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1.
ACS Nano ; 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32584026

RESUMO

Quasi-two-dimensional (2D) semiconductor nanoplatelets manifest strong quantum confinement with exceptional optical characteristics of narrow photoluminescence peaks with energies tunable by thickness with monolayer precision. We employed scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS) in conjunction with optical measurements to probe the thickness-dependent band gap and density of excited states in a series of CdSe nanoplatelets. The tunneling spectra, measured in the double-barrier tunnel junction configuration, reveal the effect of quantum confinement on the band gap taking place mainly through a blue-shift of the conduction band edge, along with a signature of 2D electronic structure intermixed with finite lateral-size and/or defects effects. The STS fundamental band gaps are larger than the optical gaps as expected from the contributions of exciton binding in the absorption, as confirmed by theoretical calculations. The calculations also point to strong valence band mixing between the light- and split-off hole levels. Strikingly, the energy difference between the heavy-hole and light-hole levels in the tunneling spectra are significantly larger than the corresponding values extracted from the absorption spectra. Possible explanations for this, including an interplay of nanoplatelet charging, dielectric confinement, and difference in exciton binding energy for light and heavy holes, are analyzed and discussed.

2.
Nano Lett ; 2020 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32134676

RESUMO

Epitaxial growth of a protective semiconductor shell on a colloidal quantum dot (QD) core is the key strategy for achieving high fluorescence quantum efficiency and essential stability for optoelectronic applications and biotagging with emissive QDs. Herein we investigate the effect of shell growth rate on the structure and optical properties in blue-emitting ZnSe/ZnS QDs with narrow emission line width. Tuning the precursor reactivity modifies the growth mode of ZnS shells on ZnSe cores transforming from kinetic (fast) to thermodynamic (slow) growth regimes. In the thermodynamic growth regime, enhanced fluorescence quantum yields and reduced on-off blinking are achieved. This high performance is ascribed to the effective avoidance of traps at the interface between the core and the shell, which are detrimental to the emission properties. Our study points to a general strategy to obtain high-quality core/shell QDs with enhanced optical properties through controlled reactivity yielding shell growth in the thermodynamic limit.

3.
J Control Release ; 318: 145-157, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31830540

RESUMO

Quantum dots offer superior optical features and hold a great potential as an imaging tool in comparison to 'conventional' fluorescent dyes. However, in vivo application in inflammatory-associated disorders is limited due to potential toxicity following systemic administration. Vascular inflammation contributes to cardiovascular diseases such as restenosis (re-narrowing of the artery following angioplasty), and poor prognosis is associated with the increased number of monocytes-derived macrophages (MDMs) in the arterial wall. Local administration of a suitable delivery system targeting MDMs could provide effective fluorescent imaging while minimizing systemic exposure and toxicity. We report here on the physicochemical characteristics and the structural stability of MDMs-targeted liposomal QDs (LipQDs), cellular uptake and cytotoxicity, the systemic biodistribution of LipQDs following local intra-luminal administration of LipQDs in carotid-injured rats vs. systemic administration, and imaging of QDs in the arterial tissue. The local treatment with LipQDs was found to be a suitable approach for targeting QDs to MDMs in the injured artery. In contrast to free QDs, the LipQDs formulation exhibited unique properties including structural and fluorescent stability, increased accumulation and retention for up to 24 h, and targeting properties enabling imaging of MDMs. MDMs imaging by targeted nanoparticles (NPs) could potentially serve for the detection of MDMs density in the injured artery for diagnostic purposes.

