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1.
PLoS One ; 14(9): e0221278, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31532770

RESUMO

Interactive conversation drives the transmission of cultural information in small groups and large networks. In formal (e.g. schools) and informal (e.g. home) learning settings, interactivity does not only allow individuals and groups to faithfully transmit and learn new knowledge and skills, but also to boost cumulative cultural evolution. Here we investigate how interactivity affects performance, teaching, learning, innovation and chosen diffusion mode (e.g. instructional discourse vs. storytelling) of previously acquired information in a transmission chain experiment. In our experiment, participants (n = 288) working in 48 chains with three generations of pairs had to learn and complete a collaborative food preparation task (ravioli-making), and then transmit their experience to a new generation of participants in an interactive and non-interactive condition. Food preparation is a real-world task that it is taught and learned across cultures and transmitted over generations in families and groups. Pairs were defined as teachers or learners depending on their role in the transmission chain. The number of good exemplars of ravioli each pair produced was taken as measurement of performance. Contrary to our expectations, the results did not reveal that (1) performance increased over generations or that (2) interactivity in transmission sessions promoted increased performance. However, the results showed that (3) interactivity promoted the transmission of more information from teachers to learners; (4) increased quantity of information transmission from teachers led to higher performance in learners; (5) higher performance generations introduced more innovations in transmission sessions; (6) learners applied those transmitted innovations to their performance which made them persist over generations; (7) storytelling was specialized for the transmission of non-routine, unexpected information. Our findings offer new insights on how interactivity, innovation and storytelling affect the cultural transmission of complex collaborative tasks.


Assuntos
Evolução Cultural , Alimentos , Aprendizagem , Comunicação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Comportamento Social
2.
Top Cogn Sci ; 11(4): 710-732, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29954043

RESUMO

Storytelling represents a key element in the creation and propagation of culture. Three main accounts of the adaptive function of storytelling include (a) manipulating the behavior of the audience to enhance the fitness of the narrator, (b) transmitting survival-relevant information while avoiding the costs involved in the first-hand acquisition of that information, and (c) maintaining social bonds or group-level cooperation. We assess the substantial evidence collected in experimental and ethnographic studies for each account. These accounts do not always appeal to the specific features of storytelling above and beyond language use in general. We propose that the specific adaptive value of storytelling lies in making sense of non-routine, uncertain, or novel situations, thereby enabling the collaborative development of previously acquired skills and knowledge, but also promoting social cohesion by strengthening intragroup identity and clarifying intergroup relations.

3.
Proc Biol Sci ; 285(1882)2018 07 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30051832

RESUMO

Humans cooperate with unrelated individuals to an extent that far outstrips any other species. We also display extreme variation in decisions about whether to cooperate or not, and the mechanisms driving this variation remain an open question across the behavioural sciences. One candidate mechanism underlying this variation in cooperation is the evolutionary ancient neurohormone oxytocin (OT). As current research focuses on artificial administration of OT in asocial tasks, little is known about how the hormone in its naturally occurring state actually impacts behaviour in social interactions. Using a new optimal foraging paradigm, the 'egg hunt', we assessed the association of endogenous OT with helping behaviour and conversation. We manipulated players' group membership relative to each other prior to an egg hunt, during which they had repeated opportunities to spontaneously help each other. Results show that endogenous baseline OT predicted helping and conversation type, but crucially as a function of group membership. Higher baseline OT predicted increased helping but only between in-group players, as well as decreased discussion about individuals' goals between in-group players but conversely more of such discussion between out-group players. Subsequently, behaviour but not conversation during the hunt predicted change in OT, in that out-group members who did not help showed a decrease in OT from baseline levels. In sum, endogenous OT predicts helping behaviour and conversation, importantly as a function of group membership, and this effect occurs in parallel to uniquely human cognitive processes.


