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1.
Am J Kidney Dis ; 2019 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31732235

RESUMO

RATIONALE & OBJECTIVES: Few studies have investigated racial disparities in survival among dialysis patients in a manner that considers risk factors and mortality during the phase of kidney disease before maintenance dialysis. Our objective was to explore racial variations in survival among dialysis patients and relate them to racial differences in comorbid conditions and rates of death in the setting of kidney disease not yet requiring dialysis therapy. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTINGS & PARTICIPANTS: 3,288 black and white participants in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC), none of whom were receiving dialysis at enrollment. EXPOSURE: Race. OUTCOME: Mortality. ANALYTIC APPROACH: Cox proportional hazards regression was used to examine the association between race and mortality starting at: (1) time of dialysis initiation and (2) entry into the CRIC. RESULTS: During 7.1 years of median follow-up, 678 CRIC participants started dialysis. Starting from the time of dialysis initiation, blacks had lower risk for death (unadjusted HR, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.51-0.87) compared with whites. Starting from baseline CRIC enrollment, the strength of the association between some risk factors and dialysis was notably stronger for whites than blacks. For example, the HR for dialysis onset in the presence (vs absence) of heart failure at CRIC enrollment was 1.30 (95% CI, 1.01-1.68) for blacks versus 2.78 (95% CI, 1.90-4.50) for whites, suggesting differential severity of these risk factors by race. When we included deaths occurring both before and after dialysis, risk for death was higher among blacks (vs whites) starting from CRIC enrollment (HR, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.22-1.64), but this finding was attenuated in adjusted models (HR, 1.08; 95% CI, 0.91-1.28). LIMITATIONS: Residual confounding. CONCLUSIONS: The apparent survival advantage among blacks over whites treated with dialysis may be attributed to selected transition of a subset of whites with more severe comorbid conditions onto dialysis.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31760429

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alterations in mineral metabolism, such as high phosphorus, high parathyroid hormone (PTH) and high fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23) have been identified as potential risk factors for heart failure (HF). Important differences in the prevalence of mineral metabolism abnormalities and in the risk of HF have been reported across race/ethnic groups. In this study, we evaluated whether the associations of mineral metabolism markers with HF differed by race/ethnicity. METHODS: We included participants free of cardiovascular disease from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis to quantify rates of HF overall and across race/ethnic groups. Using Cox models, we tested associations of baseline higher phosphorus (>4mg/dL), PTH >65 pg/ml and FGF-23 >46.5 pg/ml with incident HF, and for interactions by race/ethnicity, adjusting for sociodemographic and cardiovascular risk factors. RESULTS: Among the 6,413 participants, median follow-up time was 14.9 years. The incidence rate for HF was highest for Blacks and lowest for Chinese (4.71 and 2.42 per 1000 py, respectively). The prevalence of elevated PTH (18.8% vs. 7.4%) but not FGF-23 (23.1% vs. 28.8%) were higher in Blacks vs. Caucasians. In multivariable models, the associations of elevated PTH (HR 1.50, 95%CI: 1.13, 1.99) and FGF-23 (HR 1.37, 95%CI: 1.07, 1.75) with incident HF were statistically significant. However, the interactions by race/ethnicity were not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: In a multi-ethnic population, higher PTH and FGF23 were associated with the risk of HF in black and Hispanic individuals. There is no evidence that race/ethnicity modifies the association of altered mineral metabolism with risk of HF.

3.
Clin Chem ; 65(11): 1448-1457, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31578216

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Increases in cardiac and stress biomarkers may be associated with loss of kidney function through shared mechanisms involving cardiac and kidney injury. We evaluated the associations of cardiac and stress biomarkers [N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), high-sensitivity troponin T (hsTnT), growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF-15), soluble ST-2 (sST-2)] with progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). METHODS: We included 3664 participants with CKD from the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort study. All biomarkers were measured at entry. The primary outcome was CKD progression, defined as progression to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) or 50% decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Cox models tested the association of each biomarker with CKD progression, adjusting for demographics, site, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, eGFR, urine proteinuria, blood pressure, body mass index, cholesterol, medication use, and mineral metabolism. RESULTS: There were 1221 participants who had CKD progression over a median (interquartile range) follow-up of 5.8 (2.4-8.6) years. GDF-15, but not sST2, was significantly associated with an increased risk of CKD progression [hazard ratios (HRs) are per SD increase in log-transformed biomarker]: GDF-15 (HR, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.35-1.67) and sST2 (HR, 1.07; 95% CI, 0.99-1.14). NT-proBNP and hsTnT were also associated with increased risk of CKD progression, but weaker than GDF-15: NT-proBNP (HR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.13-1.36) and hsTnT (HR, 1.11; 95% CI, 1.01-1.22). CONCLUSIONS: Increases in GDF-15, NT-proBNP, and hsTnT are associated with greater risk for CKD progression. These biomarkers may inform mechanisms underlying kidney injury.

