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1.
Pathogens ; 10(11)2021 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34832543

RESUMO

Campylobacter jejuni, a prevalent foodborne bacterial pathogen, is mainly transmitted from poultry with few effective prevention approaches. In this study, we aimed to investigate the role of microbiota on C. jejuni chicken colonization. Microbiota from specific pathogen-free (SPF) mouse stools were collected as SPF-Aerobe and SPF-Anaerobe. Birds were colonized with SPF-Aerobe or SPF-Anaerobe at day 0 and infected with C. jejuni AR101 at day 12. Notably, C. jejuni AR101 colonized at 5.3 and 5.6 log10 C. jejuni CFU/g chicken cecal digesta at days 21 and 28, respectively, while both SPF-Aerobe and SPF-Anaerobe microbiota reduced pathogen colonization. Notably, SPF-Aerobe and SPF-Anaerobe increased cecal phylum Bacteroidetes and reduced phylum Firmicutes compared to those in the nontransplanted birds. Interestingly, microbiota from noninfected chickens, SPF-Aerobe, or SPF-Anaerobe inhibited AR101 in vitro growth, whereas microbiota from infected birds alone failed to reduce pathogen growth. The bacterium Enterobacter102 isolated from infected birds transplanted with SPF-Aerobe inhibited AR101 in vitro growth and reduced pathogen gut colonization in chickens. Together, SPF mouse microbiota was able to colonize chicken gut and reduce C. jejuni chicken colonization. The findings may help the development of effective strategies to reduce C. jejuni chicken contamination and campylobacteriosis.

2.
Cureus ; 13(9): e17688, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34650863

RESUMO

This report presents a previously undescribed case and treatment of bilateral four-part proximal humerus (PH) fracture-dislocations presented in a 61-year-old Caucasian male patient following a first-time seizure episode. The patient was treated with bilateral reverse total shoulder arthroplasty due to pre-existing glenohumeral arthritis and rotator cuff atrophy. The surgery was successful, and the patient's postoperative recovery was uneventful. Fractures of the proximal humerus are a relatively common adult osteoporotic fracture; however, posterior fracture-dislocations of the PH, frequently related to motor vehicle accidents, seizures, or electrical shock, are remarkably scarce. A treatment algorithm for these injuries is lacking.

3.
Pathogens ; 10(8)2021 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34451506

RESUMO

Necrotic enteritis (NE), mainly induced by the pathogens of Clostridium perfringens and coccidia, causes huge economic losses with limited intervention options in the poultry industry. This study investigated the role of specific bile acids on NE development. Day-old broiler chicks were assigned to six groups: noninfected, NE, and NE with four bile diets of 0.32% chicken bile, 0.15% commercial ox bile, 0.15% lithocholic acid (LCA), or 0.15% deoxycholic acid (DCA). The birds were infected with Eimeria maxima at day 18 and C. perfringens at day 23 and 24. The infected birds developed clinical NE signs. The NE birds suffered severe ileitis with villus blunting, crypt hyperplasia, epithelial line disintegration, and massive immune cell infiltration, while DCA and LCA prevented the ileitis histopathology. NE induced severe body weight gain (BWG) loss, while only DCA prevented NE-induced BWG loss. Notably, DCA reduced the NE-induced inflammatory response and the colonization and invasion of C. perfringens compared to NE birds. Consistently, NE reduced the total bile acids in the ileal digesta, while dietary DCA and commercial bile restored it. Together, this study showed that DCA and LCA reduced NE histopathology, suggesting that secondary bile acids, but not total bile acid levels, play an essential role in controlling the enteritis.