Assuntos
Comportamento/efeitos dos fármacos , Comportamento Cooperativo , Ocitocina/sangue , Adulto , Comunicação , Tomada de Decisões , Feminino , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Masculino , Comportamento Social
4.
Qual Health Res ; 27(14): 2244-2257, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28893137

RESUMO

We conducted a workplace research project on staff mobility in a Swiss hospital outpatient clinic that involved extensive fieldwork and video recordings. The article describes monitoring practices and routines that staff engage in as they walk through the corridors and in and out of the clinic's rooms. The staff perform checks on on-going activity, share their observations with colleagues, and take responsive action while engaged in away-oriented walk or in specific roaming, action-seeking, rallying, and patrolling walk. We argue that these behaviors are closely associated with building and sustaining situation awareness (SA) with regard to the status of the clinic's functioning. They contribute to the coordination of a spatially distributed team that rapidly accomplishes consequential and closely interrelated activities in constantly changing circumstances.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Conscientização , Ambulatório Hospitalar/organização & administração , Humanos , Suíça , Local de Trabalho
5.
Proc Biol Sci ; 284(1863)2017 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28931743

RESUMO

While we know that the degree to which humans are able to cooperate is unrivalled by other species, the variation humans actually display in their cooperative behaviour has yet to be fully explained. This may be because research based on experimental game-theoretical studies neglects fundamental aspects of human sociality and psychology, namely social interaction and language. Using a new optimal foraging game loosely modelled on the prisoner's dilemma, the egg hunt, we categorized players as either in-group or out-group to each other and studied their spontaneous language usage while they made interactive, potentially cooperative decisions. Both shared group membership and the possibility to talk led to increased cooperation and overall success in the hunt. Notably, analysis of players' conversations showed that in-group members engaged more in shared intentionality, the human ability to both mentally represent and then adopt another's goal, whereas out-group members discussed individual goals more. Females also helped more and displayed more shared intentionality in discussions than males. Crucially, we show that shared intentionality was the mechanism driving the increase in helping between in-group players over out-group players at a cost to themselves. By studying spontaneous language during social interactions and isolating shared intentionality as the mechanism underlying successful cooperation, the current results point to a probable psychological source of the variation in cooperation humans display.


Assuntos
Comportamento Cooperativo , Relações Interpessoais , Idioma , Feminino , Jogos Experimentais , Humanos , Masculino
6.
Learn Behav ; 45(4): 390-405, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28779386

RESUMO

Social play has a complex, cooperative nature that requires substantial coordination. This has led researchers to use social games to study cognitive abilities like shared intentionality, the skill and motivation to share goals and intentions with others during joint action. We expand this proposal by considering play as a joint action and examining how shared intentionality is achieved during human joint action. We describe how humans get into, conduct, and get out of joint actions together in an orderly way, thereby constructing the state of "togetherness" characteristic of shared intentionality. These processes play out as three main phases, the opening (where participants are ratified and joint commitments are established), the main body (where progress, ongoing commitments, and possible role reversals are coordinated), and the closing (where the intention to terminate the action is coordinated and where participants take leave of each other). We use this process in humans as a framework for examining how various animal species get into, maintain, and get out of play bouts. This comparative approach constitutes an alternative measure of those species' possession of shared intentionality. Using this framework, we review the play literature on human children and different social species of mammals and birds in search of behavioral markers of shared intentionality in the coordination of play bouts. We discuss how our approach could shed light on the evolution of the special human motivation to cooperate and share psychological states with others.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Comunicação , Comportamento Cooperativo , Intenção , Jogos e Brinquedos , Comportamento Social , Animais , Humanos
7.
Front Psychol ; 8: 861, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28676768

RESUMO

Conspiracy theories (CTs) are widespread ways by which people make sense of unsettling or disturbing cultural events. Belief in CTs is often connected to problematic consequences, such as decreased engagement with conventional political action or even political extremism, so understanding the psychological and social qualities of CT belief is important. CTs have often been understood to be "monological," displaying the tendency for belief in one conspiracy theory to be correlated with belief in (many) others. Explanations of monologicality invoke a nomothetical or "closed" mindset whereby mutually supporting beliefs based on mistrust of official explanations are used to interpret public events as conspiracies, independent of the facts about those events (which they may ignore or deny). But research on monologicality offers little discussion of the content of monological beliefs and reasoning from the standpoint of the CT believers. This is due in part to the "access problem": CT believers are averse to being researched because they often distrust researchers and what they appear to represent. Using several strategies to address the access problem we were able to engage CT believers in semi-structured interviews, combining their results with analysis of media documents and field observations to reconstruct a conspiracy worldview - a set of symbolic resources drawn on by CT believers about important dimensions of ontology, epistemology, and human agency. The worldview is structured around six main dimensions: the nature of reality, the self, the outgroup, the ingroup, relevant social and political action, and possible future change. We also describe an ascending typology of five types of CT believers, which vary according to their positions on each of these dimensions. Our findings converge with prior explorations of CT beliefs but also revealed novel aspects: A sense of community among CT believers, a highly differentiated representation of the outgroup, a personal journey of conversion, variegated kinds of political action, and optimistic belief in future change. These findings are at odds with the typical image of monological CT believers as paranoid, cynical, anomic and irrational. For many, the CT worldview may rather constitute the ideological underpinning of a nascent pre-figurative social movement.