4.
Nat Genet ; 51(10): 1459-1474, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31578528

RESUMO

Elevated serum urate levels cause gout and correlate with cardiometabolic diseases via poorly understood mechanisms. We performed a trans-ancestry genome-wide association study of serum urate in 457,690 individuals, identifying 183 loci (147 previously unknown) that improve the prediction of gout in an independent cohort of 334,880 individuals. Serum urate showed significant genetic correlations with many cardiometabolic traits, with genetic causality analyses supporting a substantial role for pleiotropy. Enrichment analysis, fine-mapping of urate-associated loci and colocalization with gene expression in 47 tissues implicated the kidney and liver as the main target organs and prioritized potentially causal genes and variants, including the transcriptional master regulators in the liver and kidney, HNF1A and HNF4A. Experimental validation showed that HNF4A transactivated the promoter of ABCG2, encoding a major urate transporter, in kidney cells, and that HNF4A p.Thr139Ile is a functional variant. Transcriptional coregulation within and across organs may be a general mechanism underlying the observed pleiotropy between urate and cardiometabolic traits.

5.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(21): e012336, 2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31645163

RESUMO

Background Cardiac biomarkers may signal mechanistic pathways involved in heart failure (HF), a leading complication in chronic kidney disease. We tested the associations of NT-proBNP (N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide), high-sensitivity troponin T (hsTnT), galectin-3, growth differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15), and soluble ST2 (sST2) with incident HF in chronic kidney disease. Methods and Results We examined adults with chronic kidney disease enrolled in a prospective, multicenter study. All biomarkers were measured at baseline. The primary outcome was incident HF. Secondary outcomes included HF with preserved ejection fraction (EF≥50%) and reduced ejection fraction (EF<50%). Cox models were used to test the association of each cardiac biomarker with HF, adjusting for demographics, kidney function, cardiovascular risk factors, and medication use. Among 3314 participants, all biomarkers, with the exception of galectin-3, were significantly associated with increased risk of incident HF (hazard ratio per SD higher concentration of log-transformed biomarker): NT-proBNP (hazard ratio, 2.07; 95% CI, 1.79-2.39); hsTnT (hazard ratio, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.21-1.56); GDF-15 (hazard ratio, 1.44; 95% CI, 1.26-1.66) and sST2 (hazard ratio, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.05-1.35). Higher NT-proBNP, hsTnT, and GDF-15 were also associated with a greater risk of HF with reduced EF; while higher NT-proBNP GDF-15 and sST2 were associated with HF with preserved EF. Galectin-3 was not associated with either HF with reduced EF or HF with preserved EF. Conclusions In chronic kidney disease, elevations of NT-proBNP, hsTnT, GDF-15, sST2 were associated with incident HF. There was a borderline association of galectin-3 with incident HF. NT-proBNP and hsTnT were more strongly associated with HF with reduced EF, while the associations of the newer biomarkers GDF-15 and sST2 were stronger for HF with preserved EF.

6.
Semin Dial ; 32(6): 500-506, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31564065

RESUMO

Hypertension is highly prevalent and associated with poor clinical outcomes among individuals receiving maintenance hemodialysis (HD). Volume overload is a key modifiable contributor to hypertension and cardiovascular disease in the HD population. Despite their importance, assessment and treatment of volume overload and hypertension remain major clinical challenges and have substantial implications for both clinical outcomes and patient experiences of care. This review will summarize current data on the diagnosis, epidemiology, pathophysiology, and clinical consequences of hypertension and volume overload in HD patients. We will also identify priorities for future research studies.