4.
Microorganisms ; 9(5)2021 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34068252

RESUMO

There was a development of low-level tolerance to fluoroquinolone antibiotic ciprofloxacin in Listeria monocytogenes after sublethal adaptation to quaternary ammonium compound (QAC). Using eight L. monocytogenes strains, we determined the changes in short-range MIC, growth rate, and survival for heterologous stress response to ciprofloxacin, after sublethal exposure to daily cycles of fixed or gradually increasing concentration of QAC. Three main findings were observed. (1) MIC increase-QAC-adapted subpopulations exhibited a significant increase in short-range MIC of ciprofloxacin, by 1.5 to 2.9 fold, as compared to non-adapted control for 4/8 strains (p < 0.05). (2) Growth rate increase-QAC-adapted subpopulations exhibited significant 2.1- to 6.8- fold increase in growth rate (OD600 at 10 h) in ciprofloxacin-containing broth, as compared to non-adapted control for 5/8 strains (p < 0.05). (3) Survival increase-QAC-adapted subpopulations of L. monocytogenes yielded significantly higher survival in ciprofloxacin-containing agar by 2.2 to 4.3 log CFU/mL for 4/8 strains, as compared to non-adapted control (p ˂ 0.05). However, for other 4/8 strains of L. monocytogenes, there was no increase in survival of QAC-adapted subpopulations, as compared to non-adapted control in ciprofloxacin. These findings suggest the potential formation of low-level ciprofloxacin-tolerant subpopulations in some L. monocytogenes strains when exposed to residual QAC concentrations (where QAC might be used widely) and such cells if not inactivated might create food safety risk.

5.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0250296, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33909627

RESUMO

Salmonella Enteritidis is an intracellular foodborne pathogen that has developed multiple mechanisms to alter poultry intestinal physiology and infect the gut. Short chain fatty acid butyrate is derived from microbiota metabolic activities, and it maintains gut homeostasis. There is limited understanding on the interaction between S. Enteritidis infection, butyrate, and host intestinal response. To fill this knowledge gap, chicken macrophages (also known as HTC cells) were infected with S. Enteritidis, treated with sodium butyrate, and proteomic analysis was performed. A growth curve assay was conducted to determine sub-inhibitory concentration (SIC, concentration that do not affect bacterial growth compared to control) of sodium butyrate against S. Enteritidis. HTC cells were infected with S. Enteritidis in the presence and absence of SIC of sodium butyrate. The proteins were extracted and analyzed by tandem mass spectrometry. Our results showed that the SIC was 45 mM. Notably, S. Enteritidis-infected HTC cells upregulated macrophage proteins involved in ATP synthesis through oxidative phosphorylation such as ATP synthase subunit alpha (ATP5A1), ATP synthase subunit d, mitochondrial (ATP5PD) and cellular apoptosis such as Cytochrome-c (CYC). Furthermore, sodium butyrate influenced S. Enteritidis-infected HTC cells by reducing the expression of macrophage proteins mediating actin cytoskeletal rearrangements such as WD repeat-containing protein-1 (WDR1), Alpha actinin-1 (ACTN1), Vinculin (VCL) and Protein disulfide isomerase (P4HB) and intracellular S. Enteritidis growth and replication such as V-type proton ATPase catalytic subunit A (ATPV1A). Interestingly, sodium butyrate increased the expression of infected HTC cell protein involving in bacterial killing such as Vimentin (VIM). In conclusion, sodium butyrate modulates the expression of HTC cell proteins essential for S. Enteritidis invasion.


Assuntos
Proteínas Aviárias/genética , Ácido Butírico/farmacologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/genética , Salmonelose Animal/genética , Actinina/genética , Actinina/metabolismo , Animais , Proteínas Aviárias/metabolismo , Galinhas , Citocromos c/genética , Citocromos c/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Isoenzimas/genética , Isoenzimas/metabolismo , Macrófagos/citologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Proteínas dos Microfilamentos/genética , Proteínas dos Microfilamentos/metabolismo , ATPases Mitocondriais Próton-Translocadoras/genética , ATPases Mitocondriais Próton-Translocadoras/metabolismo , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Fosforilação Oxidativa/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/metabolismo , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Cultura Primária de Células , Isomerases de Dissulfetos de Proteínas/genética , Isomerases de Dissulfetos de Proteínas/metabolismo , Salmonelose Animal/metabolismo , Salmonelose Animal/microbiologia , Salmonella enteritidis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Salmonella enteritidis/patogenicidade , ATPases Vacuolares Próton-Translocadoras/genética , ATPases Vacuolares Próton-Translocadoras/metabolismo , Vimentina/genética , Vimentina/metabolismo , Vinculina/genética , Vinculina/metabolismo
6.
Food Microbiol ; 96: 103714, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33494900