8.
J Health Commun ; 22(5): 386-394, 2017 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28375808

RESUMO

Nurses generally show low compliance with vaccination recommendations. We assessed whether low vaccine acceptance is due to skeptical attitudes toward emerging infectious diseases (EIDs). Skepticism toward EIDs manifests as doubts about the real threat of emerging diseases and as distrust in the motives and the competence of institutions that fight these diseases. We performed a cross-sectional questionnaire study in 293 Swiss nurses using a newly developed scale to assess skepticism toward EIDs. Skepticism affected nurses' intentions to vaccinate themselves against seasonal influenza and against possible future pandemic influenza. The influence of skepticism persisted after controlling for other factors that are known to determine nurses' vaccination behavior, namely vaccination habits, feeling at risk of catching influenza, and perceiving vaccination as a professional duty. Skeptical attitudes toward EIDs seem to have a unique and hitherto ignored impact on vaccination intentions. Nurses' vaccine acceptance could be increased if vaccination campaigns specifically target skeptical attitudes toward EIDs. These campaigns should address nurses' doubts about the real threat of EIDs and should rebuild their trust in institutions which fight these diseases.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/psicologia , Vacinas contra Influenza/administração & dosagem , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Intenção , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros/psicologia , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Estações do Ano , Inquéritos e Questionários , Suíça , Adulto Jovem
9.
Front Psychol ; 7: 1582, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27822189

RESUMO

Gaze is instrumental in coordinating face-to-face social interactions. But little is known about gaze use when social interactions co-occur with other joint activities. We investigated the case of walking while talking. We assessed how gaze gets allocated among various targets in mobile conversations, whether allocation of gaze to other targets affects conversational coordination, and whether reduced availability of gaze for conversational coordination affects conversational performance and content. In an experimental study, pairs were videotaped in four conditions of mobility (standing still, talking while walking along a straight-line itinerary, talking while walking along a complex itinerary, or walking along a complex itinerary with no conversational task). Gaze to partners was substantially reduced in mobile conversations, but gaze was still used to coordinate conversation via displays of mutual orientation, and conversational performance and content was not different between stationary and mobile conditions. Results expand the phenomena of multitasking to joint activities.

10.
J Adv Nurs ; 72(3): 521-32, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26582594

RESUMO

AIMS: First, to document the prevalence of corridor occupations and conversations among the staff of a hospital clinic, and their main features. Second, to examine the activities accomplished through corridor conversations and their interactional organization. BACKGROUND: Despite extensive research on mobility in hospital work, we still know fairly little about the prevalence and features of hospital staff corridor conversations and how they are organized. DESIGN: We conducted a study combining descriptive statistical analysis and multimodal conversation analysis of video recordings of staff corridor practices in a hospital outpatient clinic in Switzerland. METHODS: In 2012, we collected 59 hours of video recordings in a corridor of a hospital clinic. We coded and statistically analysed the footage that showed the clinic staff exclusively. We also performed qualitative multimodal conversation analysis on a selection of the recorded staff conversations. RESULTS: Corridor occupations by the clinic staff are frequent and brief and rarely involve stops. Talk events (which include self-talk, face-to-face conversations and telephone conversations) during occupations are also brief and mobile, overwhelmingly focus on professional topics and are particularly frequent when two or more staff members occupy the corridor. The conversations present several interactional configurations and comprise an array of activities consequential to the provision of care and work organization. CONCLUSION: These practices are related to the fluid work organization of a spatially distributed team in a fast-paced, multitasking environment and should be taken into consideration in any undertaking aimed at improving hospital units' functioning.


