Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 65
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
J Cereb Blood Flow Metab ; : 271678X20935171, 2020 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32615887

RESUMO

Although cerebral blood flow (CBF) alterations are associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD), CBF patterns across prodromal stages of AD remain unclear. Therefore, we investigated patterns of regional CBF in 162 Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative participants characterized as cognitively unimpaired (CU; n = 80), objectively-defined subtle cognitive decline (Obj-SCD; n = 31), or mild cognitive impairment (MCI; n = 51). Arterial spin labeling MRI quantified regional CBF in a priori regions of interest: hippocampus, inferior temporal gyrus, inferior parietal lobe, medial orbitofrontal cortex, and rostral middle frontal gyrus. Obj-SCD participants had increased hippocampal and inferior parietal CBF relative to CU and MCI participants and increased inferior temporal CBF relative to MCI participants. CU and MCI groups did not differ in hippocampal or inferior parietal CBF, but CU participants had increased inferior temporal CBF relative to MCI participants. There were no CBF group differences in the two frontal regions. Thus, we found an inverted-U pattern of CBF signal across prodromal AD stages in regions susceptible to early AD pathology. Hippocampal and inferior parietal hyperperfusion in Obj-SCD may reflect early neurovascular dysregulation, whereby higher CBF is needed to maintain cognitive functioning relative to MCI participants, yet is also reflective of early cognitive inefficiencies that distinguish Obj-SCD from CU participants.

2.
JAMA Psychiatry ; 2020 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32401284

RESUMO

Importance: Wisdom is a neurobiological personality trait made up of specific components, including prosocial behaviors, emotional regulation, and spirituality. It is associated with greater well-being and happiness. Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of interventions to enhance individual components of wisdom. Data Sources: MEDLINE and PsycINFO databases were searched for articles published through December 31, 2018. Study Eligibility Criteria: Randomized clinical trials that sought to enhance a component of wisdom, used published measures to assess that component, were published in English, had a minimum sample size of 40 participants, and presented data that enabled computation of effect sizes were included in this meta-analysis. Data Extraction and Synthesis: Random-effect models were used to calculate pooled standardized mean differences (SMDs) for each wisdom component and random-effects meta-regression to assess heterogeneity of studies. Main Outcomes and Measures: Improvement in wisdom component using published measures. Results: Fifty-seven studies (N = 7096 participants) met review criteria: 29 for prosocial behaviors, 13 for emotional regulation, and 15 for spirituality. Study samples included people with psychiatric or physical illnesses and from the community. Of the studies, 27 (47%) reported significant improvement with medium to large effect sizes. Meta-analysis revealed significant pooled SMDs for prosocial behaviors (23 studies; pooled SMD, 0.43 [95% CI, 0.22-0.3]; P = .02), emotional regulation (12 studies; pooled SMD, 0.67 [95% CI, 0.21-1.12]; P = .004), and spirituality (12 studies; pooled SMD, 1.00 [95% CI, 0.41-1.60]; P = .001). Heterogeneity of studies was considerable for all wisdom components. Publication bias was present for prosocial behavior and emotional regulation studies; after adjusting for it, the pooled SMD for prosocial behavior remained significant (SMD, 0.4 [95% CI, 0.16-0.78]; P = .003). Meta-regression analysis found that effect sizes did not vary by wisdom component, although for trials on prosocial behaviors, large effect sizes were associated with older mean participant age (ß, 0.08 [SE, 0.04]), and the reverse was true for spirituality trials (ß, -0.13 [SE, 0.04]). For spirituality interventions, higher-quality trials had larger effect sizes (ß, 4.17 [SE, 1.07]), although the reverse was true for prosocial behavior trials (ß, -0.91 [SE 0.44]). Conclusions and Relevance: Interventions to enhance spirituality, emotional regulation, and prosocial behaviors are effective in a proportion of people with mental or physical illnesses and from the community. The modern behavioral epidemics of loneliness, suicide, and opioid abuse point to a growing need for wisdom-enhancing interventions to promote individual and societal well-being.