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to determine if the adaptation at planktonic stage to subinhibitory concentrations (SIC) of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) could modulate the biofilm forming ability of five Listeria monocytogenes strains V7, Scott A, FSL-N1-227, FSL F6-154 and ATCC 19116 representing serotypes 1/2a, 4b and 4c. Biofilm formation by NaOCl nonadapted and adapted L. monocytogenes planktonic cells was measured in the presence or absence of SIC of NaOCl. The biofilm formation ability of NaOCl nonadapted and adapted L. monocyotgenes planktonic cells was reduced only in the presence of NaOCl (P < 0.05). Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the continuous exposure of NaOCl induced morphological changes in the L. monocytogenes biofilm structure and reduced its attachment to polystyrene surface. The qRT-PCR results also showed that the subinhibitory NaOCl reduced biofilm formation related gene expression such as motility and quorum sensing signals (P < 0.05). These findings indicate that subinhibitory NaOCl can reduce the ability of L. monocytogenes planktonic cells to form biofilms on polystyrene surface.


Assuntos
Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Desinfetantes/farmacologia , Listeria monocytogenes/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipoclorito de Sódio/farmacologia , Listeria monocytogenes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plâncton/efeitos dos fármacos , Plâncton/crescimento & desenvolvimento
7.
Radiol Case Rep ; 16(2): 396-399, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33354270

RESUMO

Ganglioneuromas are rare tumors that occur spontaneously or arise from a poorly differentiated neuroblastic tumor. Although they are typically described in the pediatric population, they can occur in adults. Ganglioneuromas are often discovered incidentally and their typical imaging appearance, although non-specific, is that of a well-defined solid mass. We are presenting a case of a fat-containing adrenal lesion in a 53-year-old male. The extensive lipomatous changes within the lesion led to the presumption that it represented an adrenal myelolipoma. Pathology revealed a ganglioneuroma with extensive lipomatous changes. This is an uncommon presentation of an adrenal ganglioneuroma mimicking an adrenal myelolipoma. The diagnosis of an adrenal ganglioneuroma raises the possibility of syndromic associations for which patients may undergo genetic testing. We provide a review of typical imaging features of an adrenal ganglioneuroma and provide insight into the situations in which a ganglioneuroma can be suggested as a diagnostic consideration.

8.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 20841, 2020 11 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33257743

RESUMO

Campylobacter jejuni is a prevalent foodborne pathogen mainly transmitting through poultry. It remains unknown how chicken-transmitted C. jejuni and microbiota impact on human campylobacteriosis. Campylobacter jejuni AR101 (Cj-P0) was introduced to chickens and isolated as passage 1 (Cj-P1). Campylobacter jejuni Cj-P1-DCA-Anaero was isolated from Cj-P0-infected birds transplanted with DCA-modulated anaerobic microbiota. Specific pathogen free Il10-/- mice were gavaged with antibiotic clindamycin and then infected with Cj-P0, Cj-P1, or Cj-P1-DCA-Anaero, respectively. After 8 days post infection, Il10-/- mice infected with Cj-P1 demonstrated severe morbidity and bloody diarrhea and the experiment had to be terminated. Cj-P1 induced more severe histopathology compared to Cj-P0, suggesting that chicken transmission increased C. jejuni virulence. Importantly, mice infected with Cj-P1-DCA-Anaero showed attenuation of intestinal inflammation compared to Cj-P1. At the cellular level, Cj-P1 induced more C. jejuni invasion and neutrophil infiltration into the Il10-/- mouse colon tissue compared to Cj-P0, which was attenuated with Cj-P1-DCA-Anaero. At the molecular level, Cj-P1 induced elevated inflammatory mediator mRNA accumulation of Il17a, Il1ß, and Cxcl1 in the colon compared to Cj-P0, while Cj-P1-DCA-Anaero showed reduction of the inflammatory gene expression. In conclusion, our data suggest that DCA-modulated anaerobes attenuate chicken-transmitted campylobacteriosis in mice and it is important to control the elevation of C. jejuni virulence during chicken transmission process.


Assuntos
Infecções por Campylobacter/metabolismo , Infecções por Campylobacter/transmissão , Campylobacter/metabolismo , Animais , Campylobacter/patogenicidade , Infecções por Campylobacter/veterinária , Campylobacter jejuni/metabolismo , Campylobacter jejuni/patogenicidade , Galinhas/microbiologia , Colite/patologia , Colo/patologia , Gastroenterite/patologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Inflamação/patologia , Interleucina-10/genética , Interleucina-10/metabolismo , Intestinos/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Microbiota , Virulência/fisiologia
9.
Front Microbiol ; 11: 553670, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33042060

RESUMO

Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) is a facultative intracellular pathogen that colonizes the chicken gut leading to contamination of carcasses during processing. A reduction in intestinal colonization by SE could result in reduced carcass contamination thereby reducing the risk of illnesses in humans. Short chain fatty acids such as butyrate are microbial metabolites produced in the gut that exert various beneficial effects. However, its effect on SE colonization is not well known. The present study investigated the effect of sub-inhibitory concentrations (SICs) of sodium butyrate on the adhesion and invasion of SE in primary chicken enterocytes and chicken macrophages. In addition, the effect of sodium butyrate on the expression of SE virulence genes and selected inflammatory genes in chicken macrophages challenged with SE were investigated. Based on the growth curve analysis, the two SICs of sodium butyrate that did not reduce SE growth were 22 and 45 mM, respectively. The SICs of sodium butyrate did not affect the viability and proliferation of chicken enterocytes and macrophage cells. The SICs of sodium butyrate reduced SE adhesion by ∼1.7 and 1.8 Log CFU/mL, respectively. The SE invasion was reduced by ∼2 and 2.93 Log CFU/mL, respectively in chicken enterocytes (P < 0.05). Sodium butyrate did not significantly affect the adhesion of SE to chicken macrophages. However, 45 mM sodium butyrate reduced invasion by ∼1.7 Log CFU/mL as compared to control (P < 0.05). Exposure to sodium butyrate did not change the expression of SE genes associated with motility (flgG, prot6E), invasion (invH), type 3 secretion system (sipB, pipB), survival in macrophages (spvB, mgtC), cell wall and membrane integrity (tatA), efflux pump regulator (mrr1) and global virulence regulation (lrp) (P > 0.05). However, a few genes contributing to type-3 secretion system (ssaV, sipA), adherence (sopB), macrophage survival (sodC) and oxidative stress (rpoS) were upregulated by at least twofold. The expression of inflammatory genes (Il1ß, Il8, and Mmp9) that are triggered by SE for host colonization was significantly downregulated (at least 25-fold) by sodium butyrate as compared to SE (P < 0.05). The results suggest that sodium butyrate has an anti-inflammatory potential to reduce SE colonization in chickens.

10.
J Clin Orthop Trauma ; 11(Suppl 4): S534-S538, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32774025

RESUMO

Background: Restoration of neutral mechanical axis is thought to influence implant survival and function in Total Knee Arthroplasty (TKA). There is no consensus whether Intramedullary (IM) or Extramedullary (EM) tibial alignment technique is superior to achieve this outcome. Study aims to evaluate functional and radiological outcome of TKA using the EM and IM technique. Materials and methods: A retrospective study of 400 primary TKA (314 patients) was performed. 200 knees were studied in each IM and EM group, which were matched. Functional assessment was performed using Oxford Knee Score (OKS) and Tibial component alignment measured in coronal and sagittal radiographs. Results: The average coronal and sagittal alignment of the tibial component in IM group was 89.16° and 88°, whereas in EM group, these were 88.1° and 88.5° respectively. The adjusted mean difference change in Pre and Post-operative OKS in IM group compared to EM group was 0.5 (p = 0.52). There was no statistically significant difference in the complications between the two groups. Subgroup analysis of patients with BMI >35 showed predictable coronal tibial alignment with IM technique with fewer outliers. Conclusion: Intramedullary tibial alignment is associated with fewer outliers compared to the extramedullary technique particularly in patients with a BMI over 35.

11.
Cureus ; 12(6): e8457, 2020 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32642367

RESUMO

Introduction The consenting process has been surgeon-focussed traditionally, but there is a recent trend towards making the process more patient and procedure-focussed. The primary aims were to identify the risks considered most important and requiring further discussion by the patients undergoing primary total hip arthroplasty (THA) and primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA), as well as to identify the sporting and recreational activities these patients would like to pursue after surgery according to the age group, taking into consideration their values and expectations. The secondary aim is to assess the compliance of the current consenting process with guidelines set out by a governing body in a tertiary referral arthroplasty unit. Material and method A prospective study reviewing the consenting process was carried out on 137 patients undergoing THA or TKA over a 12-month period in a tertiary teaching hospital. Patients unable to complete a questionnaire and undergoing revision or uni-compartment arthroplasty were excluded. A standardized anonymous questionnaire was administered. Patients were asked to fill in the specific activities they considered important to be discussed. The data were tabulated in Microsoft Excel (Microsoft Corporation, Redmond, Washington) and subgroup analysis was performed using the student's t-test. The level of statistical significance was p=0.05. Two-hundred consent forms were reviewed to assess whether the information entered correlated to the guidelines presented in Ortho-Consent. Results One-hundred thirty-seven questionnaires were reviewed. The mean age was 66 (range 45-91), with the majority of patients undergoing TKA (114) versus THA (23). The patients in active employment were more concerned about blood clots, pain, joint failure, limb length discrepancy, and infection. Patients undergoing TKA wanted more information on pain management and joint longevity, which achieved statistical significance. There was a significant difference in the activities patients would like to pursue as well as in expectations amongst different age groups. The quality of documentation in the consent form was quite variable in discussing complications, surgery benefits, and alternative treatments. Conclusion Obtaining consent is a patient-specific process. Patient perception of important points that merit discussion can vary with age and employment status. Return to driving is important for all ages, however, as the population ages, the ability to return to activities of daily living becomes an increasingly important discussion point during the consent process.

12.
J Pediatr Neurosci ; 15(1): 21-24, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32435301

RESUMO

Aims and Objectives: The aim of this study was to describe the vitamin B12 status among children treated for West syndrome and to review the clinical response to vitamin B12 supplementation among those found deficient. Materials and Methods: Hospital records of children with West syndrome with a minimum follow-up of 6 months where serum vitamin B12 was estimated during the course of treatment were identified. Records were studied for etiology, and their response to clinical treatment was noted. Results: The two main etiology were cryptogenic in 12 (46.2%), and perinatal asphyxia in 10 (38.5%) children. Serum vitamin B12 levels (levels < 203 pg/mL) were deficient in two (7.7%) children of the 26 eligible records. On vitamin B12 supplementation, both of these children did not achieve any reduction in the frequency of spasm. Conclusion: In this limited cross-sectional study, vitamin B12 was deficient in 7.7% of children with West syndrome with lack of reduction in frequency of spasm on B12 supplementation.

13.
J Anim Sci Biotechnol ; 11: 37, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32190299

RESUMO

Background: Clostridium perfringens-induced chicken necrotic enteritis (NE) is responsible for substantial economic losses worldwide annually. Recently, as a result of antibiotic growth promoter prohibition, the prevalence of NE in chickens has reemerged. This study was aimed to reduce NE through titrating dietary deoxycholic acid (DCA) as an effective antimicrobial alternative. Materials and methods: Day-old broiler chicks were assigned to six groups and fed diets supplemented with 0 (basal diet), 0.8, 1.0 and 1.5 g/kg (on top of basal diet) DCA. The birds were challenged with Eimeria maxima (20,000 oocysts/bird) at d 18 and C. perfringens (109 CFU/bird per day) at d 23, 24, and 25 to induce NE. The birds were sacrificed at d 26 when ileal tissue and digesta were collected for analyzing histopathology, mRNA accumulation and C. perfringens colonization by real-time PCR, targeted metabolomics of bile acids, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), or terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. Results: At the cellular level, birds infected with E. maxima and C. perfringens developed subclinical NE and showed shortening villi, crypt hyperplasia and immune cell infiltration in ileum. Dietary DCA alleviated the NE-induced ileal inflammation in a dose-dependent manner compared to NE control birds. Consistent with the increased histopathological scores, subclinical NE birds suffered body weight gain reduction compared to the uninfected birds, an effect attenuated with increased doses of dietary DCA. At the molecular level, the highest dose of DCA at 1.5 g/kg reduced C. perfringens luminal colonization compared to NE birds using PCR and FISH. Furthermore, the dietary DCA reduced subclinical NE-induced intestinal inflammatory gene expression and cell apoptosis using PCR and TUNEL assays. Upon further examining ileal bile acid pool through targeted metabolomics, subclinical NE reduced the total bile acid level in ileal digesta compared to uninfected birds. Notably, dietary DCA increased total bile acid and DCA levels in a dose-dependent manner compared to NE birds. Conclusion: These results indicate that DCA attenuates NE-induced intestinal inflammation and bile acid reduction and could be an effective antimicrobial alternative against the intestinal disease.

14.
Front Microbiol ; 10: 2704, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31827464

RESUMO

Salmonella biofilms act as a continuous source for cross-contamination in the food processing environments. In this study, a stable rugose morphotype of Salmonella was first induced by sequential exposure to subinhibitory concentrations (SICs) of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) (ranging from 50 to 300 ppm over 18-day period) in tryptic soy broth. Then, rugose and smooth morphotypes of Salmonella Typhimurium ATCC 14028 and Salmonella Heidelberg ATCC 8326 were characterized for biofilm forming abilities on polystyrene and stainless steel surfaces. Rugose morphotype of both ATCC 14028 and ATCC 8326 exhibited higher Exopolysaccharide (EPS) formation than smooth morphotype (p ≤ 0.05). Also, the SICs of NaOCl (200 or 300 ppm in broth model) increased the biofilm formation ability of rugose morphotype of ATCC 8326 (p ≤ 0.05) but decreased that of ATCC 14028. The 2-day-old Salmonella biofilms were treated with biocidal concentrations of 50, 100, or 200 ppm NaOCl (pH 6.15) in water for 5, 10, or 20 min at room temperature. The biofilm reduction in CFU/cm2 for the rugose was lower than the smooth morphotype on both surfaces (p ≤ 0.05) by lethal NaOCl in water. Scanning electron micrographs on both polystyrene and stainless steel surfaces demonstrated that the rugose morphotype produced a denser biofilm than the smooth morphotype. Transmission electron micrographs revealed the cell wall roughness in rugose morphotype, which may help in tolerance to NaOCl. The gene expression data indicate that the expression of biofilm regulator (csgD), curli (csgA, csgB, and csgC), and cellulose (bcsE) was significantly increased in rugose morphotype when induced by sequential exposure of NaOCl SICs. These findings reveal that the rugose morphotype of S. Typhimurium and S. Heidelberg produced significantly denser biofilm on food contact surfaces, which also increased with sequential exposure to SICs of NaOCl in the case of S. Heidelberg, and these biofilms were more tolerant to biocidal NaOCl concentrations commonly used in the food processing plants.

15.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 14541, 2019 10 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31601882

RESUMO

Necrotic enteritis (NE) caused by Clostridium perfringens infection has reemerged as a prevalent poultry disease worldwide due to reduced usage of prophylactic antibiotics under consumer preferences and regulatory pressures. The lack of alternative antimicrobial strategies to control this disease is mainly due to limited insight into the relationship between NE pathogenesis, microbiome, and host responses. Here we showed that the microbial metabolic byproduct of secondary bile acid deoxycholic acid (DCA), at as low as 50 µM, inhibited 82.8% of C. perfringens growth in Tryptic Soy Broth (P < 0.05). Sequential Eimeria maxima and C. perfringens challenges significantly induced NE, severe intestinal inflammation, and body weight (BW) loss in broiler chickens. These negative effects were diminished (P < 0.05) by 1.5 g/kg DCA diet. At the cellular level, DCA alleviated NE-associated ileal epithelial death and significantly reduced lamina propria cell apoptosis. Interestingly, DCA reduced C. perfringens invasion into ileum (P < 0.05) without altering the bacterial ileal luminal colonization. Molecular analysis showed that DCA significantly reduced inflammatory mediators of Infγ, Litaf, Il1ß, and Mmp9 mRNA accumulation in ileal tissue. Mechanism studies revealed that C. perfringens induced (P < 0.05) elevated expression of inflammatory mediators of Infγ, Litaf, and Ptgs2 (Cyclooxygenases-2 (COX-2) gene) in chicken splenocytes. Inhibiting the COX signaling by aspirin significantly attenuated INFγ-induced inflammatory response in the splenocytes. Consistent with the in vitro assay, chickens fed 0.12 g/kg aspirin diet protected the birds against NE-induced BW loss, ileal inflammation, and intestinal cell apoptosis. In conclusion, microbial metabolic product DCA prevents NE-induced BW loss and ileal inflammation through attenuating inflammatory response. These novel findings of microbiome protecting birds against NE provide new options on developing next generation antimicrobial alternatives against NE.


Assuntos
Ácidos e Sais Biliares/química , Infecções por Clostridium/veterinária , Ácido Desoxicólico/farmacologia , Enterite/veterinária , Prostaglandina-Endoperóxido Sintases/metabolismo , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Apoptose , Galinhas , Clostridium perfringens/patogenicidade , Enterite/metabolismo , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Inflamação , Microbiota , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Baço/citologia , Tripsina/química
16.
Trop Doct ; 49(4): 320-322, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31335264

RESUMO

Liver abscesses, either pyogenic or amoebic, with or without the involvement of the pleura, are not infrequently encountered in children. Isolated tubercular liver abscess without active pulmonary, gastrointestinal or other clinical evidence of tuberculosis is, however, rare and more so its rupture into the pleura. We report a case of a 14-year-old girl who presented with a liver abscess rupturing into the pleura causing an empyema. Successful management was achieved by intercostal tube drainage and antitubercular treatment.


Assuntos
Abscesso Hepático/complicações , Tuberculose Hepática/complicações , Tuberculose Pleural/etiologia , Adolescente , Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Drenagem , Feminino , Humanos , Abscesso Hepático/tratamento farmacológico , Abscesso Hepático/patologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Tuberculose Hepática/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose Hepática/patologia , Tuberculose Pleural/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose Pleural/patologia , Tuberculose Pleural/cirurgia
17.
PLoS One ; 14(7): e0214705, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31276498

RESUMO

Despite reducing the prevalent foodborne pathogen Campylobacter jejuni in chickens decreases campylobacteriosis, few effective approaches are available. The aim of this study was to use microbial metabolic product bile acids to reduce C. jejuni chicken colonization. Broiler chicks were fed with deoxycholic acid (DCA), lithocholic acid (LCA), or ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA). The birds were also transplanted with DCA modulated anaerobes (DCA-Anaero) or aerobes (DCA-Aero). The birds were infected with human clinical isolate C. jejuni 81-176 or chicken isolate C. jejuni AR101. Notably, C. jejuni 81-176 was readily colonized intestinal tract at d16 and reached an almost plateau at d21. Remarkably, DCA excluded C. jejuni cecal colonization below the limit of detection at 16 and 28 days of age. Neither chicken ages of infection nor LCA or UDCA altered C. jejuni AR101 chicken colonization level, while DCA reduced 91% of the bacterium in chickens at d28. Notably, DCA diet reduced phylum Firmicutes but increased Bacteroidetes compared to infected control birds. Importantly, DCA-Anaero attenuated 93% of C. jejuni colonization at d28 compared to control infected birds. In conclusion, DCA shapes microbiota composition against C. jejuni colonization in chickens, suggesting a bidirectional interaction between microbiota and microbial metabolites.


Assuntos
Infecções por Campylobacter/veterinária , Campylobacter jejuni/fisiologia , Galinhas/microbiologia , Ácido Desoxicólico/uso terapêutico , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle , Substâncias Protetoras/uso terapêutico , Animais , Infecções por Campylobacter/metabolismo , Infecções por Campylobacter/microbiologia , Infecções por Campylobacter/prevenção & controle , Campylobacter jejuni/efeitos dos fármacos , Campylobacter jejuni/isolamento & purificação , Galinhas/metabolismo , Ácido Desoxicólico/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/metabolismo , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Substâncias Protetoras/metabolismo
18.
J Contemp Dent Pract ; 20(1): 64-70, 2019 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31058615

RESUMO

AIM: The aim of this in vitro investigation was to assess the impact of various anti-oxidants namely 5% proanthocyanidin, 10% sodium ascorbate, 10% alpha tocopherol, and 10% green tea on the bond strength of resin-based composite on bleached enamel. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred twenty human maxillary central incisors which were freshly extracted for periodontal reasons, having intact labial surface were us ed in this study. Specimens were randomly divided into six groups (n = 20). Group A: negative control-no bleaching treatment, group B-positive control -bleaching, group C-bleaching + 5% proanthocyanidins, group D-bleaching +10% green tea, group E - bleaching +10% alpha -tocopherol, group F-bleaching + 10% sodium ascorbate. Surfaces were etched followed by application of total-etch bonding system, and composite resin cylinders were bonded. Specimens were tested for shear bond strength using the universal testing machine. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: The data obtained were subjected to ANOVA and post hoc Tukey's test for statistical analysis. RESULTS: After using bleaching agents and antioxidants for the different groups, Group A has the highest bond strength and group B has the lowest bond strength. Amongst the antioxidants group D showed significantly higher bond strength as compared group C, group E, and group F. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Use of antioxidants instantly following the bleaching procedure and before resin bonding reverses the compromised bond strength of composite resin on bleached enamel without sitting tight for a time of one day to one month. CONCLUSION: Bleaching of enamel reduced the shear bond strength. All the antioxidants used in this study increased the bond strength of bleached enamel. Among the antioxidant groups, green tea extract showed significantly higher bond strength compared to proanthocyanidin, tocopherol, and sodium ascorbate.


Assuntos
Colagem Dentária , Clareamento Dental , Antioxidantes , Resinas Compostas , Esmalte Dentário , Análise do Estresse Dentário , Humanos , Resistência ao Cisalhamento
19.
Open Dent J ; 12: 735-741, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30369983

RESUMO

Aim: To determine the severity and distribution of occlusal tooth wear among young North Indian adults and to evaluate the correlation of occlusal tooth wear with bite force. Materials and Methods: A total of 164 subjects were enrolled in the present study. Inclusion criteria included subjects with age range of 25-40 years having a full complement of natural dentition (excluding third molars), with no history of orthodontic treatment, FPD and trauma. Maxillary and mandibular casts of each subject were taken. Tooth wear score of anterior and posterior teeth of both the arches was calculated using a five-point (0 to 4) ordinal scoring system. The calculated tooth wear scores were then compared with data concerning age, sex, number of daily meals, vegetarian/non-vegetarian diet, Group function/Canine guided occlusion and bite force. Nonparametric (Mann-Whitney) test was used to determine the relationship between various factors and occlusal tooth wear. Spearman's correlation coefficient was used to determine the correlation between tooth wear and bite force. Results: After applying statistical analysis to the data collected, total tooth wear score of the whole sample was 30.07 ± 6.39. Anterior teeth had significantly higher wear score than posteriors (P < 0.01). Males showed significantly higher (P < 0.001) tooth wear in both arches factors such as bite force and age showed significant correlation with tooth wear (P=0.000), however, the number of meals taken per day did not show any significant correlation. Higher tooth wear loss was seen in non vegetarian dietary pattern but it was statistically insignificant. It was also found that Group function occlusion showed significantly higher mean tooth wear loss 45.76 ± 9.19 as compared to Canine guided occlusion 26.37 ± 10.68 (P=0.000).

20.
Front Microbiol ; 9: 2050, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30233532

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to determine the effect of chlorine induced sublethal oxidative stress against homologous and heterologous stress adaptations in five Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) strains. Lm cells were exposed to gradually increasing sublethal concentrations of total chlorine/day: 250 ppm (day 1), 270 ppm (day 2), 290 ppm (day 3), 310 ppm (day 4), 330 ppm (day 5), 350 ppm (day 6), and 375 ppm (day 7) in tryptic soy broth (TSB). Changes in minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of Lm cells exposed to chlorine and control (non-adapted cells) were determined by the macro-dilution method. Chlorine-adapted Lm cells were also evaluated for changes in antibiotic resistance using the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion and MIC double dilution assay as per the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI, 2016) guidelines. In four Lm strains (Scott A, V7, FSL-N1-227 and FSL-F6-154) after adapted to sublethal chlorine, the MIC (600 ppm) and MBC (700 ppm) values of chlorine were slightly higher as compared to control (500 ppm MIC, and 600 ppm MBC). The Kirby-Bauer and MIC double dilution assays showed some significant changes in antibiotic susceptibility patterns for antibiotics such as streptomycin, gentamicin and ceftriaxone (p < 0.05). However, the changes in zones of inhibition and MIC values to all antibiotics tested for the chlorine-adapted and non-adapted (control) Lm cells were still within the susceptible range. Transmission electron microscopy studies showed that changes in cell wall and membrane integrity resulting, from the elongation of cells, may contribute to the possible routes of its increase in tolerance to chlorine and selective antibiotics. These findings indicate that the continuous exposure of Lm cells to chlorine may lead to significant changes in homologs and heterologous stress adaptation.

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