Assuntos
Comunicação , Relações Interprofissionais , Ambulatório Hospitalar/estatística & dados numéricos , Recursos Humanos em Hospital/psicologia , Humanos , Suíça
11.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci ; 370(1669)2015 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25870392

RESUMO

The 'behavioural immune system' is composed of mechanisms that evolved as a means of facilitating behaviours that minimized infection risk and enhanced fitness. Recent empirical research on human populations suggests that these mechanisms have unique consequences for many aspects of human sociality--including sexual attitudes, gregariousness, xenophobia, conformity to majority opinion and conservative sociopolitical attitudes. Throughout much of human evolutionary history, these consequences may have had beneficial health implications; but health implications in modern human societies remain unclear. This article summarizes pertinent ways in which modern human societies are similar to and different from the ecologies within which the behavioural immune system evolved. By attending to these similarities and differences, we identify a set of plausible implications-both positive and negative-that the behavioural immune system may have on health outcomes in contemporary human contexts. We discuss both individual-level infection risk and population-level epidemiological outcomes. We also discuss a variety of additional implications, including compliance with public health policies, the adoption of novel therapeutic interventions and actual immunological functioning. Research on the behavioural immune system, and its implications in contemporary human societies, can provide unique insights into relationships between fitness, sociality and health.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis/imunologia , Comportamento Social , Evolução Biológica , Doenças Transmissíveis/transmissão , Feminino , Humanos , Fenômenos do Sistema Imunológico , Controle de Infecções , Relações Interpessoais , Masculino , Saúde Pública , Fatores de Risco
12.
Nurs Open ; 2(3): 130-140, 2015 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27708808

RESUMO

AIM: To document the prevalence of perturbations of handover meetings and understand how nurses manage temporal, physical and social meeting boundaries in response to perturbations. BACKGROUND: Handovers are joint activities performed collaboratively by participating nurses. Perturbations of handover are frequent and may potentially threaten continuity of care. DESIGN: We observed and videotaped handovers during five successive days in four nursing care units in two Swiss hospitals in 2009. METHODS: Videorecordings were transcribed. All perturbations during the handovers were noted. We performed content analysis of the sources of perturbations from the notes and interactional micro-analyses of handover interactions based on video and transcripts. RESULTS: Nurses are the most frequent sources of perturbations during handovers. Perturbations are collaboratively managed. A tacit division of labour is enacted via multimodal communication strategies, whereby perturbations are dealt with using both linguistic and bodily signals.

13.
Public Underst Sci ; 22(8): 1011-24, 2013 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23825240

RESUMO

We investigate dynamics of public perceptions of the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic to understand changing patterns of sense-making and blame regarding the outbreak of emerging infectious diseases. We draw on social representation theory combined with a dramaturgical perspective to identify changes in how various collectives are depicted over the course of the pandemic, according to three roles: heroes, villains and victims. Quantitative results based on content analysis of three cross-sectional waves of interviews show a shift from mentions of distant collectives (e.g., far-flung countries) at Wave 1 to local collectives (e.g., risk groups) as the pandemic became of more immediate concern (Wave 2) and declined (Wave 3). Semi-automated content analysis of media coverage shows similar results. Thematic analyses of the discourse associated with collectives revealed that many were consistently perceived as heroes, villains and victims.

14.
Front Psychol ; 4: 424, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23882235

RESUMO

Conspiracy theories (CTs) can take many forms and vary widely in popularity, the intensity with which they are believed and their effects on individual and collective behavior. An integrated account of CTs thus needs to explain how they come to appeal to potential believers, how they spread from one person to the next via communication, and how they motivate collective action. We summarize these aspects under the labels of stick, spread, and action. We propose the quasi-religious hypothesis for CTs: drawing on cognitive science of religion, social representations theory, and frame theory. We use cognitive science of religion to describe the main features of the content of CTs that explain how they come to stick: CTs are quasi-religious representations in that their contents, forms and functions parallel those found in beliefs of institutionalized religions. However, CTs are quasi-religious in that CTs and the communities that support them, lack many of the institutional features of organized religions. We use social representations theory to explain how CTs spread as devices for making sense of sudden events that threaten existing worldviews. CTs allow laypersons to interpret such events by relating them to common sense, thereby defusing some of the anxiety that those events generate. We use frame theory to explain how some, but not all CTs mobilize collective counter-conspiratorial action by identifying a target and by proposing credible and concrete rationales for action. We specify our integrated account in 13 propositions.

