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Environ Res ; 202: 111651, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34246643


INTRODUCTION: Prenatal exposure to fine particulate matter air pollution (PM2.5) is an important, under-studied risk factor for neurodevelopmental dysfunction. We describe the relationships between prenatal PM2.5 exposure and vigilance and inhibitory control, executive functions related to multiple health outcomes in Mexico City children. METHODS: We studied 320 children enrolled in Programming Research in Obesity, GRowth, Environment and Social Stressors, a longitudinal birth cohort study in Mexico City. We used a spatio-temporal model to estimate daily prenatal PM2.5 exposure at each participant's residential address. At age 9-10 years, children performed three Go/No-Go tasks, which measure vigilance and inhibitory control ability. We used Latent class analysis (LCA) to classify performance into subgroups that reflected neurocognitive performance and applied multivariate regression and distributed lag regression modeling (DLM) to test overall and time-dependent associations between prenatal PM2.5 exposure and Go/No-Go performance. RESULTS: LCA detected two Go/No-Go phenotypes: high performers (Class 1) and low performers (Class 2). Predicting odds of Class 1 vs Class 2 membership based on prenatal PM2.5 exposure timing, logistic regression modeling showed that average prenatal PM2.5 exposure in the second and third trimesters correlated with increased odds of membership in low-performance Class 2 (OR = 1.59 (1.16, 2.17), p = 0.004). Additionally, DLM analysis identified a critical window consisting of gestational days 103-268 (second and third trimesters) in which prenatal PM2.5 exposure predicted poorer Go/No-Go performance. DISCUSSION: Increased prenatal PM2.5 exposure predicted decreased vigilance and inhibitory control at age 9-10 years. These findings highlight the second and third trimesters of gestation as critical windows of PM2.5 exposure for the development of vigilance and inhibitory control in preadolescent children. Because childhood development of vigilance and inhibitory control informs behavior, academic performance, and self-regulation into adulthood, these results may help to describe the relationship of prenatal PM2.5 exposure to long-term health and psychosocial outcomes. The integrative methodology of this study also contributes to a shift towards more holistic analysis.

Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Adulto , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Exposição Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , México/epidemiologia , Material Particulado/análise , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Gravidez , Terceiro Trimestre da Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/induzido quimicamente , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia
JMIR Res Protoc ; 9(9): e19496, 2020 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32969832


BACKGROUND: Prescription opioid misuse in the United States is a devastating public health crisis; many chronic opioid users were originally prescribed this class of medication for acute pain. Video narrative-enhanced risk communication may improve patient outcomes, such as knowledge of opioid risk and opioid use behaviors after an episode of acute pain. OBJECTIVE: Our objective is to assess the effect of probabilistic and narrative-enhanced opioid risk communication on patient-reported outcomes, including knowledge, opioid use, and patient preferences, for patients who present to emergency departments with back pain and kidney stone pain. METHODS: This is a multisite randomized controlled trial. Patients presenting to the acute care facilities of four geographically and ethnically diverse US hospital centers with acute renal colic pain or musculoskeletal back and/or neck pain are eligible for this randomized controlled trial. A control group of patients receiving general risk information is compared to two intervention groups: one receiving the risk information sheet plus an individualized, visual probabilistic Opioid Risk Tool (ORT) and another receiving the risk information sheet plus a video narrative-enhanced probabilistic ORT. We will study the effect of probabilistic and narrative-enhanced opioid risk communication on the following: risk awareness and recall at 14 days postenrollment, reduced use or preferences for opioids after the emergency department episode, and alignment with patient preference and provider prescription. To assess these outcomes, we administer baseline patient surveys during acute care admission and follow-up surveys at predetermined times during the 3 months after discharge. RESULTS: A total of 1302 patients were enrolled over 24 months. The mean age of the participants was 40 years (SD 14), 692 out of 1302 (53.15%) were female, 556 out of 1302 (42.70%) were White, 498 out of 1302 (38.25%) were Black, 1002 out of 1302 (76.96%) had back pain, and 334 out of 1302 (25.65%) were at medium or high risk. Demographics and ORT scores were equally distributed across arms. CONCLUSIONS: This study seeks to assess the potential clinical role of narrative-enhanced, risk-informed communication for acute pain management in acute care settings. This paper outlines the protocol used to implement the study and highlights crucial methodological, statistical, and stakeholder involvement as well as dissemination considerations. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT03134092; INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): DERR1-10.2196/19496.

Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31181712


Evidence suggests that environmental exposures and socioeconomic factors may interact to produce metabolic changes in children. We assessed the influence of residential location and socioeconomic status (SES) on pediatric body mass index (BMI) Z-score and fasting blood glucose (FBG) concentration. Participants included 214 children aged 6-11 years who live near a large industrial complex in Taranto, Italy. Participants were grouped into residential zones based on the distance between their home address and the complex periphery (Zone 1: 0.000-4.999 km, Zone 2: 5.000-9.999 km, Zone 3: 10.000-15.000 km). BMI Z-scores were calculated via World Health Organization (WHO) pediatric reference curves. FBG was obtained via venous blood sampling. Closer residential location to the industrial complex on the order of 5.000 km was significantly associated with worsened metabolic outcomes, particularly in female children. Zone 1 participants had higher BMI-adjusted FBG than Zone 2 and 3 participants (p < 0.05 versus Zone 2; p < 0.01 versus Zone 3). SES did not significantly influence BMI-adjusted FBG. Moreover, BMI Z-scores indicated high rates of overweight (22.0%) and obesity (22.9%) in the cohort. BMI Z-score was not significantly associated with SES or residential zone but was negatively associated with maternal education level (p < 0.05). These results offer new evidence that residing near industrial activity may predict adverse effects on child metabolic health.

Exposição Ambiental , Indústrias , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Glicemia/análise , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Sobrepeso/sangue , Características de Residência , Classe Social
JCI Insight ; 3(24)2018 12 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30568044


In utero hypoxia is a major cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality and predisposes to adult cardiovascular disease. No therapies exist to correct fetal hypoxia. In a new ex utero fetal support system, we tested the hypothesis that hypoxemic support of the fetus impairs myocardial development, whereas normoxic support allows normal myocardial development. Preterm fetal lambs were connected via umbilical vessels to a low-resistance oxygenator and placed in a sterile-fluid environment. Control normoxic fetuses received normal fetal oxygenation, and hypoxemic fetuses received subphysiologic oxygenation. Fetuses with normal in utero development served as normal controls. Hypoxemic fetuses exhibited decreased maximum cardiac output in both ventricles, diastolic function, myocyte and myocyte nuclear size, and increased myocardial capillary density versus control normoxic fetuses. There were no differences between control normoxic fetuses in the fetal support system and normal in utero controls. Chronic fetal hypoxemia resulted in significant abnormalities in myocyte architecture and myocardial capillary density as well as systolic and diastolic cardiac function, whereas control fetuses showed no differences. This ex utero fetal support system has potential to become a significant research tool and novel therapy to correct fetal hypoxia.

Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Feto , Hipóxia/complicações , Troca Materno-Fetal , Miocárdio , Útero , Animais , Doenças Cardiovasculares/embriologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Fertilidade , Coração Fetal/fisiologia , Humanos , Hipóxia/embriologia , Recém-Nascido , Miocárdio/patologia , Oxigênio , Gravidez , Ovinos