Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 54
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
J Med Genet ; 2019 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31548214

RESUMO

Socioeconomic status (SES) is a major determinant of health. We studied the Index of Multiple Deprivation Rank of 473 families with individuals with pathogenic autosomal copy number variants (CNVs) and known inheritance status. The IMDR distribution of families with pathogenic CNVs was significantly different from the general population. Families with inherited CNVs were significantly more likely to be living in areas of higher deprivation when compared with families that had individuals with de novo CNVs. These results provide unique insights into biological determinants of SES. As CNVs are relatively frequent in the general population, these results have important medical and policy consequences.

2.
Am J Med Genet A ; 179(10): 2049-2055, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31400068

RESUMO

Histone Gene Cluster 1 Member E, HIST1H1E, encodes Histone H1.4, is one of a family of epigenetic regulator genes, acts as a linker histone protein, and is responsible for higher order chromatin structure. HIST1H1E syndrome (also known as Rahman syndrome, OMIM #617537) is a recently described intellectual disability (ID) syndrome. Since the initial description of five unrelated individuals with three different heterozygous protein-truncating variants (PTVs) in the HIST1H1E gene in 2017, we have recruited 30 patients, all with HIST1H1E PTVs that result in the same shift in frame and that cluster to a 94-base pair region in the HIST1H1E carboxy terminal domain. The identification of 30 patients with HIST1H1E variants has allowed the clarification of the HIST1H1E syndrome phenotype. Major findings include an ID and a recognizable facial appearance. ID was reported in all patients and is most frequently of moderate severity. The facial gestalt consists of a high frontal hairline and full lower cheeks in early childhood and, in later childhood and adulthood, affected individuals have a strikingly high frontal hairline, frontal bossing, and deep-set eyes. Other associated clinical features include hypothyroidism, abnormal dentition, behavioral issues, cryptorchidism, skeletal anomalies, and cardiac anomalies. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is frequently abnormal with a slender corpus callosum a frequent finding.

3.
J Inherit Metab Dis ; 42(5): 809-817, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31177572

RESUMO

The first step in branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) catabolism is catalyzed by the two BCAA transferase isoenzymes, cytoplasmic branched-chain amino acid transferase (BCAT) 1, and mitochondrial BCAT2. Defects in the second step of BCAA catabolism cause maple syrup urine disease (MSUD), a condition which has been far more extensively investigated. Here, we studied the consequences of BCAT2 deficiency, an ultra-rare condition in humans. We present genetic, clinical, and functional data in five individuals from four different families with homozygous or compound heterozygous BCAT2 mutations which were all detected following abnormal biochemical profile results or familial mutation segregation studies. We demonstrate that BCAT2 deficiency has a recognizable biochemical profile with raised plasma BCAAs and, in contrast with MSUD, low-normal branched-chain keto acids (BCKAs) with undetectable l-allo-isoleucine. Interestingly, unlike in MSUD, none of the individuals with BCAT2 deficiency developed acute encephalopathy even with exceptionally high BCAA levels. We observed wide-ranging clinical phenotypes in individuals with BCAT2 deficiency. While one adult was apparently asymptomatic, three individuals had presented with developmental delay and autistic features. We show that the biochemical characteristics of BCAT2 deficiency may be amenable to protein-restricted diet and that early treatment may improve outcome in affected individuals. BCAT2 deficiency is an inborn error of BCAA catabolism. At present, it is unclear whether developmental delay and autism are parts of the variable phenotypic spectrum of this condition or coincidental. Further studies will be required to explore this.

