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1.
J Breath Res ; 14(4): 043001, 2020 09 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32969348

RESUMO

Cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopies (CEAS) have gained importance in a wide range of applications in molecular spectroscopy. The development of optical sensors based on the CEAS techniques coupled with the continuous wave or pulsed laser sources operating in the mid-infrared or near-infrared spectral regime uniquely offers molecularly selective and ultra-sensitive detection of trace species in complex matrices including exhaled human breath. In this review, we discussed recent applications of CEAS for analyzing trace constituents within the exhaled breath matrix facilitating the non-invasive assessment of human health status. Next to a brief discussion on the mechanisms of formation of trace components found in the exhaled breath matrix related to particular disease states, existing challenges in CEAS and future development towards non-invasive clinical diagnostics will be discussed.


Assuntos
Testes Respiratórios/métodos , Expiração , Óptica e Fotônica/métodos , Animais , Humanos , Óxido Nítrico/análise , Consumo de Oxigênio , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho
2.
J Breath Res ; 12(3): 036019, 2018 05 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29560929

RESUMO

The underlying mechanisms towards the progression of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in chronic kidney disease (CKD) are poorly understood and it still remains a major clinical stumbling block for early detection of CKD. Most patients with CKD pass through ESRD with the necessity of frequent hemodialysis (HD) treatment. At present, plasma urea and creatinine levels are examined in most CKD patients to monitor their health status after dialysis. But it is impossible to get immediate feedback on the patients' health as the conventional tests involve the collection of blood samples, laboratory processing for a prolonged period of time and, finally, analysis of those samples. However, the test results are very important in deciding the treatment plan for those ESRD patients. Here, we show that the enzymatic activity of carbonic anhydrase in erythrocytes is distinctly altered in ESRD subjects under HD. This, in turn, leads to the isotopic enrichments of oxygen-18 (18O) and carbon-13 (13C) of CO2 during respiration in HD treatment. High-resolution cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopic measurements show that 18O and 13C-isotopic fractionations of breath CO2 are correlated with Kt/V values, suggesting a novel unifying strategy for ESRD patients that can be used as an isotope-specific methodology for non-invasive assessment of dialysis adequacy and hence 12C18O16O and 13C16O16O could be used as novel markers for tracking the physiological parameters of ESRD individuals. Our findings suggest that the monitoring of 18O and 13C isotopes of breath CO2 may facilitate the proper management of advanced CKD patients. The primary advantage of this isotopic breath test is that it may reduce the valuable time lag between the completion of dialysis and obtaining the clinical report on the status of patients' health.


Assuntos
Testes Respiratórios/métodos , Isótopos de Carbono/química , Falência Renal Crônica/diagnóstico , Falência Renal Crônica/etiologia , Isótopos de Oxigênio/química , Diálise Renal/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Fracionamento Químico , Creatinina/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Falência Renal Crônica/sangue , Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ureia/sangue
3.
Sci Rep ; 6: 35836, 2016 10 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27767104

RESUMO

The inability to envisage the acute onset and progression of type 1 diabetes (T1D) has been a major clinical stumbling block and an important area of biomedical research over the last few decades. Therefore there is a pressing need to develop a new and an effective strategy for early detection of T1D and to precisely distinguish T1D from type 2 diabetes (T2D). Here we describe the precise role of the enzymatic activity of carbonic anhydrase (CA) in erythrocytes in the pathogenesis of T1D and T2D. We show that CA activities are markedly altered during metabolism of T1D and T2D and this facilitates to the oxygen-18 (18O) isotopic fractionations of breath CO2. In our observations, T1D exhibited considerable depletions of 18O-isotopes of CO2, whereas T2D manifested isotopic enrichments of 18O in breath CO2, thus unveiling a missing link of breath18O-isotopic fractionations in T1D and T2D. Our findings suggest that the alterations in erythrocytes CA activities may be the initial step of altered metabolism of T1D and T2D, and breath 18O-isotope regulated by the CA activity is a potential diagnostic biomarker that can selectively and precisely distinguish T1D from T2D and thus may open a potential unifying strategy for treating these diseases.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Anidrases Carbônicas/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Eritrócitos/enzimologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Testes Respiratórios , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Humanos , Marcação por Isótopo , Cinética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Isótopos de Oxigênio/química , Espectrofotometria , Adulto Jovem
4.
Sci Rep ; 5: 8137, 2015 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25633556

