*J Phys Chem A ; 123(27): 5815-5825, 2019 Jul 11.*

##### RESUMO

Experimentalists working with diradicals are often facing the question of what kind of species among singlet or triplet diradicals or closed-shell molecules are observed. To treat large diradicals with a high density of electronic states, we propose a simplified version of the spin-flip time-dependent density functional theory (SF-TD-DFT) method for a fast computation of their state energies and absorption spectra with an accuracy similar to the nonsimplified scheme. An ultrafast tight-binding variant called SF-sTD-DFT-xTB is also developed to treat even larger systems. For a benchmark set of nine diradicals, good agreement between simplified and conventional SF excitation energies for standard functionals is found. This shows that the proposed parameterization is robust for a wide range of Fock exchange mixing values. With the asymptotically correct response integrals used in SF-sTD-DFT and a correction factor of 2 for the transition moments, the SF-sTD-DFT/B5050LYP/cc-pVDZ method even outperforms the nonsimplified scheme at drastically reduced computational effort when comparing to the experimental absorption spectra for this set of diradicals. To showcase the actual performance of the method, absorption spectra of two µ-hydroxo-bridged dimers of corrole tape Ga(III) complex derivatives were computed and compared to the experiment, providing good qualitative agreement. Finally, a comparison with the high-spin triplet spectrum of a perylene bisimide biradical and the one determined at the SF-sTD-DFT level showed that at room temperature, mostly triplet diradicals are present in solution.

*J Chem Phys ; 150(15): 154122, 2019 Apr 21.*

##### RESUMO

The so-called D4 model is presented for the accurate computation of London dispersion interactions in density functional theory approximations (DFT-D4) and generally for atomistic modeling methods. In this successor to the DFT-D3 model, the atomic coordination-dependent dipole polarizabilities are scaled based on atomic partial charges which can be taken from various sources. For this purpose, a new charge-dependent parameter-economic scaling function is designed. Classical charges are obtained from an atomic electronegativity equilibration procedure for which efficient analytical derivatives with respect to nuclear positions are developed. A numerical Casimir-Polder integration of the atom-in-molecule dynamic polarizabilities then yields charge- and geometry-dependent dipole-dipole dispersion coefficients. Similar to the D3 model, the dynamic polarizabilities are precomputed by time-dependent DFT and all elements up to radon (Z = 86) are covered. The two-body dispersion energy expression has the usual sum-over-atom-pairs form and includes dipole-dipole as well as dipole-quadrupole interactions. For a benchmark set of 1225 molecular dipole-dipole dispersion coefficients, the D4 model achieves an unprecedented accuracy with a mean relative deviation of 3.8% compared to 4.7% for D3. In addition to the two-body part, three-body effects are described by an Axilrod-Teller-Muto term. A common many-body dispersion expansion was extensively tested, and an energy correction based on D4 polarizabilities is found to be advantageous for larger systems. Becke-Johnson-type damping parameters for DFT-D4 are determined for more than 60 common density functionals. For various standard energy benchmark sets, DFT-D4 slightly but consistently outperforms DFT-D3. Especially for metal containing systems, the introduced charge dependence of the dispersion coefficients improves thermochemical properties. We suggest (DFT-)D4 as a physically improved and more sophisticated dispersion model in place of DFT-D3 for DFT calculations as well as other low-cost approaches like semi-empirical models.