4.
J Chem Phys ; 151(22): 224501, 2019 Dec 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31837660

RESUMO

Coupled colloidal quantum dot molecules composed of two fused CdSe/CdS core/shell sphere monomers were recently presented. Upon fusion, the potential energy landscape changes into two quantum dots separated by a pretuned potential barrier with energetics dictated by the conduction and valence band offsets of the core/shell semiconductors and the width controlled by the shell thickness and the fusion reaction conditions. In close proximity of the two nanocrystals, orbital hybridization occurs, forming bonding and antibonding states in analogy to the hydrogen molecule. In this study, we examine theoretically the electronic and optical signatures of such a quantum dot dimer compared to its monomer core/shell building-blocks. We examine the effects of different core sizes, barrier widths, different band offsets, and neck sizes at the interface of the fused facets on the system wave-functions and energetics. Due to the higher effective mass of the hole and the large valence band offset, the hole still essentially resides in either of the cores, breaking the symmetry of the potential for the electron as well. We found that the dimer signature is well expressed in a red shift of the band gap both in absorption and emission, in slower radiative lifetimes and in an absorption cross section which is significantly enhanced relative to the monomers at energies above the shell absorption onset, while remains essentially at the same level near the band-edge. This study provides essential guidance to predesign of coupled quantum dot molecules with specific attributes which can be utilized for various new opto-electronic applications.

5.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 5401, 2019 12 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31844043

RESUMO

Coupling of atoms is the basis of chemistry, yielding the beauty and richness of molecules. We utilize semiconductor nanocrystals as artificial atoms to form nanocrystal molecules that are structurally and electronically coupled. CdSe/CdS core/shell nanocrystals are linked to form dimers which are then fused via constrained oriented attachment. The possible nanocrystal facets in which such fusion takes place are analyzed with atomic resolution revealing the distribution of possible crystal fusion scenarios. Coherent coupling and wave-function hybridization are manifested by a redshift of the band gap, in agreement with quantum mechanical simulations. Single nanoparticle spectroscopy unravels the attributes of coupled nanocrystal dimers related to the unique combination of quantum mechanical tunneling and energy transfer mechanisms. This sets the stage for nanocrystal chemistry to yield a diverse selection of coupled nanocrystal molecules constructed from controlled core/shell nanocrystal building blocks. These are of direct relevance for numerous applications in displays, sensing, biological tagging and emerging quantum technologies.

6.
ACS Nano ; 13(9): 10826-10834, 2019 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31487452

RESUMO

We report a solution for the challenge of having luminescence and metal conductivity from the same material. The fabrication of a hybrid metal-conductive luminescent film that manifests this dual property is described: the conductivity arising from a continuous gold thin film structure and luminescence originating from the embedded fluorescent emitters (nanoparticles of silica-coated CdSe/CdS quantum dots (QD/SiO2 NPs)). The embedding of the QD/SiO2 NPs is performed via a self-templating gold electroless process. The presence of the insulating silica layer on the QDs avoids quenching and enables luminescence, while still allowing plasmonic coupling of the QDs, as observed by luminescence lifetime analysis and by surface-enhanced Raman scattering. The potential applications of this special dual functionality are demonstrated by its used as a temperature probe: Passing current (heating the gold thin film) affects the emission intensity and induces a spectral red-shift of the QD/SiO2 NPs. All properties of this metal-conductive luminescent film required the special embedding architecture and are not observed with simple adsorption of QD/SiO2 NPs on a continuous Au film.

7.
Nano Lett ; 19(9): 5844-5852, 2019 09 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31424944

RESUMO

The majority of developed and approved anticancer nanomedicines have been designed to exploit the dogma of the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect, which is based on the leakiness of the tumor's blood vessels accompanied by impeded lymphatic drainage. However, the EPR effect has been under scrutiny recently because of its variable manifestation across tumor types and animal species and its poor translation to human cancer therapy. To facilitate the EPR effect, systemically injected NPs should overcome the obstacle of rapid recognition and elimination by the mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS). We hypothesized that circulating monocytes, major cells of the MPS that infiltrate the tumor, may serve as an alternative method for achieving increased tumor accumulation of NPs, independent of the EPR effect. We describe here the accumulation of liposomal quantum dots (LipQDs) designed for active delivery via monocytes, in comparison to LipQDs designed for passive delivery (via the EPR effect), following IV administration in a mammary carcinoma model. Hydrophilic QDs were synthesized and entrapped in functionalized liposomes, conferring passive ("stealth" NPs; PEGylated, neutral charge) and active (monocyte-mediated delivery; positively charged) properties by differing in their lipid composition, membrane PEGylation, and charge (positively, negatively, and neutrally charged). The various physicochemical parameters affecting the entrapment yield and optical stability were examined in vitro and in vivo. Biodistribution in the blood, various organs, and in the tumor was determined by the fluorescence intensity and Cd analyses. Following the treatment of animals (intact and mammary-carcinoma-bearing mice) with disparate formulations of LipQDs (differing by their lipid composition, neutrally and positively charged surfaces, and hydrophilic membrane), we demonstrate comparable tumor uptake of QDs delivered by the passive and the active routes (mainly by Ly-6Chi monocytes). Our findings suggest that entrapping QDs in nanosized liposomal formulations, prepared by a new facile method, imparts superior structural and optical stability and a suitable biodistribution profile leading to increased tumor uptake of fluorescently stable QDs.