4.
Brain ; 142(6): 1547-1560, 2019 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31081514

RESUMO

Next generation sequencing techniques were recently used to show mutations in COL13A1 cause synaptic basal lamina-associated congenital myasthenic syndrome type 19. Animal studies showed COL13A1, a synaptic extracellular-matrix protein, is involved in the formation and maintenance of the neuromuscular synapse that appears independent of the Agrin-LRP4-MuSK-DOK7 acetylcholine receptor clustering pathway. Here, we report the phenotypic spectrum of 16 patients from 11 kinships harbouring homozygous or heteroallelic mutations in COL13A1. Clinical presentation was mostly at birth with hypotonia and breathing and feeding difficulties often requiring ventilation and artificial feeding. Respiratory crisis related to recurrent apnoeas, sometimes triggered by chest infections, were common early in life but resolved over time. The predominant pattern of muscle weakness included bilateral ptosis (non-fatigable in adulthood), myopathic facies and marked axial weakness, especially of neck flexion, while limb muscles were less involved. Other features included facial dysmorphism, skeletal abnormalities and mild learning difficulties. All patients tested had results consistent with abnormal neuromuscular transmission. Muscle biopsies were within normal limits or showed non-specific changes. Muscle MRI and serum creatine kinase levels were normal. In keeping with COL13A1 mutations affecting both synaptic structure and presynaptic function, treatment with 3,4-diaminopyridine and salbutamol resulted in motor and respiratory function improvement. In non-treated cases, disease severity and muscle strength improved gradually over time and several adults recovered normal muscle strength in the limbs. In summary, patients with COL13A1 mutations present mostly with severe early-onset myasthenic syndrome with feeding and breathing difficulties. Axial weakness is greater than limb weakness. Disease course improves gradually over time, which could be consistent with the less prominent role of COL13A1 once the neuromuscular junction is mature. This report emphasizes the role of collagens at the human muscle endplate and should facilitate the recognition of this disorder, which can benefit from pharmacological treatment.

5.
Clin Genet ; 96(1): 72-84, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31001818

RESUMO

Variants in the chromodomain helicase DNA-binding protein 8 (CHD8) have been associated with intellectual disability (ID), autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and overgrowth and CHD8 is one of the causative genes for OGID (overgrowth and ID). We investigated 25 individuals with CHD8 protein truncating variants (PTVs), including 10 previously unreported patients and found a male to female ratio of 2.7:1 (19:7) and a pattern of common features: macrocephaly (62.5%), tall stature (47%), developmental delay and/or intellectual disability (81%), ASDs (84%), sleep difficulties (50%), gastrointestinal problems (40%), and distinct facial features. Most of the individuals in this cohort had moderate-to-severe ID, some had regression of speech (37%), seizures (27%) and hypotonia (27%) and two individuals were non-ambulant. Our study shows that haploinsufficiency of CHD8 is associated with a distinctive OGID syndrome with pronounced autistic traits and supports a sex-dependent penetrance of CHD8 PTVs in humans.

6.
Am J Med Genet A ; 179(6): 1058-1062, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30892814

RESUMO

CREBBP loss-of function variants cause Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome (RTS). There have been two separate reports of patients with missense variants in exon 30 or 31 of CREBBP in individuals lacking the characteristic facial and limb dysmorphism associated with RTS. Frequent features in this condition include variable intellectual disability, short stature, autistic behavior, microcephaly, feeding problems, epilepsy, recurrent upper airway infections, and mild hearing impairment. We report three further patients with de novo exon 31 CREBBP missense variants. The first individual has a c.5357G>A p. (Arg1786His) variant affecting the same codon as one of the previously described patients. Both these patients could be recognized by clinicians as mild RTS. Our second patient has a c.5602C>T p.(Arg1868Trp) variant that has been described in five other individuals who all share a strikingly similar phenotype. The third individual has a novel c.5354G>A p.(Cys1785Try) variant. Our reports expand the clinical spectrum to include ventriculomegaly, absent corpus callosum, staphyloma, cochlear malformations, and exomphalos. These additional cases also help to establish genotype-phenotype correlations in this disorder. After the first and last authors of the previous two reports, we propose to call this disorder "Menke-Hennekam syndrome" to establish it as a clinical entity distinct from RTS and to provide a satisfactory name for adoption by parents and professionals, thus facilitating appropriate clinical management and research.