*J Chem Theory Comput ; 15(3): 1652-1671, 2019 Mar 12.*

##### RESUMO

An extended semiempirical tight-binding model is presented, which is primarily designed for the fast calculation of structures and noncovalent interaction energies for molecular systems with roughly 1000 atoms. The essential novelty in this so-called GFN2-xTB method is the inclusion of anisotropic second order density fluctuation effects via short-range damped interactions of cumulative atomic multipole moments. Without noticeable increase in the computational demands, this results in a less empirical and overall more physically sound method, which does not require any classical halogen or hydrogen bonding corrections and which relies solely on global and element-specific parameters (available up to radon, Z = 86). Moreover, the atomic partial charge dependent D4 London dispersion model is incorporated self-consistently, which can be naturally obtained in a tight-binding picture from second order density fluctuations. Fully analytical and numerically precise gradients (nuclear forces) are implemented. The accuracy of the method is benchmarked for a wide variety of systems and compared with other semiempirical methods. Along with excellent performance for the "target" properties, we also find lower errors for "off-target" properties such as barrier heights and molecular dipole moments. High computational efficiency along with the improved physics compared to its precursor GFN-xTB makes this method well-suited to explore the conformational space of molecular systems. Significant improvements are furthermore observed for various benchmark sets, which are prototypical for biomolecular systems in aqueous solution.

*Nature ; 564(7735): 240-243, 2018 12.*

##### RESUMO

Chiral compounds exist as enantiomers that are non-superimposable mirror images of each other. Owing to the importance of enantiomerically pure chiral compounds1-for example, as active pharmaceutical ingredients-separation of racemates (1:1 mixtures of enantiomers) is extensively performed2. Frequently, however, only a single enantiomeric form of a chiral compound is required, which raises the question of how a racemate can be selectively converted into a single enantiomer. Such a deracemization3 process is entropically disfavoured and cannot be performed by a conventional catalyst in solution. Here we show that it is possible to photochemically deracemize chiral compounds with high enantioselectivity using irradiation with visible light (wavelength of 420 nanometres) in the presence of catalytic quantities (2.5 mole per cent) of a chiral sensitizer. We converted an array of 17 chiral racemic allenes into the respective single enantiomers with 89 to 97 per cent enantiomeric excess. The sensitizer is postulated to operate by triplet energy transfer to the allene, with different energy-transfer efficiencies for the two enantiomers. It thus serves as a unidirectional catalyst that converts one enantiomer but not the other, and the decrease in entropy is compensated by light energy. Photochemical deracemization enables the direct formation of enantiopure materials from a racemic mixture of the same compound, providing a novel approach to the challenge of creating asymmetry.

*J Chem Phys ; 148(6): 064104, 2018 Feb 14.*

##### RESUMO

A revised version of the well-established B97-D density functional approximation with general applicability for chemical properties of large systems is proposed. Like B97-D, it is based on Becke's power-series ansatz from 1997 and is explicitly parametrized by including the standard D3 semi-classical dispersion correction. The orbitals are expanded in a modified valence triple-zeta Gaussian basis set, which is available for all elements up to Rn. Remaining basis set errors are mostly absorbed in the modified B97 parametrization, while an established atom-pairwise short-range potential is applied to correct for the systematically too long bonds of main group elements which are typical for most semi-local density functionals. The new composite scheme (termed B97-3c) completes the hierarchy of "low-cost" electronic structure methods, which are all mainly free of basis set superposition error and account for most interactions in a physically sound and asymptotically correct manner. B97-3c yields excellent molecular and condensed phase geometries, similar to most hybrid functionals evaluated in a larger basis set expansion. Results on the comprehensive GMTKN55 energy database demonstrate its good performance for main group thermochemistry, kinetics, and non-covalent interactions, when compared to functionals of the same class. This also transfers to metal-organic reactions, which is a major area of applicability for semi-local functionals. B97-3c can be routinely applied to hundreds of atoms on a single processor and we suggest it as a robust computational tool, in particular, for more strongly correlated systems where our previously published "3c" schemes might be problematic.