Assuntos
Lipossomos/farmacologia , Neoplasias Mamárias Animais/tratamento farmacológico , Sistema Fagocitário Mononuclear/química , Pontos Quânticos/química , Animais , Vasos Sanguíneos/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Feminino , Humanos , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Lipídeos/química , Lipídeos/farmacologia , Lipossomos/química , Neoplasias Mamárias Animais/patologia , Camundongos , Nanomedicina , Células Neoplásicas Circulantes , Permeabilidade/efeitos dos fármacos
8.
Nanoscale ; 11(23): 11209-11216, 2019 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31157812

RESUMO

Semiconductor nanocrystals have been shown to have unique advantages over traditional organic photoinitiators for polymerization in solution. However, efficient photoinitiation with such nanoparticles in solvent-free and additive-free formulations so far has not been achieved. Herein, the ability to use semiconductor nanocrystals for efficient bulk polymerization as sole initiators is reported, operating under modern UV-blue-LED light sources found in 3D printers and other photocuring applications. Hybrid semiconductor-metal nanorods exhibit superior photoinitiation capability to their pristine semiconductor counterparts, attributed to the enhanced charge separation and oxygen consumption in such systems. Moreover, photoinitiation by semiconductor nanocrystals overcoated by inorganic ligands is reported, thus increasing the scope of possible applications and shedding light on the photoinitiation mechanism; in light of the results, two possible pathways are discussed - ligand-mediated and cation-coordinated oxidation. A demonstration of the unique attributes of the quantum photoinitiators is reported in their use for high-resolution two-photon printing of optically fluorescing microstructures, demonstrating a multi-functionality capability. The bulk polymerization demonstrated here can be advantageous over solvent based methods as it alleviates the need of post-polymerization drying and reduces waste and exposure to toxic solvents, as well as broadens the possible use of quantum photoinitiators for industrial and research uses.

9.
Adv Mater ; 31(25): e1900781, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31063615

RESUMO

Quasi-1D colloidal semiconductor nanorods (NRs) are at the forefront of nanoparticle (NP) research owing to their intriguing size-dependent and shape-dependent optical and electronic properties. The past decade has witnessed significant advances in both fundamental understanding of the growth mechanisms and applications of these stimulating materials. Herein, the state-of-the-art of colloidal semiconductor NRs is reviewed, with special emphasis on heavy-metal-free materials. The main growth mechanisms of heavy-metal-free colloidal semiconductor NRs are first elaborated, including anisotropic-controlled growth, oriented attachment, solution-liquid-solid method, and cation exchange. Then, structural engineering and properties of semiconductor NRs are discussed, with a comprehensive overview of core/shell structures, alloying, and doping, as well as semiconductor-metal hybrid nanostructures, followed by highlighted practical applications in terms of photocatalysis, photodetectors, solar cells, and biomedicine. Finally, challenges and future opportunities in this fascinating research area are proposed.

10.
Chemistry ; 25(38): 9012-9016, 2019 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31081977

RESUMO

DNA nanostructures provide a powerful platform for the programmable assembly of nanomaterials. Here, this approach is extended to semiconductor nanorods that possess interesting electrical properties and could be utilized for the bottom-up fabrication of nanoelectronic building blocks. The assembly scheme is based on an efficient DNA functionalization of the nanorods. A complete coverage of the rod surface with DNA ensures a high colloidal stability while maintaining the rod size and shape. It furthermore supports the assembly of the nanorods at defined docking positions of a DNA origami platform with binding efficiencies of up to 90 % as well as the formation of nanorod dimers with defined relative orientations. By incorporating orthogonal binding sites for gold nanoparticles, defined metal-semiconductor heterostructures can be fabricated. Subsequent application of a seeded growth procedure onto the gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) allows for to establish a direct metal-semiconductor interface as a crucial basis for the integration of semiconductors in self-assembled nanoelectronic devices.