7.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4130, 2019 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31511532

RESUMO

Increased levels of the urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) are associated with higher risk of kidney disease progression and cardiovascular events, but underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. Here, we conduct trans-ethnic (n = 564,257) and European-ancestry specific meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies of UACR, including ancestry- and diabetes-specific analyses, and identify 68 UACR-associated loci. Genetic correlation analyses and risk score associations in an independent electronic medical records database (n = 192,868) reveal connections with proteinuria, hyperlipidemia, gout, and hypertension. Fine-mapping and trans-Omics analyses with gene expression in 47 tissues and plasma protein levels implicate genes potentially operating through differential expression in kidney (including TGFB1, MUC1, PRKCI, and OAF), and allow coupling of UACR associations to altered plasma OAF concentrations. Knockdown of OAF and PRKCI orthologs in Drosophila nephrocytes reduces albumin endocytosis. Silencing fly PRKCI further impairs slit diaphragm formation. These results generate a priority list of genes and pathways for translational research to reduce albuminuria.

8.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(15): e012200, 2019 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31379242

RESUMO

Background We tested associations of cardiac biomarkers of myocardial stretch, injury, inflammation, and fibrosis with the risk of incident atrial fibrillation (AF) in a prospective study of chronic kidney disease patients. Methods and Results The study sample was 3053 participants with chronic kidney disease in the multicenter CRIC (Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort) study who were not identified as having AF at baseline. Cardiac biomarkers, measured at baseline, were NT-proBNP (N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide), high-sensitivity troponin T, galectin-3, growth differentiation factor-15, and soluble ST-2. Incident AF ("AF event") was defined as a hospitalization for AF. During a median follow-up of 8 years, 279 (9%) participants developed a new AF event. In adjusted models, higher baseline log-transformed NT-proBNP (N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide) was associated with incident AF (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] per SD higher concentration: 2.11; 95% CI, 1.75, 2.55), as was log-high-sensitivity troponin T (HR 1.42; 95% CI, 1.20, 1.68). These associations showed a dose-response relationship in categorical analyses. Although log-soluble ST-2 was associated with AF risk in continuous models (HR per SD higher concentration 1.35; 95% CI, 1.16, 1.58), this association was not consistent in categorical analyses. Log-galectin-3 (HR 1.05; 95% CI, 0.91, 1.22) and log-growth differentiation factor-15 (HR 1.16; 95% CI, 0.96, 1.40) were not significantly associated with incident AF. Conclusions We found strong associations between higher NT-proBNP (N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide) and high-sensitivity troponin T concentrations, and the risk of incident AF in a large cohort of participants with chronic kidney disease. Increased atrial myocardial stretch and myocardial cell injury may be implicated in the high burden of AF in patients with chronic kidney disease.

9.
Kidney Int ; 96(3): 728-737, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31301887

RESUMO

Recent European guidelines suggest using the kidney failure risk equation (KFRE) and mortality risk equation for kidney disease (MREK) to guide decisions on whether elderly patients with chronic kidney disease should be referred early for dialysis preparation. However, the concurrent use of the two risk equations has not been validated. To do so we evaluated 1,188 individuals over five years with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) under 45ml/min/1.73m2 and age over 65 years from the Norwegian population based HUNT study. Forty-two patients started renal replacement therapy and 462 died as their first clinical event. The KFRE was well calibrated (mean risk estimate 4.9% vs observed 3.5%) with high diagnostic accuracy (C-statistics 0.93). The MREK underestimated death risk in those with lower risk (mean risk estimate 30.1% vs observed 38.9%) and had moderate diagnostic accuracy (C-statistics 0.71). Only 31 individuals had estimated end stage kidney disease (ESRD) risk greater than death risk, and most experienced ESRD before death. Only two of 598 patients over 80 years old, and ten of 1,063 with eGFR 25-45ml/min/1.73m2 at baseline experienced ESRD. Decision curve analysis demonstrated that for risk adverse patients, deferring ESRD preparation may be appropriate until predicted ESRD risk exceeds predicted death risk. For those preferring a more aggressive approach, referral when eGFR is under 25 ml/min/1.73m2 may be beneficial if age remains under 80 years. Thus, the risk of ESRD is low compared to the risk of death in many older patients with chronic kidney disease stage 3b or worse, and combination of predicted ESRD and death risks, eGFR levels, age, and the patient`s valuations of harm and benefit can be helpful for deciding when to start dialysis preparations.

10.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 73(21): 2691-2700, 2019 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31146814

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Data on rates of heart failure (HF) hospitalizations, recurrent hospitalizations, and outcomes related to HF hospitalizations in chronic kidney disease (CKD) are limited. OBJECTIVES: This study examined rates of HF hospitalizations and re-hospitalizations within a large CKD population and evaluated the burden of HF hospitalizations with the risk of subsequent CKD progression and death. METHODS: The prospective CRIC (Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort) study measured the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) at baseline. The crude rates and rate ratios of HF hospitalizations and 30-day HF re-hospitalizations were calculated using Poisson regression models. Cox regression was used to assess the association of the frequency of HF hospitalizations within the first 2 years of follow-up with risk of subsequent CKD progression and death. RESULTS: Among 3,791 participants, the crude rate of HF admissions was 5.8 per 100 person-years (with higher rates of HF with preserved ejection fraction vs. HF with reduced ejection fraction). The adjusted rate of HF was higher with a lower eGFR (vs. eGFR >45 ml/min/1.73 m2); the rate ratios were 1.7 and 2.2 for eGFR 30 to 44 and <30 ml/min/1.73 m2 (vs. >45 ml/min/1.73 m2), respectively. Similarly, the adjusted rates of HF hospitalization were significantly higher in those with higher urine ACR (vs. urine ACR <30 mg/g); the rate ratios were 1.9 and 2.6 for urine ACR 30 to 299 and ≥300 mg/g, respectively. Overall, 20.6% of participants had a subsequent HF re-admission within 30 days. HF hospitalization within 2 years of study entry was associated with greater adjusted risks for CKD progression (1 hospitalization: hazard ratio [HR]: 1.93; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.40 to 2.67; 2+ hospitalizations: HR: 2.14; 95% CI: 1.30 to 3.54) and all-cause death (1 hospitalization: HR: 2.20; 95% CI: 1.71 to 2.84; 2+ hospitalizations: HR: 3.06; 95% CI: 2.23 to 4.18). CONCLUSIONS: Within a large U.S. CKD population, the rates of HF hospitalizations and re-hospitalization were high, with even higher rates across categories of lower eGFR and higher urine ACR. Patients with CKD hospitalized with HF had greater risks of CKD progression and death. HF prevention and treatment should be a public health priority to improve CKD outcomes.

11.
Nat Genet ; 51(6): 957-972, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31152163

RESUMO

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is responsible for a public health burden with multi-systemic complications. Through trans-ancestry meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and independent replication (n = 1,046,070), we identified 264 associated loci (166 new). Of these, 147 were likely to be relevant for kidney function on the basis of associations with the alternative kidney function marker blood urea nitrogen (n = 416,178). Pathway and enrichment analyses, including mouse models with renal phenotypes, support the kidney as the main target organ. A genetic risk score for lower eGFR was associated with clinically diagnosed CKD in 452,264 independent individuals. Colocalization analyses of associations with eGFR among 783,978 European-ancestry individuals and gene expression across 46 human tissues, including tubulo-interstitial and glomerular kidney compartments, identified 17 genes differentially expressed in kidney. Fine-mapping highlighted missense driver variants in 11 genes and kidney-specific regulatory variants. These results provide a comprehensive priority list of molecular targets for translational research.


Assuntos
Estudos de Associação Genética/métodos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/genética , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/fisiopatologia , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Humanos , Padrões de Herança , Testes de Função Renal , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/urina , Uromodulina/urina
12.
Am J Kidney Dis ; 74(4): 501-509, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31128770

RESUMO

RATIONALE & OBJECTIVE: Uromodulin is released by tubular epithelial cells into the serum and lower levels are associated with more severe interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy. Low serum uromodulin (sUMOD) levels are associated with mortality and cardiovascular disease. However, little is known about the association of sUMOD levels with long-term kidney outcomes in older adults, a population with a high prevalence of interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy. STUDY DESIGN: Case-cohort study and case-control study. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS: Random subcohort (n=933) and additional cases of end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) and kidney function decline (≥30% decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR]) during follow-up of the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS). PREDICTOR: sUMOD level. OUTCOMES: ESKD (n=14) from the random subcohort and all additional ESKD cases from outside the random subcohort (n=39) during follow-up (10 years, case-cohort study); kidney function decline of≥30% eGFR at 9 years of follow-up in individuals with repeated eGFR assessments from the random subcohort (n=56) and additional cases (n=123). 224 participants from the random subcohort served as controls (case-control study). ANALYTICAL APPROACH: Modified multivariable Cox regression for ESKD and multivariable logistic regression for kidney function decline. Both analyses adjusted for demographics, eGFR, urinary albumin-creatinine ratio, and other kidney disease progression risk factors. RESULTS: Mean age of the random subcohort was 78 years, 40% were men, 15% were black. Mean sUMOD level was 127±64ng/mL and eGFR was 63±19mL/min/1.73m2. In multivariable analysis, each 1-SD higher sUMOD level was associated with 63% lower risk for ESKD (HR, 0.37; 95% CI, 0.14-0.95). In demographic-adjusted analyses of kidney function decline, each 1-SD higher sUMOD level was associated with 25% lower odds of kidney function decline (OR, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.60-0.95); after multivariable adjustment, the association was attenuated and no longer significant (OR, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.68-1.14). LIMITATIONS: Possibility of survival bias in the kidney function decline analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Higher sUMOD levels may identify elderly persons at reduced risk for ESKD.

13.
Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens ; 28(3): 262-266, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30946179

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Heart failure is highly prevalent in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in this population. Heart failure therapies proven to benefit the general population may have different risk-benefit profiles in patients with concurrent CKD, plausibly because of the unique pathophysiology of heart failure in this population. The present review highlights recent advances in heart failure treatment as they apply to patients with CKD. RECENT FINDINGS: Several recent publications have shown possible benefits of established heart failure therapies to improve clinical outcomes in patients with CKD; while others conclude neutral or even harmful effects of heart failure therapies in CKD patients. Novel heart failure therapies show promise to improve outcomes in the general population and should be evaluated in future studies to further elucidate the efficacy and safety of these novel therapies specifically in patients with CKD. SUMMARY: Knowledge of heart failure treatment to improve clinical outcomes in the CKD population remains limited. Future studies should focus on patients with CKD to evaluate the generalizability of heart failure therapies to this patient population.

14.
Clin J Am Soc Nephrol ; 14(6): 844-853, 2019 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30996047

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Among people with diabetes mellitus, CKD may promote hypoglycemia through altered clearance of glucose-lowering medications, decreased kidney gluconeogenesis, and blunted counter-regulatory response. We conducted a prospective observational study of hypoglycemia among 105 individuals with type 2 diabetes treated with insulin or a sulfonylurea using continuous glucose monitors. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS & MEASUREMENTS: We enrolled 81 participants with CKD, defined as eGFR<60 ml/min per 1.73 m2, and 24 control participants with eGFR≥60 ml/min per 1.73 m2 frequency-matched on age, duration of diabetes, hemoglobin A1c, and glucose-lowering medications. Each participant wore a continuous glucose monitor for two 6-day periods. We examined rates of sustained level 1 hypoglycemia (<70 mg/dl) and level 2 hypoglycemia (<54 mg/dl) among participants with CKD. We then tested differences compared with control participants as well as a second control population (n=73) using Poisson and linear regression, adjusting for age, sex, and race. RESULTS: Over 890 total days of continuous glucose monitoring, participants with CKD were observed to have 255 episodes of level 1 hypoglycemia, of which 68 episodes reached level 2 hypoglycemia. Median rate of hypoglycemic episodes was 5.3 (interquartile range, 0.0-11.7) per 30 days and mean time spent in hypoglycemia was 28 (SD 37) minutes per day. Hemoglobin A1c and the glucose management indicator were the main clinical correlates of time in hypoglycemia (adjusted differences 6 [95% confidence interval, 2 to 10] and 13 [95% confidence interval, 7 to 20] fewer minutes per day per 1% higher hemoglobin A1c or glucose management indicator, respectively). Compared with control populations, participants with CKD were not observed to have significant differences in time in hypoglycemia (adjusted differences 4 [95% confidence interval, -12 to 20] and -12 [95% confidence interval, -29 to 5] minutes per day). CONCLUSIONS: Among people with type 2 diabetes and moderate to severe CKD, hypoglycemia was common, particularly with tighter glycemic control, but not significantly different from groups with similar clinical characteristics and preserved eGFR.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30903163