*J Chem Phys ; 147(16): 161708, 2017 Oct 28.*

##### RESUMO

A black-box type procedure is presented for the generation of a molecule-specific, intermolecular potential energy function. The method uses quantum chemical (QC) information from our recently published extended tight-binding semi-empirical scheme (GFN-xTB) and can treat non-covalently bound complexes and aggregates with almost arbitrary chemical structure. The necessary QC information consists of the equilibrium structure, Mulliken atomic charges, charge centers of localized molecular orbitals, and also of frontier orbitals and orbital energies. The molecular pair potential includes model density dependent Pauli repulsion, penetration, as well as point charge electrostatics, the newly developed D4 dispersion energy model, Drude oscillators for polarization, and a charge-transfer term. Only one element-specific and about 20 global empirical parameters are needed to cover systems with nuclear charges up to radon (Z = 86). The method is tested for standard small molecule interaction energy benchmark sets where it provides accurate intermolecular energies and equilibrium distances. Examples for structures with a few hundred atoms including charged systems demonstrate the versatility of the approach. The method is implemented in a stand-alone computer code which enables rigid-body, global minimum energy searches for molecular aggregation or alignment.

*Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 56(46): 14763-14769, 2017 11 13.*

##### RESUMO

We present a composite procedure for the quantum-chemical computation of spin-spin-coupled 1 Hâ NMR spectra for general, flexible molecules in solution that is based on four main steps, namely conformer/rotamer ensemble (CRE) generation by the fast tight-binding method GFN-xTB and a newly developed search algorithm, computation of the relative free energies and NMR parameters, and solving the spin Hamiltonian. In this way the NMR-specific nuclear permutation problem is solved, and the correct spin symmetries are obtained. Energies, shielding constants, and spin-spin couplings are computed at state-of-the-art DFT levels with continuum solvation. A few (in)organic and transition-metal complexes are presented, and very good, unprecedented agreement between the theoretical and experimental spectra was achieved. The approach is routinely applicable to systems with up to 100-150 atoms and may open new avenues for the detailed (conformational) structure elucidation of, for example, natural products or drug molecules.

*J Am Chem Soc ; 139(34): 11682-11685, 2017 08 30.*

##### RESUMO

A fully quantum mechanical (QM) treatment to calculate electronic absorption (UV-vis) and circular dichroism (CD) spectra of typical biomolecules with thousands of atoms is presented. With our highly efficient sTDA-xTB method, spectra averaged along structures from molecular dynamics (MD) simulations can be computed in a reasonable time frame on standard desktop computers. This way, nonequilibrium structure and conformational, as well as purely quantum mechanical effects like charge-transfer or exciton-coupling, are included. Different from other contemporary approaches, the entire system is treated quantum mechanically and neither fragmentation nor system-specific adjustment is necessary. Among the systems considered are a large DNA fragment, oligopeptides, and even entire proteins in an implicit solvent. We propose the method in tandem with experimental spectroscopy or X-ray studies for the elucidation of complex (bio)molecular structures including metallo-proteins like myoglobin.

*J Chem Phys ; 147(3): 034112, 2017 Jul 21.*

##### RESUMO

A new model, termed D4, for the efficient computation of molecular dipole-dipole dispersion coefficients is presented. As in the related, well established D3 scheme, these are obtained as a sum of atom-in-molecule dispersion coefficients over atom pairs. Both models make use of dynamic polarizabilities obtained from first-principles time-dependent density functional theory calculations for atoms in different chemical environments employing fractional atomic coordination numbers for interpolation. Different from the D3 model, the coefficients are obtained on-the-fly by numerical Casimir-Polder integration of the dynamic, atomic polarizabilities α(iω). Most importantly, electronic density information is now incorporated via atomic partial charges computed at a semi-empirical quantum mechanical tight-binding level, which is used to scale the polarizabilities. Extended statistical measures show that errors for dispersion coefficients with the proposed D4 method are significantly lower than with D3 and other, computationally more involved schemes. Alongside, accurate isotropic charge and hybridization dependent, atom-in-molecule static polarizabilities are obtained with an unprecedented efficiency. Damping function parameters are provided for three standard density functionals, i.e., TPSS, PBE0, and B3LYP, allowing evaluation of the new DFT-D4 model for common non-covalent interaction energy benchmark sets.