11.
Science ; 363(6428): 731-735, 2019 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30765565

RESUMO

Structural transformations in molecules and solids have generally been studied in isolation, whereas intermediate systems have eluded characterization. We show that a pair of cadmium sulfide (CdS) cluster isomers provides an advantageous experimental platform to study isomerization in well-defined, atomically precise systems. The clusters coherently interconvert over an ~1-electron volt energy barrier with a 140-milli-electron volt shift in their excitonic energy gaps. There is a diffusionless, displacive reconfiguration of the inorganic core (solid-solid transformation) with first order (isomerization-like) transformation kinetics. Driven by a distortion of the ligand-binding motifs, the presence of hydroxyl species changes the surface energy via physisorption, which determines "phase" stability in this system. This reaction possesses essential characteristics of both solid-solid transformations and molecular isomerizations and bridges these disparate length scales.

12.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2, 2019 01 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30602734

RESUMO

Semiconductor heterostructure nanocrystals, especially with core/shell architectures, are important for numerous applications. Here we show that by decreasing the shell growth rate the morphology of ZnS shells on ZnSe quantum rods can be tuned from flat to islands-like, which decreases the interfacial strain energy. Further reduced growth speed, approaching the thermodynamic limit, leads to coherent shell growth forming unique helical-shell morphology. This reveals a template-free mechanism for induced chirality at the nanoscale. The helical morphology minimizes the sum of the strain and surface energy and maintains band gap emission due to its coherent core/shell interface without traps, unlike the other morphologies. Reaching the thermodynamic controlled growth regime for colloidal semiconductor core/shell nanocrystals thus offers morphologies with clear impact on their applicative potential.

13.
J Am Chem Soc ; 140(44): 14627-14637, 2018 11 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30160101

RESUMO

Semiconductor nanocrystals serve as outstanding model systems for studying quantum confined size and shape effects. Shape control is an important knob for controlling their properties but so far it has been well developed mainly for heavy-metal containing semiconductor nanocrystals, limiting their further widespread utilization. Herein, we report a synthesis of heavy-metal free ZnSe nanocrystals with shape and size control through utilization of well-defined molecular clusters. In this approach, ZnSe nanowires are synthesized and their length and shape control is achieved by introduction of controlled amounts of molecular clusters. As a result of [Zn4(SPh)10](Me4N)2 clusters (Zn4 clusters) addition, short ZnSe nanorods or ZnSe nanodots can be obtained through tuning the ratio of Zn4 clusters to ZnSe. A study using transmission electron microscopy revealed the formation of a hybrid inorganic-organic nanowire, whereby the ligands form a template for self-assembly of ZnSe magic size clusters. The hybrid nanowire template becomes shorter and eventually disappears upon increasing amount of Zn4 clusters in the reaction. The generality of the method is demonstrated by using isostructural [Cu4(SPh)6](Me4N)2 clusters, which presented a new approach to Cu doped ZnSe nanocrystals and provided also a unique opportunity to employ X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy for deciphering the changes in the local atomic-scale environment of the clusters and explaining their role in the process of the nanorods formation. Overall, the introduction of molecular clusters presented here opens a path for growth of colloidal semiconductor nanorods, expanding the palette of materials selection with obvious implications for optoelectronic and biomedical applications.