3.
J Cereb Blood Flow Metab ; : 271678X19897443, 2020 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32248731

RESUMO

Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD), and evidence suggests cerebrovascular dysregulation initiates deleterious neurodegenerative cascades. We examined whether mTBI history alters cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cortical thickness in regions vulnerable to early AD-related changes. Seventy-four young to middle-aged Veterans (mean age = 34, range = 23-48) underwent brain scans. Participants were divided into: (1) Veteran Controls (n = 27), (2) 1-2 mTBIs (n = 26), and (2) 3+ mTBIs (n = 21) groups. Resting CBF was measured using MP-PCASL. T1 structural scans were processed with FreeSurfer. CBF and cortical thickness estimates were extracted from nine AD-vulnerable regions. Regression analyses examined whether mTBI moderated the association between age, CBF, and cortical thickness. Regressions adjusting for sex and posttraumatic stress revealed mTBI moderated the association between age and CBF of the precuneus as well as superior and inferior parietal cortices (p's < .05); increasing age was associated with lower CBF in the 3+ mTBIs group, but not in the VCs or 1-2 mTBIs groups. mTBI did not moderate associations between age and cortical thickness (p's >.05). Repetitive mTBI is associated with cerebrovascular dysfunction in AD-vulnerable regions and may accelerate pathological aging trajectories.

4.
Clin Neuropsychol ; : 1-18, 2020 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32176590

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the biological, cognitive, and psychological presentations of combat-exposed Veterans with a history of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) and/or posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) using a novel white matter imaging technique and comprehensive neuropsychological assessment.Method: 74 Iraq and Afghanistan Veterans (mean age 33.89, 90.5% male) with history of mTBI (average 7.25 years since injury), PTSD, both, or neither underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) exams including acquisition of a novel imaging technique, multicomponent-driven equilibrium single-pulse observation of T1/T2 (mcDESPOT) to quantify myelin water fraction (MWF), a surrogate measure of myelin content. Participants also underwent comprehensive neuropsychological assessment and three cognitive composite scores (memory, working memory/processing speed, and executive functioning) were created.Results: There were no significant group differences on the neuropsychological composite scores. ANCOVAs revealed a main effect of PTSD across all a priori regions of interest (ROI) in which PTSD was associated with higher MWF. There was no main effect of mTBI history or TBI by PTSD interaction on any ROI. Significant positive associations were observed between myelin and PTSD symptoms, but no significant associations were found between myelin and neurobehavioral symptoms. No significant associations were found between myelin in the a priori ROIs and the cognitive composite scores.Conclusion: This study did not find neuropsychological or MWF differences in combat Veterans with a remote history of mTBI but did find myelin alterations related to PTSD. Psychological trauma should be a primary target for intervention in Veterans with comorbid PTSD and mTBI reporting subjective complaints, given its salience.

6.
Neurology ; 94(4): e397-e406, 2020 01 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31888974

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the temporal sequence of objectively defined subtle cognitive difficulties (Obj-SCD) in relation to amyloidosis and neurodegeneration, the current study examined the trajectories of amyloid PET and medial temporal neurodegeneration in participants with Obj-SCD relative to cognitively normal (CN) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) groups. METHOD: A total of 747 Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative participants (305 CN, 153 Obj-SCD, 289 MCI) underwent neuropsychological testing and serial amyloid PET and structural MRI examinations. Linear mixed effects models examined 4-year rate of change in cortical 18F-florbetapir PET, entorhinal cortex thickness, and hippocampal volume in those classified as Obj-SCD and MCI relative to CN. RESULT: Amyloid accumulation was faster in the Obj-SCD group than in the CN group; the MCI and CN groups did not significantly differ from each other. The Obj-SCD and MCI groups both demonstrated faster entorhinal cortical thinning relative to the CN group; only the MCI group exhibited faster hippocampal atrophy than CN participants. CONCLUSION: Relative to CN participants, Obj-SCD was associated with faster amyloid accumulation and selective vulnerability of entorhinal cortical thinning, whereas MCI was associated with faster entorhinal and hippocampal atrophy. Findings suggest that Obj-SCD, operationally defined using sensitive neuropsychological measures, can be identified prior to or during the preclinical stage of amyloid deposition. Further, consistent with the Braak neurofibrillary staging scheme, Obj-SCD status may track with early entorhinal pathologic changes, whereas MCI may track with more widespread medial temporal change. Thus, Obj-SCD may be a sensitive and noninvasive predictor of encroaching amyloidosis and neurodegeneration, prior to frank cognitive impairment associated with MCI.