15.
Br J Soc Psychol ; 52(1): 83-102, 2013 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21883298

RESUMO

Much research studies how individuals cope with disease threat by blaming out-groups and protecting the in-group. The model of collective symbolic coping (CSC) describes four stages by which representations of a threatening event are elaborated in the mass media: awareness, divergence, convergence, and normalization. We used the CSC model to predict when symbolic in-group protection (othering) would occur in the case of the avian influenza (AI) outbreak. Two studies documented CSC stages and showed that othering occurred during the divergence stage, characterized by an uncertain symbolic environment. Study 1 analysed media coverage of AI over time, documenting CSC stages of awareness and divergence. In Study 2, a two-wave repeated cross-sectional survey was conducted just after the divergence stage and a year later. Othering was measured by the number of foreign countries erroneously ticked by participants as having human victims. Individual differences in germ aversion and social dominance orientation interacted to predict othering during the divergence stage but not a year later. Implications for research on CSC and symbolic in-group protection strategies resulting from disease threat are discussed.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Virus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N1 , Influenza Aviária/psicologia , Influenza Humana/psicologia , Modelos Psicológicos , Adolescente , Adulto , África/epidemiologia , Animais , Ásia/epidemiologia , Aves , Estudos Transversais , Surtos de Doenças , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Processos Grupais , Humanos , Influenza Aviária/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Masculino , Meios de Comunicação de Massa , Adulto Jovem
16.
Int J Psychol ; 48(5): 871-80, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22823060

RESUMO

Applicants use résumés to demonstrate their knowledge, skills, abilities, and other personal characteristics (KSAOs) to recruiters, through education and job-related or non-job-related experiences. But research suggests that the situation for young applicants is especially competitive, since they increasingly enter the labour market with similar educational credentials and limited job-related experience. They may thus use non-job-related experiences, such as participation in extracurricular activities (ECAs) during their studies, to demonstrate KSAOs to recruiters, but also to add distinction and value to their credentials. ECAs may therefore become more important in the selection of young applicants. Yet few studies have undertaken a comprehensive and systematic analysis of the relationships students have with these activities. The purpose of this study was to investigate to what extent students' involvement in ECAs is due to internal (e.g., passion) or external (e.g., résumé-building) motives, and what factors influence these motives. Results from a study with 197 students suggest that students engage in ECAs mainly out of internal motives. But external motives are stronger for activities started closer to entering the labour market, for students active in associative or volunteering activities (as compared to sports or artistic activities), and for students holding leadership positions in their activities. Our results suggest that labour market pressure may be a key component of applicants' involvement in ECAs. Also, organizations and recruiters may want to consider that students tend not to engage in ECAs purely out of internal motives, but also to add value to their credentials and match employers' expectations. The authors thank Anna Ambrosetti for her help with the data collection.


Assuntos
Arte , Emprego , Liderança , Motivação , Esportes , Voluntários , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Estudantes/psicologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos
17.
PLoS One ; 7(11): e49806, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23185444

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The 2009 H1N1 pandemic left a legacy of mistrust in the public relative to how outbreaks of emerging infectious diseases are managed. To prepare for future outbreaks, it is crucial to explore the phenomenon of public trust in the institutions responsible for managing disease outbreaks. We investigated the evolution of public trust in institutions during and after the 2009 pandemic in Switzerland. We also explored respondents' perceptions of the prevention campaign and the roles of the government and media. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A two-wave longitudinal survey was mailed to 2,400 members of the Swiss public. Wave 1 was in Spring 2009. Wave 2 was in Spring 2010. Six hundred and two participants responded in both waves. Participants indicated moderate to high levels of trust in medical organizations, the WHO, the Swiss government, the pharmaceutical industry, and the EU. On the other hand, trust in the media was low. Moreover, trust in almost all institutions decreased over time. Participants were satisfied with the amount of information received and indicated having followed official recommendations, but widespread concerns about the vaccine were evident. A large majority of participants agreed the vaccine might have unknown or undesirable side effects. Perceptions of the government's and the media's role in handling the outbreak were characterized by a substantial degree of skepticism and mistrust. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Results show clear patterns of skepticism and mistrust on the part of the public relative to various institutions and their actions. Results underscore the importance of systematically investigating trust of the public relative to epidemics. Moreover, studies investigating the evolution of the public's memories of the pandemic over the coming years may be important to understand reactions to future pandemics. A systematic research program on trust can inform public health communication campaigns, enabling tailored communication initiatives.