14.
Nano Lett ; 18(8): 5211-5216, 2018 08 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29985622

RESUMO

Hybrid semiconductor-metal nanoparticles (HNPs) manifest unique, synergistic electronic and optical properties as a result of combining semiconductor and metal physics via a controlled interface. These structures can exhibit spatial charge separation across the semiconductor-metal junction upon light absorption, enabling their use as photocatalysts. The combination of the photocatalytic activity of the metal domain with the ability to generate and accommodate multiple excitons in the semiconducting domain can lead to improved photocatalytic performance because injecting multiple charge carriers into the active catalytic sites can increase the quantum yield. Herein, we show a significant metal domain size dependence of the charge carrier dynamics as well as the photocatalytic hydrogen generation efficiencies under nonlinear excitation conditions. An understanding of this size dependence allows one to control the charge carrier dynamics following the absorption of light. Using a model hybrid semiconductor-metal CdS-Au nanorod system and combining transient absorption and hydrogen evolution kinetics, we reveal faster and more efficient charge separation and transfer under multiexciton excitation conditions for large metal domains compared to small ones. Theoretical modeling uncovers a competition between the kinetics of Auger recombination and charge separation. A crossover in the dominant process from Auger recombination to charge separation as the metal domain size increases allows for effective multiexciton dissociation and harvesting in large metal domain HNPs. This was also found to lead to relative improvement of their photocatalytic activity under nonlinear excitation conditions.

15.
Adv Mater ; 30(41): e1706697, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29656489

RESUMO

Hybrid semiconductor-metal nanoparticles (HNPs) manifest unique combined and often synergetic properties stemming from the materials combination. These structures exhibit spatial charge separation across the semiconductor-metal junction upon light absorption, enabling their use as photocatalysts. So far, the main impetus of photocatalysis research in HNPs addresses their functionality in solar fuel generation. Recently, it was discovered that HNPs are functional in efficient photocatalytic generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). This has opened the path for their implementation in diverse biomedical and industrial applications where high spatially temporally resolved ROS formation is essential. Here, the latest studies on the synergistic characteristics of HNPs are summarized, including their optical, electrical, and chemical properties and their photocatalytic function in the field of solar fuel generation is briefly discussed. Recent studies are then focused concerning photocatalytic ROS formation with HNPs under aerobic conditions. The emergent applications of this capacity are then highlighted, including light-induced modulation of enzymatic activity, photodynamic therapy, antifouling, wound healing, and as novel photoinitiators for 3D-printing. The superb photophysical and photocatalytic properties of HNPs offer already clear advantages for their utility in scenarios requiring on-demand light-induced radical formation and the full potential of HNPs in this context is yet to be revealed.


Assuntos
Pontos Quânticos , Animais , Catálise , Humanos , Processos Fotoquímicos , Pontos Quânticos/química
16.
J Am Chem Soc ; 140(10): 3652-3662, 2018 03 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29376343

RESUMO

Magic-sized clusters (MSCs) are renowned for their identical size and closed-shell stability that inhibit conventional nanoparticle (NP) growth processes. Though MSCs have been of increasing interest, understanding the reaction pathways toward their nucleation and stabilization is an outstanding issue. In this work, we demonstrate that high concentration synthesis (1000 mM) promotes a well-defined reaction pathway to form high-purity MSCs (>99.9%). The MSCs are resistant to typical growth and dissolution processes. On the basis of insights from in situ X-ray scattering analysis, we attribute this stability to the accompanying production of a large (>100 nm grain size), hexagonal organic-inorganic mesophase that arrests growth of the MSCs and prevents NP growth. At intermediate concentrations (500 mM), the MSC mesophase forms, but is unstable, resulting in NP growth at the expense of the assemblies. These results provide an alternate explanation for the high stability of MSCs. Whereas the conventional mantra has been that the stability of MSCs derives from the precise arrangement of the inorganic structures (i.e., closed-shell atomic packing), we demonstrate that anisotropic clusters can also be stabilized by self-forming fibrous mesophase assemblies. At lower concentration (<200 mM or >16 acid-to-metal), MSCs are further destabilized and NPs formation dominates that of MSCs. Overall, the high concentration approach intensifies and showcases inherent concentration-dependent surfactant phase behavior that is not accessible in conventional (i.e., dilute) conditions. This work provides not only a robust method to synthesize, stabilize, and study identical MSC products but also uncovers an underappreciated stabilizing interaction between surfactants and clusters.