Assuntos
Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/análise , Encéfalo/patologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Diagnóstico Precoce , Degeneração Neural/diagnóstico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Degeneração Neural/patologia , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons
7.
J Psychosom Res ; 128: 109883, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31786338

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Almost half of patients with heart failure (HF) have cognitive impairment. While exercise relates to better cognitive health, a hallmark of HF is exercise intolerance. The study objective was to explore whether light-to-moderate exercise improves cognitive function in patients with HF. METHODS: This was an exploratory parallel design study of 69 patients with symptomatic HF (mean age = 65, SD = 10), recruited from VA and University of California, San Diego Healthcare Systems. Participants were randomized to Tai Chi (TC) (n = 24), resistance band (RB) exercise (n = 22) or treatment as usual (TAU) (n = 23). The primary outcome was change in Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) scores. We further explored if changes in Beck Depression Inventory - IA (BDI-IA) scores or inflammation biomarkers, CRP, TNFα and IL-6 related to altered cognitive function. RESULTS: There was a fixed effect of group for MoCA scores changes (F = 8.07, p = .001). TC and RB groups had greater MoCA score increases versus TAU, but no differences were found between TC and RB. Depression symptom changes predicted altered MoCA scores (ΔR2 = 0.15, Β = -0.413, p = .001). However, group did not interact with depression symptom levels for MoCA alterations (p = .392). Changes in CRP levels predicted MoCA scores (ΔR2 = 0.078, Β = -0.283, p = .01), but group did not interact with CRP levels for MoCA alterations (p = .689). CONCLUSIONS: Light-to-moderate exercises, TC and RB may improve cognitive function. However, the mechanisms remain unclear. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01625819.

8.
Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord ; 34(1): 10-17, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31305320

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The current study examined the interactive effect of type 2 diabetes and Alzheimer disease (AD) risk factors on the rate of functional decline in cognitively normal participants from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative. METHODS: Participants underwent annual assessments that included the Functional Activities Questionnaire, an informant-rated measure of everyday functioning. Multilevel modeling, controlling for demographic variables and ischemic risk, examined the interactive effects of diabetes status (diabetes, n=69; no diabetes, n=744) and AD risk factors in the prediction of 5-year longitudinal change in everyday functioning. One model was run for each AD risk factor, including: objectively-defined subtle cognitive decline (Obj-SCD), and genetic susceptibility [apolipoprotein E ε4 (APOE ε4) as well as cerebrospinal fluid ß-amyloid (Aß), total tau (tau), and hyperphosphorylated tau (p-tau). RESULTS: The 3-way diabetes×AD risk factor×time interaction predicted increased rates of functional decline in models that examined Obj-SCD, APOE ε4, tau, and p-tau positivity, but not Aß positivity. CONCLUSIONS: Participants with both diabetes and at least 1 AD risk factor (ie, Obj-SCD, APOE ε4, tau, and p-tau positivity) demonstrated faster functional decline compared with those without both risk factors (diabetes or AD). These findings have implications for early identification of, and perhaps earlier intervention for, diabetic individuals at risk for future functional difficulty.

9.
Neurobiol Aging ; 86: 134-142, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31791658

RESUMO

White matter hyperintensities (WMHs), a marker of small-vessel cerebrovascular disease, increase risk for mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Less is known about whether regional WMHs distinguish MCI subtypes and predict decline in everyday functioning. About 618 Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative participants (301 cognitively normal [CN]; 232 amnestic MCI [aMCI]; 85 nonamnestic MCI [naMCI]) underwent neuropsychological testing, MRI, and assessment of everyday functioning. aMCI participants showed greater temporal (p = 0.002) and occipital WMHs (p = 0.030) relative to CN whereas naMCI participants had greater frontal (p = 0.045), temporal (p = 0.003), parietal (p = 0.018), and occipital (p < 0.001) WMH compared with CN. Relative to those with aMCI, individuals with naMCI showed greater occipital WMH (p = 0.013). Greater WMH in temporal (p = 0.001) and occipital regions (p = 0.006) was associated with faster decline in everyday functioning across the sample. Temporal lobe WMHs were disproportionately associated with accelerated functional decline among naMCI (p = 0.045). Regional WMH volumes vary across cognitive groups and predict functional decline. Cerebrovascular markers may help identify individuals at risk for decline and distinguish subtypes of cognitive impairment.