RESUMO

Carbonic anhydrase (CA), a well-characterized metalloenzyme, is associated with oxygen-18 ( (18)O)-isotopic fractionations of CO2. To investigate how CA activity links the (18)O of breath CO2 to pre-diabetes (PD) and type 2 diabetes (T2D) during metabolism, we studied pre- and post-dose CA activities in erythrocytes with simultaneous monitoring of (18)O/ (16)O-isotope ratios of breath CO2 and thereafter elucidated potential metabolic pathways underlying CA alteration in the pathogenesis of T2D. Here we show that the post-dose CA activity in both T2D and PD was markedly enhanced, whereas the non-diabetic controls (NDC) exhibited a considerable reduction in post-dose CA activity when compared with their basal CA activities. However, T2D and PD exhibited isotopic enrichments of (18)O in breath CO2, while a marked depletion of (18)O in CO2 was manifested in NDC. Thus, the isotopic enrichments and depletions of (18)O in breath CO2 were well correlated with the changes in CA activities for controls, PD and T2D. Our findings suggest the changes in CA activities in erythrocytes may contribute to the pathogenesis of T2D and the breath C (18)O (16)O regulated by the CA activity as a potential biomarker for non-invasive assessment of T2D, and thus may open a new method for treating T2D.


Assuntos
Testes Respiratórios/métodos , Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Anidrases Carbônicas/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Eritrócitos/enzimologia , Estado Pré-Diabético/diagnóstico , Adulto , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Jejum/sangue , Feminino , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Masculino , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Isótopos de Oxigênio , Estado Pré-Diabético/sangue , Estado Pré-Diabético/enzimologia
5.
J Breath Res ; 8(3): 036001, 2014 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24946152

RESUMO

We report, for the first time, the clinical feasibility of a novel residual gas analyzer mass spectrometry (RGA-MS) method for accurate evaluation of the (13)C-glucose breath test ((13)C-GBT) in the diagnosis of pre-diabetes (PD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). In T2D or PD, glucose uptake is impaired and results in blunted isotope enriched (13)CO2 production in exhaled breath samples. Using the Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve analysis, an optimal diagnostic cut-off point of the (13)CO2/(12)CO2 isotope ratios expressed as the delta-over-baseline (DOB) value, was determined to be δDOB(13)C‰ = 28.81‰ for screening individuals with non-diabetes controls (NDC) and pre-diabetes (PD), corresponding to a sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 94.4%. We also determined another optimal diagnostic cut-off point of δDOB(13)C‰ = 19.88‰ between individuals with PD and T2D, which exhibited 100% sensitivity and 95.5% specificity. Our RGA-MS methodology for the (13)C-GBT also manifested a typical diagnostic positive and negative predictive value of 96% and 100%, respectively. The diagnostic accuracy, precision and validity of the results were also confirmed by high-resolution optical cavity enhanced integrated cavity output spectroscopy (ICOS) measurements. The δDOB(13)C‰ values measured with RGA-MS method, correlated favourably (R(2) = 0.979) with those determined by the laser based ICOS method. Moreover, we observed that the effects of endogenous CO2 production related to basal metabolic rates in individuals were statistically insignificant (p = 0.37 and 0.73) on the diagnostic accuracy. Our findings suggest that the RGA-MS is a valid and sufficiently robust method for the (13)C-GBT which may serve as an alternative non-invasive point-of-care diagnostic tool for routine clinical practices as well as for large-scale diabetes screening purposes in real-time.


Assuntos
Testes Respiratórios/instrumentação , Testes Respiratórios/métodos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Glucose , Espectrometria de Massas/instrumentação , Estado Pré-Diabético/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Isótopos de Carbono , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Curva ROC
6.
J Breath Res ; 8(1): 016005, 2014 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24566134

RESUMO

A residual gas analyzer (RGA) coupled with a high vacuum chamber is described for the non-invasive diagnosis of the Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection through ¹³C-urea breath analysis. The present RGA-based mass spectrometry (MS) method is capable of measuring high-precision ¹³CO2 isotope enrichments in exhaled breath samples from individuals harboring the H. pylori infection. The system exhibited 100% diagnostic sensitivity, and 93% specificity alongside positive and negative predictive values of 95% and 100%, respectively, compared with invasive endoscopy-based biopsy tests. A statistically sound diagnostic cut-off value for the presence of H. pylori was determined to be 3.0‰ using a receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. The diagnostic accuracy and validity of the results are also supported by optical off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy measurements. The δ¹³(DOB)C‰ values of both methods correlated well (R² = 0.9973 at 30 min). The RGA-based instrumental setup described here is simple, robust, easy-to-use and more portable and cost-effective compared to all other currently available detection methods, thus making it a new point-of-care medical diagnostic tool for the purpose of large-scale screening of the H. pylori infection in real time. The RGA-MS technique should have broad applicability for ¹³C-breath tests in a wide range of biomedical research and clinical diagnostics for many other diseases and metabolic disorders.


Assuntos
Testes Respiratórios/instrumentação , Testes Respiratórios/métodos , Infecções por Helicobacter/diagnóstico , Helicobacter pylori/fisiologia , Espectrometria de Massas/instrumentação , Adulto , Idoso , Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Isótopos de Carbono , Expiração , Feminino , Infecções por Helicobacter/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Curva ROC , Análise de Regressão , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Análise Espectral , Ureia/análise , Adulto Jovem
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