*Chemistry ; 23(50): 12380-12386, 2017 Sep 07.*

##### RESUMO

A new bis(salicylimine) ligand based on the Tröger's base scaffold was synthesized in racemic and enantiomerically pure form. Upon coordination to zinc(II) ions this ligand undergoes highly diastereoselective self-assembly into neutral dinuclear double-stranded helicates as proven by XRD analysis and via comparison of experimental ECD spectra with those simulated with quantum-chemical methods. When the racemic ligand was used, self-assembly occurs under narcissistic self-sorting resulting in the formation of a racemic pair of helicates as revealed by NMR spectroscopy and XRD analysis.

*J Chem Theory Comput ; 13(5): 1989-2009, 2017 May 09.*

##### RESUMO

We propose a novel, special purpose semiempirical tight binding (TB) method for the calculation of structures, vibrational frequencies, and noncovalent interactions of large molecular systems with 1000 or more atoms. The functional form of the method is related to the self-consistent density functional TB scheme and mostly avoids element-pair-specific parameters. The parametrization covers all spd-block elements and the lanthanides up to Z = 86 using reference data at the hybrid density functional theory level. Key features of the Hamiltonian are the use of partially polarized Gaussian-type orbitals, a double-Î¶ orbital basis for hydrogen, atomic-shell charges, diagonal third-order charge fluctuations, coordination number-dependent energy levels, a noncovalent halogen-bond potential, and the well-established D3 dispersion correction. The accuracy of the method, called Geometry, Frequency, Noncovalent, eXtended TB (GFN-xTB), is extensively benchmarked for various systems in comparison with existing semiempirical approaches, and the method is applied to a few representative structural problems in chemistry.

*Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 56(18): 4930-4935, 2017 04 24.*

##### RESUMO

By employing the subcomponent self-assembly approach utilizing 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4-aminophenyl)porphyrin or its zinc(II) complex, 1H-4-imidazolecarbaldehyde, and either zinc(II) or iron(II) salts, we were able to prepare O-symmetric cages having a confined volume of ca. 1300â Å3 . The use of iron(II) salts yielded coordination cages in the high-spin state at room temperature, manifesting spin-crossover in solution at low temperatures, whereas corresponding zinc(II) salts led to the corresponding diamagnetic analogues. The new cages were characterized by synchrotron X-ray crystallography, high-resolution mass spectrometry, and NMR, Mössbauer, IR, and UV/Vis spectroscopy. The cage structures and UV/Vis spectra were independently confirmed by state-of-the-art DFT calculations. A remarkably high-spin-stabilizing effect through encapsulation of C70 was observed. The spin-transition temperature T1/2 is lowered by 20â K in the host-guest complex.

*Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 19(8): 6095-6104, 2017 Feb 22.*

##### RESUMO

We report on the photophysical properties, conjugation, conformational behavior, intra- and intermolecular hydrogen bonds (HBs) of a series of novel fluorophores, consisting of 3-arylquinoxaline and benzimidazole moieties linked by a single CC bond. Computations employing density functional theory (DFT) reveal that conjugation between these moieties stabilizes syn-conformers with two HB centers located on the same side of the molecule. Anti-conformers form stronger intermolecular HBs with DMSO and DMF than syn-conformers, and this influences the energy gap between syn- and anti-forms, especially upon excitation of the molecules to the S1 state. Substituents introduced in various positions of the molecules modify their conformational behavior, and mutual disposition of excited singlet states relative to the ground states. Various substitution patterns produce very different effects on relative quantum yield of luminescence: from a moderate increase in polar DMSO and DMF relative to 1,2-dichloroethane solutions to complete quenching of emission which is observable in polar media. The observed behavior is understood with the aid of DFT and time-dependent DFT calculations. The tuneability of the spectroscopic range of the luminescence and especially of its sensitivity to environmental effects allows rational design of the novel fluorophores of this family for various applications.