10.
Am J Epidemiol ; 188(12): 2175-2187, 2019 12 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31576397

RESUMO

It is unclear how coronary heart disease (CHD) risk across the adult life span affects late-life cognition. We estimated associations of midlife and late-life elevated CHD risk with cognitive trajectories (general cognitive performance, processing speed/executive function, memory) in later life (after age 55 years or age 70 years) among 2,892 Framingham Offspring Study participants who had completed CHD risk assessments approximately every 4 years since 1971 and had undergone neuropsychological testing between 1999 and 2014. We stratified analyses by apolipoprotein E gene (APOE) Ɛ4 allele carrier status. Using linear mixed-effects models, elevated CHD risk in midlife (age 55 years) was associated with lower levels of general cognitive performance (ß = -0.560 standard deviation (SD) units, 95% confidence interval (CI): -0.874, -0.246), executive function (ß = -0.624 SD units, 95% CI: -0.916, -0.332), and memory (ß = -0.560 SD units, 95% CI: -0.907, -0.213) at age 70 years but not with rates of cognitive change. Late-life (age 70 years) elevated CHD risk, however, was associated with somewhat better levels of general cognitive performance and memory. There were associations between duration of elevated CHD risk during midlife and levels (but not trajectories) of later-life cognitive outcomes. Associations were not modified by APOE-ɛ4 status. These findings suggest that midlife elevated CHD risk is associated with lower cognition, independently of APOE-ɛ4 status, suggesting that risk of vascular disease may not contribute a "second hit" to AD risk.


Assuntos
Apolipoproteínas E/genética , Cognição , Doença das Coronárias/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doença das Coronárias/genética , Função Executiva , Genótipo , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Memória , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
11.
Alzheimers Dement ; 15(10): 1322-1332, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31495605

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The low mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to cognitively normal (CN) reversion rate in the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (2-3%) suggests the need to examine reversion by other means. We applied comprehensive neuropsychological criteria (NP criteria) to determine the resulting MCI to CN reversion rate. METHODS: Participants with CN (n = 641) or MCI (n = 569) were classified at baseline and year 1 using NP criteria. Demographic, neuropsychological, and Alzheimer's disease biomarker variables as well as progression to dementia were examined across stable CN, reversion, and stable MCI groups. RESULTS: NP criteria produced a one-year reversion rate of 15.8%. Reverters had demographics, Alzheimer's disease biomarkers, and risk-of-progression most similar to the stable CN group and showed the most improvement on neuropsychological measures from baseline to year 1. DISCUSSION: NP criteria produced a reversion rate that is consistent with, albeit modestly improved from, reversion rates in meta-analyses. Reverters' biomarker profiles and progression rates suggest that NP criteria accurately tracked with underlying pathophysiologic status.

12.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 71(3): 931-943, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31450495

RESUMO

Metabolic syndrome (MetS) has been linked to increased risk of developing cognitive impairment and dementia including Alzheimer's disease. It remains unclear whether and at what stage in the adult lifespan MetS and its components begin to alter the trajectory of cognitive performance. In the present study, 2,892 Framingham Offspring participants completed health assessments every four years since 1971 and underwent repeat neuropsychological testing from 1999 to 2014. We estimated the associations of levels and changes in cognitive trajectories with hazard of MetS using a joint growth/survival model. All models were adjusted for baseline age, sex, education, and smoking status. Findings showed that both mid-life and late-life MetS were associated with lower level of cognitive functioning but not cognitive trajectories. Associations were strongest among those who were nondemented and apolipoprotein (APOE) ɛ4 noncarriers. In addition, individuals with the most rapid cognitive decline were more likely to have MetS. The pattern of results showed that associations between MetS and cognition varied, depending upon whether the sample was stratified by genetic and cognitive status and whether we considered cognitive performance as a continuous variable or examined categorical groupings. Given that mid-life MetS was associated with poorer cognition at age 55, cognitive changes may occur early during the MetS process. Our findings suggest that those with MetS are at greater risk of dementia given their lower level of cognitive functioning and also suggest that MetS may be a risk factor for decline in the absence of known risk factors including the APOEɛ4 allele.