Assuntos
Influenza Humana , Pandemias , Opinião Pública , Confiança , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Feminino , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/patogenicidade , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Influenza Humana/virologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Suíça
18.
Top Cogn Sci ; 4(2): 232-48, 2012 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22389109

RESUMO

The tradeoff hypothesis in the speech-gesture relationship claims that (a) when gesturing gets harder, speakers will rely relatively more on speech, and (b) when speaking gets harder, speakers will rely relatively more on gestures. We tested the second part of this hypothesis in an experimental collaborative referring paradigm where pairs of participants (directors and matchers) identified targets to each other from an array visible to both of them. We manipulated two factors known to affect the difficulty of speaking to assess their effects on the gesture rate per 100 words. The first factor, codability, is the ease with which targets can be described. The second factor, repetition, is whether the targets are old or new (having been already described once or twice). We also manipulated a third factor, mutual visibility, because it is known to affect the rate and type of gesture produced. None of the manipulations systematically affected the gesture rate. Our data are thus mostly inconsistent with the tradeoff hypothesis. However, the gesture rate was sensitive to concurrent features of referring expressions, suggesting that gesture parallels aspects of speech. We argue that the redundancy between speech and gesture is communicatively motivated.


Assuntos
Gestos , Fala/fisiologia , Humanos , Idioma , Comunicação Manual , Variações Dependentes do Observador
19.
J Adv Nurs ; 68(9): 1956-66, 2012 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22111784

RESUMO

AIMS: We explore variations in handover duration and communication in nursing units. We hypothesize that duration per patient is higher in units facing high task uncertainty. We expect both topics and functions of communication to vary depending on task uncertainty. BACKGROUND: Handovers are changing in modern healthcare organizations, where standardized procedures are increasingly advocated for efficiency and reliability reasons. However, redesign of handover should take environmental contingencies of different clinical unit types into account. An important contingency in institutions is task uncertainty, which may affect how communicative routines like handover are accomplished. METHOD: Nurse unit managers of 80 care units in 18 hospitals were interviewed in 2008 about topics and functions of handover communication and duration in their unit. Interviews were content-analysed. Clinical units were classified into a theory-based typology (unit type) that gradually increases on task uncertainty. Quantitative analyses were performed. FINDINGS: Unit type affected resource allocation. Unit types facing higher uncertainty had higher handover duration per patient. As expected, unit type also affected communication content. Clinical units facing higher uncertainty discussed fewer topics, discussing treatment and care and organization of work less frequently. Finally, unit type affected functions of handover: sharing emotions was less often mentioned in unit types facing higher uncertainty. CONCLUSION: Task uncertainty and its relationship with functions and topics of handover should be taken into account during the design of handover procedures.


Assuntos
Comunicação , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem/organização & administração , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem/normas , Transferência da Responsabilidade pelo Paciente/organização & administração , Transferência da Responsabilidade pelo Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Estudos de Avaliação como Assunto , Humanos , Relações Interprofissionais , Suíça , Tolerância ao Trabalho Programado
20.
J Appl Psychol ; 97(4): 719-38, 2012 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22040263

RESUMO

Personnel selection involves exchanges of information between job market actors (applicants and organizations). These actors do not have an incentive to exchange accurate information about their ability and commitment to the employment relationship unless it is to their advantage. This state of affairs explains numerous phenomena in personnel selection (e.g., faking). Signaling theory describes a mechanism by which parties with partly conflicting interests (and thus an incentive for deception) can nevertheless exchange accurate information. We apply signaling theory to personnel selection, distinguishing between adaptive relationships between applicants and organizations, among applicants, and among organizations. In each case, repeated adaptations and counteradaptations between actors can lead to situations of equilibrium or escalation (arms races). We show that viewing personnel selection as a network of adaptive relationships among job market actors enables an understanding of both classic and underexplored micro- and macro-level selection phenomena and their dynamic interactions.


Assuntos
Decepção , Teoria do Jogo , Seleção de Pessoal , Revelação da Verdade , Conflito Psicológico , Comportamento Cooperativo , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Modelos Psicológicos
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