*Dalton Trans ; 45(48): 19230-19233, 2016 Dec 06.*

##### RESUMO

The regioisomeric formal Mes2PCH2CH2B(C6F5)2 FLP methane splitting products Mes2P(H)CH2CH2B(CH3)(C6F5)2 and Mes2P(CH3)CH2CH2B(H)(C6F5)2 were produced by indirect stepwise reactions. They were stable at 60 °C and were both characterized by X-ray diffraction. A DFT analysis revealed that their formation from the FLP and CH4 would be endergonic by +6.9 and +3.6 kcal mol-1, respectively, and it indicated that methane elimination from the zwitterionic products is kinetically hindered by barriers of 54.0 and 72.3 kcal mol-1, respectively.

*J Phys Chem Lett ; 7(22): 4802-4808, 2016 Nov 17.*

##### RESUMO

Metal-free dual singlet-triplet organic light-emitting diode (OLED) emitters can provide direct insight into spin statistics, spin correlations and spin relaxation phenomena, through a comparison of fluorescence to phosphorescence intensity. Remarkably, such materials can also function at room temperature, exhibiting phosphorescence lifetimes of several milliseconds. Using electroluminescence, quantum chemistry, and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, we investigate the effect of the conjugation pathway on radiative and nonradiative relaxation of the triplet state in phenazine-based compounds and demonstrate that the contribution of the phenazine nπ* excited state is crucial to enabling phosphorescence.

*J Chem Phys ; 145(5): 054103, 2016 Aug 07.*

##### RESUMO

The computational bottleneck of the extremely fast simplified Tamm-Dancoff approximated (sTDA) time-dependent density functional theory procedure [S. Grimme, J. Chem. Phys. 138, 244104 (2013)] for the computation of electronic spectra for large systems is the determination of the ground state Kohn-Sham orbitals and eigenvalues. This limits such treatments to single structures with a few hundred atoms and hence, e.g., sampling along molecular dynamics trajectories for flexible systems or the calculation of chromophore aggregates is often not possible. The aim of this work is to solve this problem by a specifically designed semi-empirical tight binding (TB) procedure similar to the well established self-consistent-charge density functional TB scheme. The new special purpose method provides orbitals and orbital energies of hybrid density functional character for a subsequent and basically unmodified sTDA procedure. Compared to many previous semi-empirical excited state methods, an advantage of the ansatz is that a general eigenvalue problem in a non-orthogonal, extended atomic orbital basis is solved and therefore correct occupied/virtual orbital energy splittings as well as Rydberg levels are obtained. A key idea for the success of the new model is that the determination of atomic charges (describing an effective electron-electron interaction) and the one-particle spectrum is decoupled and treated by two differently parametrized Hamiltonians/basis sets. The three-diagonalization-step composite procedure can routinely compute broad range electronic spectra (0-8 eV) within minutes of computation time for systems composed of 500-1000 atoms with an accuracy typical of standard time-dependent density functional theory (0.3-0.5 eV average error). An easily extendable parametrization based on coupled-cluster and density functional computed reference data for the elements H-Zn including transition metals is described. The accuracy of the method termed sTDA-xTB is first benchmarked for vertical excitation energies of open- and closed-shell systems in comparison to other semi-empirical methods and applied to exemplary problems in electronic spectroscopy. As side products of the development, a robust and efficient valence electron TB method for the accurate determination of atomic charges as well as a more accurate calculation scheme of dipole rotatory strengths within the Tamm-Dancoff approximation is proposed.

*J Org Chem ; 81(11): 4588-600, 2016 06 03.*

##### RESUMO

The aim of the present work is to explain the causes of the observed deviations from sector and helicity rules to determine the absolute configuration of optically active α,ß-unsaturated ketones by means of electronic circular dichroism (ECD). To this end, a series of model compounds with a common decahydronaphthalene skeleton representing both cisoid and transoid enones were synthesized. In the framework of this work, detailed dichroic studies supported by single crystal X-ray analysis were performed where possible. To assist the achievement of the desired objectives the conformational flexibility of the selected cis-enones through the dependence of solvent and temperature on the ECD spectra were examined. All experimental studies were supplemented by detailed DFT calculations. A notable result of the study is assessing the applicability of the enone sector and helicity rules in dichroic studies and potential restrictions. To this end, a number of factors that could determine the signs of the individual Cotton effects has been considered. Among these nonminimum structure effects, i.e., twisting of the enone chromophore and nonplanarity of the enone double bond can be mentioned.