13.
Exp Gerontol ; 125: 110679, 2019 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31382010

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Age-related decreases in cerebral blood flow (CBF) may lead to cognitive decline, while physical activity (PA) can maintain CBF and cognition in aging. The intensity of PA needed to affect CBF in aging, and the independent effects of sedentary time on CBF are currently unknown. Moreover, research conducted in free-living environments with objective measures of PA (e.g., accelerometry) is lacking. METHODS: This cross-sectional study used accelerometry to objectively measure sedentary time, all light PA [AllLightPA], moderate-to-vigorous PA [MVPA], and total activity counts [TAC] in 52 cognitively healthy older adults. Robust linear regressions investigated the association of CBF (using arterial spin labeling magnetic resonance imaging) in frontal and medial temporal regions, with each PA intensity and sedentary time. RESULTS: Greater sedentary time was significantly associated with lower CBF in lateral and medial frontal regions after adjusting for MVPA, while higher AllLightPA (adjusted for MVPA), MVPA (adjusted for AllLightPA), and TAC were associated with greater CBF in lateral and medial frontal regions. DISCUSSION: Lighter activities, as well as MVPA, are beneficial to CBF in brain regions typically affected by the aging process and malleable to exercise interventions (i.e., the frontal lobes), whereas sedentary time is an independent risk factor for neurovascular dysregulation in normal aging.

14.
Neuropsychology ; 33(5): 599-608, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30896235

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Intraindividual cognitive variability (IIV), a measure of within-person variability across cognitive measures at a single time point, is associated with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Little is known regarding brain changes underlying IIV, or the relationship between IIV and functional ability. Therefore, we investigated the association between IIV and cerebral atrophy in AD-vulnerable regions and everyday functioning in nondemented older adults. METHOD: 736 Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) participants (285 cognitively normal [CN]; 451 MCI) underwent neuropsychological testing and serial MRI over 2 years. Linear mixed effects models examined the association between baseline IIV and change in entorhinal cortex thickness, hippocampal volume, and everyday functioning. RESULTS: Adjusting for age, sex, apolipoprotein E genotype, amyloid-ß positivity, and mean level of cognitive performance, higher baseline IIV predicted faster rates of entorhinal and hippocampal atrophy, as well as functional decline. Higher IIV was associated with both entorhinal and hippocampal atrophy among MCI participants but selective vulnerability of the entorhinal cortex among CN individuals. CONCLUSIONS: IIV was associated with more widespread medial temporal lobe (MTL) atrophy in individuals with MCI relative to CN, suggesting that IIV may be tracking advancing MTL pathologic changes across the continuum of aging, MCI, and dementia. Findings suggest that cognitive dispersion may be a sensitive marker of neurodegeneration and functional decline in nondemented older adults. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/patologia , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Variação Biológica Individual , Disfunção Cognitiva/patologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/fisiopatologia , Córtex Entorrinal/patologia , Hipocampo/patologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Atrofia/patologia , Biomarcadores , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico por imagem , Córtex Entorrinal/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Hipocampo/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
15.
J Neurotrauma ; 36(2): 338-347, 2019 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29978738

RESUMO

Traumatic brain injury (TBI), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and depressive symptoms each increase the risk for cognitive impairment in older adults. We investigated whether TBI has long-term associations with cognition in late middle-aged men, and examined the role of current PTSD/depressive symptoms. Participants were 953 men (ages 56-66) from the Vietnam Era Twin Study of Aging (VETSA), who were classified by presence or absence of (1) history of TBI and (2) current elevated psychiatric symptoms (defined as PTSD or depressive symptoms above cutoffs). TBIs had occurred an average of 35 years prior to assessment. Participants completed cognitive testing examining nine domains. In mixed-effects models, we tested the effect of TBI on cognition including for interactions between TBI and elevated psychiatric symptoms. Models adjusted for age, pre-morbid cognitive ability assessed at average age 20 years, apolipoprotein E genotype, and substance abuse; 33% (n = 310) of participants had TBI, mostly mild and remote; and 23% (n = 72) of those with TBI and 18% (n = 117) without TBI had current elevated psychiatric symptoms. TBI and psychiatric symptoms had interactive effects on cognition, particularly executive functioning. Group comparison analyses showed that men with both TBI and psychiatric symptoms demonstrated deficits primarily in executive functioning. Cognition was largely unaffected in men with either risk factor in isolation. Among late middle-aged men, the combination of even mild and very remote TBI with current elevated psychiatric symptoms is associated with deficits in executive function and related abilities. Future longitudinal studies should investigate how TBI and psychiatric factors interact to impact brain aging.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/complicações , Disfunção Cognitiva/epidemiologia , Depressão/complicações , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/complicações , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/psicologia , Cognição , Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Depressão/psicologia , Função Executiva , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Veteranos/psicologia
16.
J Psychiatr Res ; 108: 40-47, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28935171