8.
Am J Med Genet A ; 179(3): 507-511, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30624022

RESUMO

Pathogenic CDKL5 variants cause an X-linked dominant infantile epileptic encephalopathy, predominantly in females. This condition is characterized by an early-onset severe mixed seizure disorder. We present a maternally inherited frameshift CDKL5 c.2809_2810insA p.(Cys937Ter) variant in a 13-year-old male with severe intellectual disability and late-onset generalized epilepsy. Interestingly, the variant segregation in the family is consistent with an X-linked recessive inheritance pattern, which has not previously been described with this gene. This variant is expected to result in truncation of some CDKL5 transcripts, which could potentially account for the later seizure onset and atypical inheritance pattern. Though the possibility of this variant not being causal cannot be completely excluded, this case adds to the variability of the documented phenotypic profile and to the debate around the role of C-terminus variants in CDKL5-related disease.

9.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 27(5): 747-759, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30664714

RESUMO

CYFIP2, encoding the evolutionary highly conserved cytoplasmic FMRP interacting protein 2, has previously been proposed as a candidate gene for intellectual disability and autism because of its important role linking FMRP-dependent transcription regulation and actin polymerization via the WAVE regulatory complex (WRC). Recently, de novo variants affecting the amino acid p.Arg87 of CYFIP2 were reported in four individuals with epileptic encephalopathy. We here report 12 independent patients harboring a variety of de novo variants in CYFIP2 broadening the molecular and clinical spectrum of a novel CYFIP2-related neurodevelopmental disorder. Using trio whole-exome or -genome sequencing, we identified 12 independent patients carrying a total of eight distinct de novo variants in CYFIP2 with a shared phenotype of intellectual disability, seizures, and muscular hypotonia. We detected seven different missense variants, of which two occurred recurrently (p.(Arg87Cys) and p.(Ile664Met)), and a splice donor variant in the last intron for which we showed exon skipping in the transcript. The latter is expected to escape nonsense-mediated mRNA decay resulting in a truncated protein. Despite the large spacing in the primary structure, the variants spatially cluster in the tertiary structure and are all predicted to weaken the interaction with WAVE1 or NCKAP1 of the actin polymerization regulating WRC-complex. Preliminary genotype-phenotype correlation indicates a profound phenotype in p.Arg87 substitutions and a more variable phenotype in other alterations. This study evidenced a variety of de novo variants in CYFIP2 as a novel cause of mostly severe intellectual disability with seizures and muscular hypotonia.

10.
J Med Genet ; 2018 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30514738

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Kabuki syndrome (KS) is a clinically recognisable syndrome in which 70% of patients have a pathogenic variant in KMT2D or KDM6A. Understanding the function of these genes opens the door to targeted therapies. The purpose of this report is to propose diagnostic criteria for KS, particularly when molecular genetic testing is equivocal. METHODS: An international group of experts created consensus diagnostic criteria for KS. Systematic PubMed searches returned 70 peer-reviewed publications in which at least one individual with molecularly confirmed KS was reported. The clinical features of individuals with known mutations were reviewed. RESULTS: The authors propose that a definitive diagnosis can be made in an individual of any age with a history of infantile hypotonia, developmental delay and/or intellectual disability, and one or both of the following major criteria: (1) a pathogenic or likely pathogenic variant in KMT2D or KDM6A; and (2) typical dysmorphic features (defined below) at some point of life. Typical dysmorphic features include long palpebral fissures with eversion of the lateral third of the lower eyelid and two or more of the following: (1) arched and broad eyebrows with the lateral third displaying notching or sparseness; (2) short columella with depressed nasal tip; (3) large, prominent or cupped ears; and (4) persistent fingertip pads. Further criteria for a probable and possible diagnosis, including a table of suggestive clinical features, are presented. CONCLUSION: As targeted therapies for KS are being developed, it is important to be able to make the correct diagnosis, either with or without molecular genetic confirmation.