*Chem Rev ; 116(9): 5105-54, 2016 05 11.*

##### RESUMO

Mean-field electronic structure methods like Hartree-Fock, semilocal density functional approximations, or semiempirical molecular orbital (MO) theories do not account for long-range electron correlation (London dispersion interaction). Inclusion of these effects is mandatory for realistic calculations on large or condensed chemical systems and for various intramolecular phenomena (thermochemistry). This Review describes the recent developments (including some historical aspects) of dispersion corrections with an emphasis on methods that can be employed routinely with reasonable accuracy in large-scale applications. The most prominent correction schemes are classified into three groups: (i) nonlocal, density-based functionals, (ii) semiclassical C6-based, and (iii) one-electron effective potentials. The properties as well as pros and cons of these methods are critically discussed, and typical examples and benchmarks on molecular complexes and crystals are provided. Although there are some areas for further improvement (robustness, many-body and short-range effects), the situation regarding the overall accuracy is clear. Various approaches yield long-range dispersion energies with a typical relative error of 5%. For many chemical problems, this accuracy is higher compared to that of the underlying mean-field method (i.e., a typical semilocal (hybrid) functional like B3LYP).

*Chirality ; 28(5): 365-9, 2016 05.*

##### RESUMO

The electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectrum of the recently synthesized [16]helicene and a derivative comprising two triisopropylsilyloxy protection groups was computed by means of the very efficient simplified time-dependent density functional theory (sTD-DFT) approach. Different from many previous ECD studies of helicenes, nonequilibrium structure effects were accounted for by computing ECD spectra on "snapshots" obtained from a molecular dynamics (MD) simulation including solvent molecules. The trajectories are based on a molecule specific classical potential as obtained from the recently developed quantum chemically derived force field (QMDFF) scheme. The reduced computational cost in the MD simulation due to the use of the QMDFF (compared to ab-initio MD) as well as the sTD-DFT approach make realistic spectral simulations feasible for these compounds that comprise more than 100 atoms. While the ECD spectra of [16]helicene and its derivative computed vertically on the respective gas phase, equilibrium geometries show noticeable differences, these are "washed" out when nonequilibrium structures are taken into account. The computed spectra with two recommended density functionals (ωB97X and BHLYP) and extended basis sets compare very well with the experimental one. In addition we provide an estimate for the missing absolute intensities of the latter. The approach presented here could also be used in future studies to capture nonequilibrium effects, but also to systematically average ECD spectra over different conformations in more flexible molecules. Chirality 28:365-369, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

*Org Biomol Chem ; 13(42): 10477-86, 2015 Nov 14.*

##### RESUMO

The dienylborane 2a was prepared by regioselective alkyne hydroboration of the conjugated enyne 1a with Piers' borane [HB(C6F5)2]. Its reaction with a series of acetophenone derived enamines 3 resulted in the formation of the strong enamine ß-carbon adduct with the borane Lewis acid (4). In contrast B-C adduct formation between the dienylborane 2a and a series of much more bulky cyclohexanone derived enamines (6) is rapidly reversible above ca.-30 °C and then leads to the formation of the [4 + 2]cycloaddition products 8. A DFT study revealed that this reaction is probably taking a stepwise route, proceeding by means of enamine addition to the dienylborane terminus to generate a zwitterionic borata-alkene/iminium ion intermediate that undergoes rapid subsequent ring closure. Heating of the products 8 led to amidoborane elimination from the vicinal amino/borane pair at the product framework to give the respective hexahydronaphthalene product 10. Subsequent treatment with TEMPO (2 equiv.) resulted in selective oxidation of the unsaturated ring to give the respective tetrahydronaphthalene derivative 12.