RESUMO

Wisdom is an ancient concept that has gained new interest among clinical researchers as a complex trait relevant to well-being and healthy aging. As the empirical data regarding wisdom have grown, several measures have been used to assess an individual's level of wisdom. However, none of these measures has been based on a construct of wisdom with neurobiological underpinnings. We sought to develop a new scale, the San Diego Wisdom Scale (SD-WISE), which builds upon recent gains in the understanding of psychological and neurobiological models of the trait. Data were collected from 524 community-dwelling adults age 25-104 years as part of a structured multi-cohort study of adult lifespan. Participants were administered the SD-WISE along with two existing measures of wisdom that have been shown to have good psychometric properties. Factor analyses confirmed the hypothesized measurement model. SD-WISE total scores were reliable, demonstrated convergent and discriminant validity, and correlated, as hypothesized, negatively with emotional distress, but positively with well-being. However, the magnitudes of these associations were small, suggesting that the SD-WISE is not just a global measure of mental state. The results support the reliability and validity of SD-WISE scores. Study limitations are discussed. The SD-WISE, with good psychometric properties, a brief administration time, and a measurement model that is consistent with commonly cited content domains of wisdom based on a putative neurobiological model, may be useful in clinical practice as well as in bio-psycho-social research, especially investigations into the neurobiology of wisdom and experimental interventions to enhance wisdom.


Assuntos
Processos Mentais , Personalidade , Testes Psicológicos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Emoções , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Envelhecimento Saudável/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Psicometria , Autorrelato , Comportamento Social , Estresse Psicológico
17.
Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord ; 46(5-6): 253-265, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30391953

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) lacks a "gold standard" operational definition. The Jak/Bondi actuarial neuropsychological criteria for MCI are associated with improved diagnostic stability and prediction of progression to dementia compared to conventional MCI diagnostic approaches, although its utility in diagnosing MCI in old-old individuals (age 75+) is unknown. Therefore, we investigated the applicability of neuropsychological MCI criteria among old-old from the Framingham Heart Study. METHODS: A total of 347 adults (ages 79-102) were classified as cognitively normal or MCI via Jak/Bondi and conventional Petersen/Winblad criteria, which differ on cutoffs for cognitive impairment and number of impaired scores required for a diagnosis. Cox models examined MCI status in predicting risk of progression to dementia. RESULTS: MCI diagnosed by both the Jak/Bondi and Petersen/Winblad criteria was associated with incident dementia; however, when both criteria were included in the regression model together, only the Jak/Bondi criteria remained statistically significant. At follow-up, the Jak/Bondi criteria had a lower MCI-to-normal reversion rate than the Petersen/Winblad criteria. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings are consistent with previous research on the Jak/Bondi criteria and support the use of a comprehensive neuropsychological diagnostic approach for MCI among old-old individuals.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/psicologia , Disfunção Cognitiva , Demência , Testes Neuropsicológicos/normas , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Disfunção Cognitiva/psicologia , Demência/diagnóstico , Demência/psicologia , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Avaliação Geriátrica/métodos , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
18.
Front Neurol ; 9: 873, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30473678

RESUMO

Objective: Blast exposure (BE) and mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) have been independently linked to pathological brain changes. However, the combined effects of BE and mTBI on brain structure have yet to be characterized. Therefore, we investigated whether regional differences in cortical thickness exist between mTBI Veterans with and without BE while on deployment. We also examined whether cortical thickness (CT) and cognitive performance differed among mTBI Veterans with low vs. high levels of cumulative BE. Methods: 80 Veterans with mTBI underwent neuroimaging and completed neuropsychological testing and self-report symptom rating scales. Analyses of covariance (ANCOVA) were used to compare blast-exposed Veterans (mTBI+BE, n = 51) to those without BE (mTBI-BE, n = 29) on CT of frontal and temporal a priori regions of interest (ROIs). Next, multiple regression analyses were used to examine whether CT and performance on an executive functions composite differed among mTBI Veterans with low (mTBI+BE Low, n = 22) vs. high (mTBI+BE High, n = 26) levels of cumulative BE. Results: Adjusting for age, numer of TBIs, and PTSD symptoms, the mTBI+BE group showed significant cortical thinning in frontal regions (i.e., left orbitofrontal cortex [p = 0.045], left middle frontal gyrus [p = 0.023], and right inferior frontal gyrus [p = 0.034]) compared to the mTBI-BE group. No significant group differences in CT were observed for temporal regions (p's > 0.05). Multiple regression analyses revealed a significant cumulative BE × CT interaction for the left orbitofrontal cortex (p = 0.001) and left middle frontal gyrus (p = 0.020); reduced CT was associated with worse cognitive performance in the mTBI+BE High group but not the mTBI+BE Low group. Conclusions: Findings show that Veterans with mTBI and BE may be at risk for cortical thinning post-deployment. Moreover, our results demonstrate that reductions in CT are associated with worse executive functioning among Veterans with high levels of cumulative BE. Future longitudinal studies are needed to determine whether BE exacerbates mTBI-related cortical thinning or independently negatively influences gray matter structure.