11.
J Hum Genet ; 2018 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30459467

RESUMO

Determining the clinical significance of germline and somatic KMT2D missense variants (MVs) in Kabuki syndrome (KS) and cancers can be challenging. We analysed 1920 distinct KMT2D MVs that included 1535 germline MVs in controls (Control-MVs), 584 somatic MVs in cancers (Cancer-MVs) and 201 MV in individuals with KS (KS-MVs). The proportion of MVs likely to affect splicing was significantly higher for Cancer-MVs and KS-MVs than in Control-MVs (p = 0.000018). Our analysis identified significant clustering of Cancer-MVs and KS-MVs in the PHD#3 and #4, RING#4 and SET domains. Areas of enrichment restricted to just Cancer-MVs (FYR-C and between amino acids 3043-3248) or KS-MVs (coiled-coil#5, FYR-N and between amino acids 4995-5090) were also found. Cancer-MVs and KS-MVs tended to affect more conserved residues (lower BLOSUM scores, p < 0.001 and p = 0.007). KS-MVs are more likely to increase the energy for protein folding (higher ELASPIC ∆∆G scores, p = 0.03). Cancer-MVs are more likely to disrupt protein interactions (higher StructMAn scores, p = 0.019). We reclassify several presumed pathogenic MVs as benign or as variants of uncertain significance. We raise the possibility of as yet unrecognised 'non-KS' phenotype(s) associated with some germline pathogenic KMT2D MVs. Overall, this work provides insights into the disease mechanism of KMT2D variants and can be extended to other genes, mutations in which also cause developmental syndromes and cancer.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30159147

RESUMO

Wiedemann-Steiner Syndrome (WSS) is a rare condition characterised by short stature, hypertrichosis of the elbow, intellectual disability and characteristic facial dysmorphism due to heterozygous loss of function mutations in KMT2A, a gene encoding a histone 3 lysine 4 methyltransferase. Children with WSS are often short and until recently, it had been assumed that short stature is an intrinsic part of the syndrome. GHD has recently been reported as part of the phenotypic spectrum of WSS. We describe the case of an 8-year-old boy with a novel heterozygous variant in KMT2A and features consistent with a diagnosis of WSS who also had growth hormone deficiency (GHD). GHD was diagnosed on dynamic function testing for growth hormone (GH) secretion, low insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) levels and pituitary-specific MRI demonstrating anterior pituitary hypoplasia and an ectopic posterior pituitary. Treatment with GH improved height performance with growth trajectory being normalised to the parental height range. Our case highlights the need for GH testing in children with WSS and short stature as treatment with GH improves growth trajectory. Learning points: Growth hormone deficiency might be part of the phenotypic spectrum of Wiedemann-Steiner Syndrome (WSS).Investigation of pituitary function should be undertaken in children with WSS and short stature. A pituitary MR scan should be considered if there is biochemical evidence of growth hormone deficiency (GHD).Recombinant human growth hormone treatment should be considered for treatment of GHD.

13.
Am J Hum Genet ; 102(1): 175-187, 2018 01 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29276005

RESUMO

Histone lysine methyltransferases (KMTs) and demethylases (KDMs) underpin gene regulation. Here we demonstrate that variants causing haploinsufficiency of KMTs and KDMs are frequently encountered in individuals with developmental disorders. Using a combination of human variation databases and existing animal models, we determine 22 KMTs and KDMs as additional candidates for dominantly inherited developmental disorders. We show that KMTs and KDMs that are associated with, or are candidates for, dominant developmental disorders tend to have a higher level of transcription, longer canonical transcripts, more interactors, and a higher number and more types of post-translational modifications than other KMT and KDMs. We provide evidence to firmly associate KMT2C, ASH1L, and KMT5B haploinsufficiency with dominant developmental disorders. Whereas KMT2C or ASH1L haploinsufficiency results in a predominantly neurodevelopmental phenotype with occasional physical anomalies, KMT5B mutations cause an overgrowth syndrome with intellectual disability. We further expand the phenotypic spectrum of KMT2B-related disorders and show that some individuals can have severe developmental delay without dystonia at least until mid-childhood. Additionally, we describe a recessive histone lysine-methylation defect caused by homozygous or compound heterozygous KDM5B variants and resulting in a recognizable syndrome with developmental delay, facial dysmorphism, and camptodactyly. Collectively, these results emphasize the significance of histone lysine methylation in normal human development and the importance of this process in human developmental disorders. Our results demonstrate that systematic clinically oriented pathway-based analysis of genomic data can accelerate the discovery of rare genetic disorders.

15.
Am J Hum Genet ; 101(6): 1021-1033, 2017 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29220674

RESUMO

ACTB encodes ß-actin, an abundant cytoskeletal housekeeping protein. In humans, postulated gain-of-function missense mutations cause Baraitser-Winter syndrome (BRWS), characterized by intellectual disability, cortical malformations, coloboma, sensorineural deafness, and typical facial features. To date, the consequences of loss-of-function ACTB mutations have not been proven conclusively. We describe heterozygous ACTB deletions and nonsense and frameshift mutations in 33 individuals with developmental delay, apparent intellectual disability, increased frequency of internal organ malformations (including those of the heart and the renal tract), growth retardation, and a recognizable facial gestalt (interrupted wavy eyebrows, dense eyelashes, wide nose, wide mouth, and a prominent chin) that is distinct from characteristics of individuals with BRWS. Strikingly, this spectrum overlaps with that of several chromatin-remodeling developmental disorders. In wild-type mouse embryos, ß-actin expression was prominent in the kidney, heart, and brain. ACTB mRNA expression levels in lymphoblastic lines and fibroblasts derived from affected individuals were decreased in comparison to those in control cells. Fibroblasts derived from an affected individual and ACTB siRNA knockdown in wild-type fibroblasts showed altered cell shape and migration, consistent with known roles of cytoplasmic ß-actin. We also demonstrate that ACTB haploinsufficiency leads to reduced cell proliferation, altered expression of cell-cycle genes, and decreased amounts of nuclear, but not cytoplasmic, ß-actin. In conclusion, we show that heterozygous loss-of-function ACTB mutations cause a distinct pleiotropic malformation syndrome with intellectual disability. Our biological studies suggest that a critically reduced amount of this protein alters cell shape, migration, proliferation, and gene expression to the detriment of brain, heart, and kidney development.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Actinas/genética , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Haploinsuficiência/genética , Actinas/biossíntese , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Ciclo Celular/genética , Proliferação de Células/genética , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Códon sem Sentido/genética , Coloboma/genética , Facies , Feminino , Mutação da Fase de Leitura/genética , Deleção de Genes , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Masculino , Malformações do Desenvolvimento Cortical/genética , Camundongos , Interferência de RNA , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , Adulto Jovem
16.
Am J Hum Genet ; 101(3): 466-477, 2017 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28886345

RESUMO

RAC1 is a widely studied Rho GTPase, a class of molecules that modulate numerous cellular functions essential for normal development. RAC1 is highly conserved across species and is under strict mutational constraint. We report seven individuals with distinct de novo missense RAC1 mutations and varying degrees of developmental delay, brain malformations, and additional phenotypes. Four individuals, each harboring one of c.53G>A (p.Cys18Tyr), c.116A>G (p.Asn39Ser), c.218C>T (p.Pro73Leu), and c.470G>A (p.Cys157Tyr) variants, were microcephalic, with head circumferences between -2.5 to -5 SD. In contrast, two individuals with c.151G>A (p.Val51Met) and c.151G>C (p.Val51Leu) alleles were macrocephalic with head circumferences of +4.16 and +4.5 SD. One individual harboring a c.190T>G (p.Tyr64Asp) allele had head circumference in the normal range. Collectively, we observed an extraordinary spread of ∼10 SD of head circumferences orchestrated by distinct mutations in the same gene. In silico modeling, mouse fibroblasts spreading assays, and in vivo overexpression assays using zebrafish as a surrogate model demonstrated that the p.Cys18Tyr and p.Asn39Ser RAC1 variants function as dominant-negative alleles and result in microcephaly, reduced neuronal proliferation, and cerebellar abnormalities in vivo. Conversely, the p.Tyr64Asp substitution is constitutively active. The remaining mutations are probably weakly dominant negative or their effects are context dependent. These findings highlight the importance of RAC1 in neuronal development. Along with TRIO and HACE1, a sub-category of rare developmental disorders is emerging with RAC1 as the central player. We show that ultra-rare disorders caused by private, non-recurrent missense mutations that result in varying phenotypes are challenging to dissect, but can be delineated through focused international collaboration.


Assuntos
Encefalopatias/genética , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Microcefalia/genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Proteínas rac1 de Ligação ao GTP/genética , Adolescente , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Encefalopatias/patologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/patologia , Embrião não Mamífero/metabolismo , Embrião não Mamífero/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Camundongos , Microcefalia/patologia , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Peixe-Zebra/genética , Peixe-Zebra/crescimento & desenvolvimento
17.
Arch Dis Child ; 102(11): 1019-1029, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28468868

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inborn errors of metabolism (IEMs) underlie a substantial proportion of paediatric disease burden but their genetic diagnosis can be challenging using the traditional approaches. METHODS: We designed and validated a next-generation sequencing (NGS) panel of 226 IEM genes, created six overlapping phenotype-based subpanels and tested 102 individuals, who presented clinically with suspected childhood-onset IEMs. RESULTS: In 51/102 individuals, NGS fully or partially established the molecular cause or identified other actionable diagnoses. Causal mutations were identified significantly more frequently when the biochemical phenotype suggested a specific IEM or a group of IEMs (p<0.0001), demonstrating the pivotal role of prior biochemical testing in guiding NGS analysis. The NGS panel helped to avoid further invasive, hazardous, lengthy or expensive investigations in 69% individuals (p<0.0001). Additional functional testing due to novel or unexpected findings had to be undertaken in only 3% of subjects, demonstrating that the use of NGS does not significantly increase the burden of subsequent follow-up testing. Even where a molecular diagnosis could not be achieved, NGS-based approach assisted in the management and counselling by reducing the likelihood of a high-penetrant genetic cause. CONCLUSION: NGS has significant clinical utility for the diagnosis of IEMs. Biochemical testing and NGS analysis play complementary roles in the diagnosis of IEMs. Incorporating NGS into the diagnostic algorithm of IEMs can improve the accuracy of diagnosis.


Assuntos
Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo/genética , Adulto Jovem
18.
Nat Genet ; 48(9): 1060-5, 2016 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27479907

RESUMO

Congenital heart defects (CHDs) have a neonatal incidence of 0.8-1% (refs. 1,2). Despite abundant examples of monogenic CHD in humans and mice, CHD has a low absolute sibling recurrence risk (∼2.7%), suggesting a considerable role for de novo mutations (DNMs) and/or incomplete penetrance. De novo protein-truncating variants (PTVs) have been shown to be enriched among the 10% of 'syndromic' patients with extra-cardiac manifestations. We exome sequenced 1,891 probands, including both syndromic CHD (S-CHD, n = 610) and nonsyndromic CHD (NS-CHD, n = 1,281). In S-CHD, we confirmed a significant enrichment of de novo PTVs but not inherited PTVs in known CHD-associated genes, consistent with recent findings. Conversely, in NS-CHD we observed significant enrichment of PTVs inherited from unaffected parents in CHD-associated genes. We identified three genome-wide significant S-CHD disorders caused by DNMs in CHD4, CDK13 and PRKD1. Our study finds evidence for distinct genetic architectures underlying the low sibling recurrence risk in S-CHD and NS-CHD.


Assuntos
Autoantígenos/genética , Proteína Quinase CDC2/genética , Cardiopatias Congênitas/genética , Complexo Mi-2 de Remodelação de Nucleossomo e Desacetilase/genética , Mutação/genética , Proteína Quinase C/genética , Proteína Quinase CDC2/química , Exoma/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Conformação Proteica , Deleção de Sequência , Síndrome
19.
Neurology ; 87(1): 77-85, 2016 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27281533

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the phenotypic spectrum associated with mutations in TBC1D24. METHODS: We acquired new clinical, EEG, and neuroimaging data of 11 previously unreported and 37 published patients. TBC1D24 mutations, identified through various sequencing methods, can be found online (http://lovd.nl/TBC1D24). RESULTS: Forty-eight patients were included (28 men, 20 women, average age 21 years) from 30 independent families. Eighteen patients (38%) had myoclonic epilepsies. The other patients carried diagnoses of focal (25%), multifocal (2%), generalized (4%), and unclassified epilepsy (6%), and early-onset epileptic encephalopathy (25%). Most patients had drug-resistant epilepsy. We detail EEG, neuroimaging, developmental, and cognitive features, treatment responsiveness, and physical examination. In silico evaluation revealed 7 different highly conserved motifs, with the most common pathogenic mutation located in the first. Neuronal outgrowth assays showed that some TBC1D24 mutations, associated with the most severe TBC1D24-associated disorders, are not necessarily the most disruptive to this gene function. CONCLUSIONS: TBC1D24-related epilepsy syndromes show marked phenotypic pleiotropy, with multisystem involvement and severity spectrum ranging from isolated deafness (not studied here), benign myoclonic epilepsy restricted to childhood with complete seizure control and normal intellect, to early-onset epileptic encephalopathy with severe developmental delay and early death. There is no distinct correlation with mutation type or location yet, but patterns are emerging. Given the phenotypic breadth observed, TBC1D24 mutation screening is indicated in a wide variety of epilepsies. A TBC1D24 consortium was formed to develop further research on this gene and its associated phenotypes.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Epilepsia/genética , Epilepsia/fisiopatologia , Animais , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Crescimento Celular , Células Cultivadas , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Eletroencefalografia , Epilepsia/diagnóstico por imagem , Epilepsia/psicologia , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Camundongos , Mutação , Neuritos/fisiologia , Exame Físico , Adulto Jovem
20.
Am J Hum Genet ; 98(5): 981-992, 2016 05 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27108798

RESUMO

Gillespie syndrome (GS) is characterized by bilateral iris hypoplasia, congenital hypotonia, non-progressive ataxia, and progressive cerebellar atrophy. Trio-based exome sequencing identified de novo mutations in ITPR1 in three unrelated individuals with GS recruited to the Deciphering Developmental Disorders study. Whole-exome or targeted sequence analysis identified plausible disease-causing ITPR1 mutations in 10/10 additional GS-affected individuals. These ultra-rare protein-altering variants affected only three residues in ITPR1: Glu2094 missense (one de novo, one co-segregating), Gly2539 missense (five de novo, one inheritance uncertain), and Lys2596 in-frame deletion (four de novo). No clinical or radiological differences were evident between individuals with different mutations. ITPR1 encodes an inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate-responsive calcium channel. The homo-tetrameric structure has been solved by cryoelectron microscopy. Using estimations of the degree of structural change induced by known recessive- and dominant-negative mutations in other disease-associated multimeric channels, we developed a generalizable computational approach to indicate the likely mutational mechanism. This analysis supports a dominant-negative mechanism for GS variants in ITPR1. In GS-derived lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs), the proportion of ITPR1-positive cells using immunofluorescence was significantly higher in mutant than control LCLs, consistent with an abnormality of nuclear calcium signaling feedback control. Super-resolution imaging supports the existence of an ITPR1-lined nucleoplasmic reticulum. Mice with Itpr1 heterozygous null mutations showed no major iris defects. Purkinje cells of the cerebellum appear to be the most sensitive to impaired ITPR1 function in humans. Iris hypoplasia is likely to result from either complete loss of ITPR1 activity or structure-specific disruption of multimeric interactions.


Assuntos
Aniridia/etiologia , Aniridia/patologia , Ataxia Cerebelar/etiologia , Ataxia Cerebelar/patologia , Genes Dominantes/genética , Receptores de Inositol 1,4,5-Trifosfato/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/etiologia , Deficiência Intelectual/patologia , Mutação/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Receptores de Inositol 1,4,5-Trifosfato/química , Linfócitos/metabolismo , Linfócitos/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Microscopia Confocal , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Linhagem , Conformação Proteica
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA