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1.
Sci Adv ; 7(20)2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33980495

RESUMO

Soft, skin-integrated electronic sensors can provide continuous measurements of diverse physiological parameters, with broad relevance to the future of human health care. Motion artifacts can, however, corrupt the recorded signals, particularly those associated with mechanical signatures of cardiopulmonary processes. Design strategies introduced here address this limitation through differential operation of a matched, time-synchronized pair of high-bandwidth accelerometers located on parts of the anatomy that exhibit strong spatial gradients in motion characteristics. When mounted at a location that spans the suprasternal notch and the sternal manubrium, these dual-sensing devices allow measurements of heart rate and sounds, respiratory activities, body temperature, body orientation, and activity level, along with swallowing, coughing, talking, and related processes, without sensitivity to ambient conditions during routine daily activities, vigorous exercises, intense manual labor, and even swimming. Deployments on patients with COVID-19 allow clinical-grade ambulatory monitoring of the key symptoms of the disease even during rehabilitation protocols.


Assuntos
Acelerometria/instrumentação , Acelerometria/métodos , Eletrocardiografia Ambulatorial/instrumentação , Eletrocardiografia Ambulatorial/métodos , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Temperatura Corporal , COVID-19 , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Monitorização Fisiológica/instrumentação , Monitorização Fisiológica/métodos , SARS-CoV-2
2.
NPJ Digit Med ; 3: 29, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32195364

RESUMO

Hydrocephalus is a common disorder caused by the buildup of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the brain. Treatment typically involves the surgical implantation of a pressure-regulated silicone tube assembly, known as a shunt. Unfortunately, shunts have extremely high failure rates and diagnosing shunt malfunction is challenging due to a combination of vague symptoms and a lack of a convenient means to monitor flow. Here, we introduce a wireless, wearable device that enables precise measurements of CSF flow, continuously or intermittently, in hospitals, laboratories or even in home settings. The technology exploits measurements of thermal transport through near-surface layers of skin to assess flow, with a soft, flexible, and skin-conformal device that can be constructed using commercially available components. Systematic benchtop studies and numerical simulations highlight all of the key considerations. Measurements on 7 patients establish high levels of functionality, with data that reveal time dependent changes in flow associated with positional and inertial effects on the body. Taken together, the results suggest a significant advance in monitoring capabilities for patients with shunted hydrocephalus, with potential for practical use across a range of settings and circumstances, and additional utility for research purposes in studies of CSF hydrodynamics.

3.
NPJ Digit Med ; 3(1): 29, 2020 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33594221

RESUMO

Hydrocephalus is a common disorder caused by the buildup of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the brain. Treatment typically involves the surgical implantation of a pressure-regulated silicone tube assembly, known as a shunt. Unfortunately, shunts have extremely high failure rates and diagnosing shunt malfunction is challenging due to a combination of vague symptoms and a lack of a convenient means to monitor flow. Here, we introduce a wireless, wearable device that enables precise measurements of CSF flow, continuously or intermittently, in hospitals, laboratories or even in home settings. The technology exploits measurements of thermal transport through near-surface layers of skin to assess flow, with a soft, flexible, and skin-conformal device that can be constructed using commercially available components. Systematic benchtop studies and numerical simulations highlight all of the key considerations. Measurements on 7 patients establish high levels of functionality, with data that reveal time dependent changes in flow associated with positional and inertial effects on the body. Taken together, the results suggest a significant advance in monitoring capabilities for patients with shunted hydrocephalus, with potential for practical use across a range of settings and circumstances, and additional utility for research purposes in studies of CSF hydrodynamics.

4.
Dis Aquat Organ ; 117(1): 59-75, 2015 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26575156

RESUMO

We report on the epidemiology of lobomycosis-like disease (LLD), a cutaneous disorder evoking lobomycosis, in 658 common bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncatus from South America and 94 Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins T. aduncus from southern Africa. Photographs and stranding records of 387 inshore residents, 60 inshore non-residents and 305 specimens of undetermined origin (inshore and offshore) were examined for the presence of LLD lesions from 2004 to 2015. Seventeen residents, 3 non-residents and 1 inshore dolphin of unknown residence status were positive. LLD lesions appeared as single or multiple, light grey to whitish nodules and plaques that may ulcerate and increase in size over time. Among resident dolphins, prevalence varied significantly among 4 communities, being low in Posorja (2.35%, n = 85), Ecuador, and high in Salinas, Ecuador (16.7%, n = 18), and Laguna, Brazil (14.3%, n = 42). LLD prevalence increased in 36 T. truncatus from Laguna from 5.6% in 2007-2009 to 13.9% in 2013-2014, albeit not significantly. The disease has persisted for years in dolphins from Mayotte, Laguna, Salinas, the Sanquianga National Park and Bahía Málaga (Colombia) but vanished from the Tramandaí Estuary and the Mampituba River (Brazil). The geographical range of LLD has expanded in Brazil, South Africa and Ecuador, in areas that have been regularly surveyed for 10 to 35 yr. Two of the 21 LLD-affected dolphins were found dead with extensive lesions in southern Brazil, and 2 others disappeared, and presumably died, in Ecuador. These observations stress the need for targeted epidemiological, histological and molecular studies of LLD in dolphins, especially in the Southern Hemisphere.


Assuntos
Golfinho Nariz-de-Garrafa , Lobomicose/veterinária , Animais , Oceano Atlântico/epidemiologia , Lobomicose/epidemiologia , Lobomicose/patologia , Moçambique/epidemiologia , Oceano Pacífico/epidemiologia , África do Sul/epidemiologia , América do Sul/epidemiologia
5.
Biochim Biophys Acta ; 1828(6): 1471-83, 2013 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23438363

RESUMO

G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) comprise a large family of membrane proteins with rich functional diversity. Signaling through the apelin receptor (AR or APJ) influences the cardiovascular system, central nervous system and glucose regulation. Pathophysiological involvement of apelin has been shown in atherosclerosis, cancer, human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) infection and obesity. Here, we present the high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy-based structure of the N-terminus and first transmembrane (TM) segment of AR (residues 1-55, AR55) in dodecylphosphocholine micelles. AR55 consists of two disrupted helices, spanning residues D14-K25 and A29-R55(1.59). Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of AR built from a hybrid of experimental NMR and homology model-based restraints allowed validation of the AR55 structure in the context of the full-length receptor in a hydrated bilayer. AR55 structural features were functionally probed using mutagenesis in full-length AR through monitoring of apelin-induced extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation in transiently transfected human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293A cells. Residues E20 and D23 form an extracellular anionic face and interact with lipid headgroups during MD simulations in the absence of ligand, producing an ideal binding site for a cationic apelin ligand proximal to the membrane-water interface, lending credence to membrane-catalyzed apelin-AR binding. In the TM region of AR55, N46(1.50) is central to a disruption in helical character. G42(1.46), G45(1.49) and N46(1.50), which are all involved in the TM helical disruption, are essential for proper trafficking of AR. In summary, we introduce a new correlative NMR spectroscopy and computational biochemistry methodology and demonstrate its utility in providing some of the first high-resolution structural information for a peptide-activated GPCR TM domain.


Assuntos
Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Receptores de Apelina , MAP Quinases Reguladas por Sinal Extracelular/metabolismo , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Ligantes , Bicamadas Lipídicas , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Lipídeos de Membrana/metabolismo , Micelas , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Mutagênese Sítio-Dirigida , Fosforilação , Fosforilcolina/análogos & derivados , Fosforilcolina/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína , Estrutura Terciária de Proteína , Transporte Proteico , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/química , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Transfecção
6.
J Biomol NMR ; 46(4): 257-70, 2010 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20213252

RESUMO

Biomolecular NMR spectroscopy frequently employs estimates of protein secondary structure using secondary chemical shift (Deltadelta) values, measured as the difference between experimental and random coil chemical shifts (RCCS). Most published random coil data have been determined in aqueous conditions, reasonable for non-membrane proteins, but potentially less relevant for membrane proteins. Two new RCCS sets are presented here, determined in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and chloroform:methanol:water (4:4:1 by volume) at 298 K. A web-based program, CS-CHEMeleon, has been implemented to determine the accuracy of secondary structure assessment by calculating and comparing Deltadelta values for various RCCS datasets. Using CS-CHEMeleon, Deltadelta predicted versus experimentally determined secondary structures were compared for large datasets of membrane and non-membrane proteins as a function of RCCS dataset, Deltadelta threshold, nucleus, localized parameter averaging and secondary structure type. Optimized Deltadelta thresholds are presented both for published and for the DMSO and chloroform:methanol:water derived RCCS tables. Despite obvious RCCS variations between datasets, prediction of secondary structure was consistently similar. Strikingly, predictive accuracy seems to be most dependent upon the type of secondary structure, with helices being the most accurately predicted by Deltadelta values using five different RCCS tables. We suggest caution when using Deltadelta-based restraints in structure calculations as the underlying dataset may be biased. Comparative assessment of multiple RCCS datasets should be performed, and resulting Deltadelta-based restraints weighted appropriately relative to other experimental restraints.


Assuntos
Meio Ambiente , Ressonância Magnética Nuclear Biomolecular/métodos , Peptídeos/química , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína , Solventes/química , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Membrana Celular/química , Clorofórmio/química , Dimetil Sulfóxido/química , Metanol/química , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Água/química
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