19.
Brain Inj ; 32(10): 1256-1265, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30169992

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to assess utility of in vivo myelin imaging in combat Veterans with and without history of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). We hypothesized that those with history of mTBI would have lower myelin water fraction (MWF), a marker of myelin integrity and content, than those without, and lower MWF would be associated with worse speeded attention/processing speed. RESEARCH DESIGN: Combat Veterans (N = 70) with (n = 42) and without history of mTBI (n = 28) underwent neuroimaging including a novel myelin-sensitive magnetic resonance imaging technique (multicomponent-driven equilibrium single-pulse observation of T1/T2; mcDESPOT) and comprehensive neuropsychological assessment. RESULTS: There were no group differences in MWF using a region-of-interest approach. An exploratory analysis applying limited spatial constraints, however, revealed significantly more 'potholes' (clusters of low MWF) in Veterans with history of mTBI compared to those without. Lower MWF across several ROIs was associated with worse performance on a speeded attention task across groups. CONCLUSION: Veterans in the post-acute period following mTBI showed limited and spatially heterogeneous MWF changes and myelin integrity was significantly related to processing speed. This preliminary evidence for usefulness of mcDESPOT in combat Veterans with history of mTBI warrants future research to determine mcDESPOT's relative utility compared to techniques such as diffusion tensor imaging.


Assuntos
Concussão Encefálica/diagnóstico por imagem , Substância Branca/diagnóstico por imagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Campanha Afegã de 2001- , Concussão Encefálica/complicações , Imagem de Tensor de Difusão , Feminino , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Guerra do Iraque 2003-2011 , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtornos Mentais/etiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Bainha de Mielina/metabolismo , Bainha de Mielina/patologia , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Projetos Piloto , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Inquéritos e Questionários , Veteranos , Adulto Jovem
20.
Front Aging Neurosci ; 10: 270, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30250430

RESUMO

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) increases risk for dementia, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). Many previous studies of brain changes underlying cognitive impairment in T2DM have applied conventional structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to detect macrostructural changes associated with cerebrovascular disease such as white matter hyperintensities or infarcts. However, such pathology likely reflects end-stage manifestations of chronic decrements in cerebral blood flow (CBF). MRI techniques that measure CBF may (1) elucidate mechanisms that precede irreversible parenchymal damage and (2) serve as a marker of risk for cognitive decline. CBF measured with arterial spin labeling (ASL) MRI may be a useful marker of perfusion deficits in T2DM and related conditions. We examined associations among T2DM, CBF, and cognition in a sample of 49 well-characterized nondemented older adults. Along with a standard T1-weighted scan, a pseudocontinuous ASL sequence optimized for older adults (by increasing post-labeling delays to allow more time for the blood to reach brain tissue) was obtained on a 3T GE scanner to measure regional CBF in FreeSurfer derived regions of interest. Participants also completed a neuropsychological assessment. Results showed no significant differences between individuals with and without T2DM in terms of cortical thickness or regional brain volume. However, adjusting for age, sex, comorbid vascular risk factors, and reference CBF (postcentral gyrus) older adults with T2DM demonstrated reduced CBF in the hippocampus, and inferior temporal, inferior parietal, and frontal cortices. Lower CBF was associated with poorer memory and executive function/processing speed. When adjusting for diabetes, the significant associations between lower regional CBF and poorer executive function/processing speed remained. Results demonstrate that CBF is reduced in older adults with T2DM, and suggest that CBF alterations likely precede volumetric changes. Notably, relative to nondiabetic control participants, those with T2DM showed lower CBF in predilection sites for AD pathology (medial temporal lobe and inferior parietal regions). Findings augment recent research suggesting that perfusion deficits may underlie cognitive decrements frequently observed among older adults with T2DM. Results also suggest that CBF measured with ASL MRI may reflect an early and important marker of risk of cognitive impairment in T2DM and related conditions.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA