice of covariates, even among studies investigating similar questions. One-third of studies did not acknowledge potential for residual confounding in their discussion. Conclusion: Studies often do not report methods for selection of covariates, follow available guidance for selection of covariates, nor discuss potential for residual confounding.

15.
N. Engl. j. med ; 381(15): 1411-1421, Oct., 2019. tab., graf.
Artigo em Inglês | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IDPCPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1023106

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) of the culprit lesion reduces the risk of cardiovascular death or myocardial infarction. Whether PCI of nonculprit lesions further reduces the risk of such events is unclear. METHODS: We randomly assigned patients with STEMI and multivessel coronary artery disease who had undergone successful culprit-lesion PCI to a strategy of either complete revascularization with PCI of angiographically significant nonculprit lesions or no further revascularization. Randomization was stratified according to the intended timing of nonculprit-lesion PCI (either during or after the index hospitalization). The first coprimary outcome was the composite of cardiovascular death or myocardial infarction; the second coprimary outcome was the composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or ischemia-driven revascularization. RESULTS: At a median follow-up of 3 years, the first coprimary outcome had occurred in 158 of the 2016 patients (7.8%) in the complete-revascularization group as compared with 213 of the 2025 patients (10.5%) in the culprit-lesion-only PCI group (hazard ratio, 0.74; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.60 to 0.91; P=0.004). The second coprimary outcome had occurred in 179 patients (8.9%) in the complete-revascularization group as compared with 339 patients (16.7%) in the culprit-lesion-only PCI group (hazard ratio, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.43 to 0.61; P=0.62 and P=0.27 for interaction for the first and second coprimary outcomes, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with STEMI and multivessel coronary artery disease, complete revascularization was superior to culprit-lesion-only PCI in reducing the risk of cardiovascular death or myocardial infarction, as well as the risk of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or ischemia-driven revascularization. (Funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research and others; COMPLETE ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01740479.). (AU)


Assuntos
Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Infarto do Miocárdio , Revascularização Miocárdica
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31511777

RESUMO

African Americans have disproportionately high rates of stress-related conditions, including diabetes and diabetes-related morbidity. Psychological stress may negatively influence engagement in risk-reducing lifestyle changes (physical activity and healthy eating) and stress-related physiology that increase diabetes risk. This study examined the feasibility of conducting a randomized trial comparing a novel mindfulness-based stress management program combined with diabetes risk-reduction education versus a conventional diabetes risk-reduction education program among African American adults with prediabetes and self-reported life stress. Participants were recruited in collaboration with community partners and randomized to the mindfulness-based diabetes risk-reduction education program for prediabetes (MPD; n = 38) or the conventional diabetes risk-reduction education program for prediabetes (CPD; n = 30). The mindfulness components were adapted from the Mindfulness-based Stress Reduction Program. The diabetes risk-reduction components were adapted from the Power to Prevent Program and the Diabetes Prevention Program. Groups met for eight weeks for 2.5 hours, with a half-day retreat and six-monthly boosters. Mixed-methods strategies were used to assess feasibility. Psychological, behavioral, and metabolic data were collected before the intervention and at three and six months postintervention to examine within-group change and feasibility of collecting such data in future clinical efficacy research. Participants reported acceptability, credibility, and cultural relevance of the intervention components. Enrollment of eligible participants (79%), intervention session attendance (76.5%), retention (90%), and postintervention data collection attendance (83%, 82%, and 78%, respectively) demonstrated feasibility, and qualitative data provided information to further enhance feasibility in future studies. Both groups exhibited an A1C reduction. MPD participants had reductions in perceived stress, BMI, calorie, carbohydrate and fat intake, and increases in spiritual well-being. Considering the high prevalence of diabetes and diabetes-related complications in African Americans, these novel findings provide promising guidance to develop a larger trial powered to examine efficacy of a mindfulness-based stress management and diabetes risk-reduction education program for African Americans with prediabetes.

17.
N Engl J Med ; 381(15): 1411-1421, 2019 10 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31475795

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) of the culprit lesion reduces the risk of cardiovascular death or myocardial infarction. Whether PCI of nonculprit lesions further reduces the risk of such events is unclear. METHODS: We randomly assigned patients with STEMI and multivessel coronary artery disease who had undergone successful culprit-lesion PCI to a strategy of either complete revascularization with PCI of angiographically significant nonculprit lesions or no further revascularization. Randomization was stratified according to the intended timing of nonculprit-lesion PCI (either during or after the index hospitalization). The first coprimary outcome was the composite of cardiovascular death or myocardial infarction; the second coprimary outcome was the composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or ischemia-driven revascularization. RESULTS: At a median follow-up of 3 years, the first coprimary outcome had occurred in 158 of the 2016 patients (7.8%) in the complete-revascularization group as compared with 213 of the 2025 patients (10.5%) in the culprit-lesion-only PCI group (hazard ratio, 0.74; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.60 to 0.91; P = 0.004). The second coprimary outcome had occurred in 179 patients (8.9%) in the complete-revascularization group as compared with 339 patients (16.7%) in the culprit-lesion-only PCI group (hazard ratio, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.43 to 0.61; P<0.001). For both coprimary outcomes, the benefit of complete revascularization was consistently observed regardless of the intended timing of nonculprit-lesion PCI (P = 0.62 and P = 0.27 for interaction for the first and second coprimary outcomes, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with STEMI and multivessel coronary artery disease, complete revascularization was superior to culprit-lesion-only PCI in reducing the risk of cardiovascular death or myocardial infarction, as well as the risk of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or ischemia-driven revascularization. (Funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research and others; COMPLETE ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01740479.).


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana/terapia , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/métodos , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/terapia , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Terapia Combinada , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/complicações , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Revascularização Miocárdica/métodos , Antagonistas do Receptor Purinérgico P2Y/uso terapêutico , Recidiva , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/tratamento farmacológico , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/etiologia , Prevenção Secundária , Stents
18.
Lancet ; 394(10205): 1231-1242, 2019 10 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31488369

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hypertension is the leading cause of cardiovascular disease globally. Despite proven benefits, hypertension control is poor. We hypothesised that a comprehensive approach to lowering blood pressure and other risk factors, informed by detailed analysis of local barriers, would be superior to usual care in individuals with poorly controlled or newly diagnosed hypertension. We tested whether a model of care involving non-physician health workers (NPHWs), primary care physicians, family, and the provision of effective medications, could substantially reduce cardiovascular disease risk. METHODS: HOPE 4 was an open, community-based, cluster-randomised controlled trial involving 1371 individuals with new or poorly controlled hypertension from 30 communities (defined as townships) in Colombia and Malaysia. 16 communities were randomly assigned to control (usual care, n=727), and 14 (n=644) to the intervention. After community screening, the intervention included treatment of cardiovascular disease risk factors by NPHWs using tablet computer-based simplified management algorithms and counselling programmes; free antihypertensive and statin medications recommended by NPHWs but supervised by physicians; and support from a family member or friend (treatment supporter) to improve adherence to medications and healthy behaviours. The primary outcome was the change in Framingham Risk Score 10-year cardiovascular disease risk estimate at 12 months between intervention and control participants. The HOPE 4 trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01826019. FINDINGS: All communities completed 12-month follow-up (data on 97% of living participants, n=1299). The reduction in Framingham Risk Score for 10-year cardiovascular disease risk was -6·40% (95% CI 8·00 to -4·80) in the control group and -11·17% (-12·88 to -9·47) in the intervention group, with a difference of change of -4·78% (95% CI -7·11 to -2·44, p<0·0001). There was an absolute 11·45 mm Hg (95% CI -14·94 to -7·97) greater reduction in systolic blood pressure, and a 0·41 mmol/L (95% CI -0·60 to -0·23) reduction in LDL with the intervention group (both p<0·0001). Change in blood pressure control status (<140 mm Hg) was 69% in the intervention group versus 30% in the control group (p<0·0001). There were no safety concerns with the intervention. INTERPRETATION: A comprehensive model of care led by NPHWs, involving primary care physicians and family that was informed by local context, substantially improved blood pressure control and cardiovascular disease risk. This strategy is effective, pragmatic, and has the potential to substantially reduce cardiovascular disease compared with current strategies that are typically physician based. FUNDING: Canadian Institutes of Health Research; Grand Challenges Canada; Ontario SPOR Support Unit and the Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care; Boehringer Ingelheim; Department of Management of Non-Communicable Diseases, WHO; and Population Health Research Institute. VIDEO ABSTRACT.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Participação da Comunidade/métodos , Hipertensão/complicações , Idoso , Colômbia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Hipertensão/prevenção & controle , Hipertensão/terapia , Malásia , Masculino , Comportamento de Redução do Risco
19.
Am Heart J ; 215: 157-166, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31326681

RESUMO

A significant proportion of patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) have multivessel coronary artery disease (CAD). Following successful culprit lesion percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for STEMI, the question of whether to routinely revascularize non-culprit lesions or manage them conservatively with optimal medical therapy (OMT) alone is a common dilemma facing clinicians. METHODS: COMPLETE is a prospective, randomized, international, multicenter, parallel group, open-label trial with blinded evaluation of outcomes. Following successful PCI (contemporary drug eluting stents recommended) of the culprit lesion for STEMI, a total of 4041 patients from 140 centers in 31 countries were randomized to receive either complete revascularization, consisting of staged PCI of all suitable non-culprit lesions plus optimal medical therapy (OMT), or to culprit lesion-only PCI, consisting of OMT alone. OMT comprises evidence-based therapy for STEMI, including and dual antiplatelet therapy with ticagrelor, HTN and lipid management. All coronary angiograms in the trial are being evaluated in a central angiographic core lab to assess quality and completeness of revascularization. The co-primary outcomes are (1): the composite of CV death or new non-fatal MI and (2 the composite of CV death, new non-fatal MI or ischemia-driven revascularization at a median follow-up of 3 years. CONCLUSIONS: The COMPLETE trial is an international multicenter randomized trial that will help determine whether complete revascularization involving staged PCI of non-culprit lesions improves outcomes in patients with STEMI and multivessel CAD. (clinicaltrials.govNCT01740479).


Assuntos
Angiografia Coronária/métodos , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/terapia , Vasos Coronários/cirurgia , Stents Farmacológicos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/métodos , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/terapia , Terapia Trombolítica/métodos , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/complicações , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico , Vasos Coronários/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/diagnóstico , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/etiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 29(9): 931-938, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31303476

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Evidence regarding the impact of regional body fat distribution on low-grade inflammation is limited. The current study examined the association of central and peripheral body fat distribution and low-grade inflammation levels in young adults, considering collinearity between variables. METHODS AND RESULTS: A cross-sectional analysis of 809 adults (aged 27 years) was conducted as part of the EPITeen cohort, Porto, Portugal. Regional body fat was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan (DXA) and serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) was measured in a fasting blood sample. OLS (ordinary least squares) and LASSO (least absolute shrinkage and selection operator) regression models were fitted to estimate the association of trunk and peripheral fat with hsCRP, stratified by sex. Using OLS regression, trunk fat in females was positively associated with ln(hsCRP) (ß1 = 0.064, 95% CI 0.018; 0.109). The effect of peripheral fat on ln(hsCRP) was shown not to be significantly different from trunk fat (ß2 = -0.011, 95% CI -0.110; 0.089), but no statistically significant association was observed (ß3 = 0.053, 95% CI -0.004; 0.110) between peripheral fat and ln(hsCRP). In males, trunk fat also showed a positive association with ln(hsCRP) (ß1 = 0.104, 95% CI 0.055; 0.154), and the effect of peripheral fat on ln(hsCRP) was shown to be significantly different from trunk fat (ß2 = -0.124, 95% CI -0.237;-0.011). However, the association between peripheral fat and ln(hsCRP) did not reach statistical significance (ß3 = -0.020, 95% CI -0.086; 0.046). The results of OLS were confirmed by LASSO regression. CONCLUSION: A higher fat deposited in the trunk was positively associated with hsCRP, whereas no statistically significant effect was observed for peripheral fat.


Assuntos
Gordura Abdominal/fisiopatologia , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Mediadores da Inflamação/sangue , Inflamação/sangue , Obesidade Abdominal/fisiopatologia , Gordura Abdominal/diagnóstico por imagem , Absorciometria de Fóton , Adiposidade , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação/diagnóstico , Inflamação/epidemiologia , Masculino , Obesidade Abdominal/diagnóstico por imagem , Obesidade Abdominal/epidemiologia , Portugal/epidemiologia , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
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