17.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 57(16): 4274-4295, 2018 04 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28975692

RESUMO

Colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals (SCNCs) or, more broadly, colloidal quantum nanostructures constitute outstanding model systems for investigating size and dimensionality effects. Their nanoscale dimensions lead to quantum confinement effects that enable tuning of their optical and electronic properties. Thus, emission color control with narrow photoluminescence spectra, wide absorbance spectra, and outstanding photostability, combined with their chemical processability through control of their surface chemistry leads to the emergence of SCNCs as outstanding materials for present and next-generation displays. In this Review, we present the fundamental chemical and physical properties of SCNCs, followed by a description of the advantages of different colloidal quantum nanostructures for display applications. The open challenges with respect to their optical activity are addressed. Both photoluminescent and electroluminescent display scenarios utilizing SCNCs are described.

18.
ACS Nano ; 11(7): 7312-7320, 2017 07 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28654241

RESUMO

For visible range emitting particles, which are relevant for display and additional applications, Cd-chalcogenide nanocrystals have reached the highest degree of control and performance. Considering potential toxicity and regulatory limitations, there is a challenge to successfully develop Cd-free emitting nanocrystals and, in particular, heterostructures with desirable properties. Herein, we report a colloidal synthesis of fluorescent heavy-metal-free Zn-chalcogenide semiconductor nanodumbbells (NDBs), in which ZnSe tips were selectively grown on the apexes of ZnTe rods, as evidenced by a variety of methods. The fluorescence of the NDBs can be tuned between ∼500 and 585 nm by changing the ZnSe tip size. The emission quantum yield can be greatly increased through chloride surface treatment and reaches more than 30%. Simulations within an effective-mass-based model show that the hole wave function is spread over the ZnTe nanorods, while the electron wave function is localized on the ZnSe tips. Quantitative agreement for the red-shifted emission wavelength is obtained between the simulations and the experiments. Additionally, the changes in radiative lifetimes correlate well with the calculated decrease in electron-hole overlap upon growth of larger ZnSe tips. The heavy-metal-free ZnTe/ZnSe NDBs may be relevant for optoelectronic applications such as displays or light-emitting diodes.

19.
Nano Lett ; 17(7): 4497-4501, 2017 07 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28617606

RESUMO

Additive manufacturing processes enable fabrication of complex and functional three-dimensional (3D) objects ranging from engine parts to artificial organs. Photopolymerization, which is the most versatile technology enabling such processes through 3D printing, utilizes photoinitiators that break into radicals upon light absorption. We report on a new family of photoinitiators for 3D printing based on hybrid semiconductor-metal nanoparticles. Unlike conventional photoinitiators that are consumed upon irradiation, these particles form radicals through a photocatalytic process. Light absorption by the semiconductor nanorod is followed by charge separation and electron transfer to the metal tip, enabling redox reactions to form radicals in aerobic conditions. In particular, we demonstrate their use in 3D printing in water, where they simultaneously form hydroxyl radicals for the polymerization and consume dissolved oxygen that is a known inhibitor. We also demonstrate their potential for two-photon polymerization due to their giant two-photon absorption cross section.

20.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 56(35): 10335-10340, 2017 08 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28639731

RESUMO

Doping of nanocrystals (NCs) is a key, yet underexplored, approach for tuning of the electronic properties of semiconductors. An important route for doping of NCs is by vacancy formation. The size and concentration dependence of doping was studied in copper(I) sulfide (Cu2 S) NCs through a redox reaction with iodine molecules (I2 ), which formed vacancies accompanied by a localized surface plasmon response. X-ray spectroscopy and diffraction reveal transformation from Cu2 S to Cu-depleted phases, along with CuI formation. Greater reaction efficiency was observed for larger NCs. This behavior is attributed to interplay of the vacancy formation energy, which decreases for smaller sized NCs, and the growth of CuI on the NC surface, which is favored on well-defined facets of larger NCs. This doping process allows tuning of the plasmonic properties of a semiconductor across a wide range of plasmonic frequencies by varying the size of NCs and the concentration of iodine. Controlled vacancy doping of NCs may be used to tune and tailor semiconductors for use in optoelectronic applications.

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