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Uromodulin (UMOD) is released by renal tubular cells into the serum (sUMOD) and urine. Lower urine UMOD has been linked to mortality and cardiovascular disease but much less is known about sUMOD. We evaluated the association of sUMOD with these outcomes in community-dwelling older adults. METHODS: We measured sUMOD in a random subcohort of 933 participants enrolled in the Cardiovascular Health Study. The associations of sUMOD with all-cause mortality, incident heart failure (HF) and incident cardiovascular disease (CVD; myocardial infarction, stroke and mortality due to coronary disease or stroke) were evaluated using multivariable Cox regression, adjusting for study participants' demographics, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), albuminuria and CVD risk factors. Generalized additive models with splines were used to address the functional form of sUMOD with outcomes. Due to nonlinear associations of sUMOD with all outcomes, 2.5% of the values on either end of the sUMOD distribution were excluded from the analyses, limiting the range of sUMOD to 34.3-267.1 ng/mL. RESULTS: The mean age was 78 ± 5 years, 40% were male, sUMOD level was 127 ± 64 ng/mL, eGFR was 63 mL/min/1.73 m2 and 42% had CKD defined as eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2. Patients in the lower sUMOD quartiles had lower eGFR and higher albuminuria (P < 0.01, respectively). During a median follow-up of 9.9 years, 805 patients died, 283 developed HF and 274 developed CVD. In multivariable analysis, higher sUMOD was significantly associated with a lower hazard for mortality {hazard ratio [HR] 0.89 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.80-0.99] per 1 standard deviation (SD) higher sUMOD}, CVD [HR 0.80 (95% CI 0.67-0.96)] and the composite endpoint [HR 0.88 (95% CI 0.78-0.99)]; the association with HF was not statistically significant [HR 0.84 (95% CI 0.70-1.01)]. CONCLUSION: Higher sUMOD is independently associated with a lower risk for mortality and CVD in older adults.

16.
Clin J Am Soc Nephrol ; 14(4): 549-556, 2019 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30890578

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Cardiac arrhythmias increase mortality and morbidity in CKD. We evaluated the rates of subclinical arrhythmias in a population with type 2 diabetes and patients with moderate to severe CKD who were not on dialysis. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS & MEASUREMENTS: This is a prospective observational study, using continuous ambulatory cardiac monitors to determine the rate of atrial and ventricular arrhythmias, as well as conduction abnormalities in this group. RESULTS: A total of 38 patients (34% women), with mean eGFR of 38±13 ml/min per 1.73 m2, underwent ambulatory cardiac monitoring for 11.2±3.9 days. The overall mean rate of any cardiac arrhythmia was 88.8 (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 27.1 to 184.6) episodes per person-year (PY). A history of cardiovascular disease was associated with a higher rate of detected arrhythmia (rate ratio, 5.87; 95% CI, 1.37 to 25.21; P<0.001). The most common arrhythmia was atrial fibrillation, which was observed in two participants with known atrial fibrillation and was a new diagnosis in four patients (11%), none of whom experienced symptoms. Overall, atrial fibrillation episodes occurred at a rate of 37.6 (95% CI, 2.4 to 112.3) per PY. Conduction abnormalities were found in eight patients (21%), a rate of 26.5 (95% CI, 4.2 to 65.5) per PY. Rates of ventricular arrhythmias were low (14.5 per PY; 95% CI, 4.3 to 32.0) and driven by premature ventricular contractions. CONCLUSIONS: Cardiac rhythm abnormalities are common in patients with diabetes with moderate to severe CKD not requiring dialysis. Rates of atrial fibrillation are high and episodes are asymptomatic. Future studies are needed to determine the role of screening and upstream therapy of cardiac arrhythmias in this group.

18.
Can J Cardiol ; 34(12): 1631-1640, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30527152

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The risks and subsequent outcomes of syncope among seniors with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are unclear. METHODS: We conducted a population-based retrospective cohort study of 272,146 patients ≥ 66 years old, in Ontario, Canada, from April 1, 2006, to March 31, 2016. Using administrative health care databases, we examined the association of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and urine albumin to creatinine ratio (ACR) with incident syncope and the association of incident syncope with the composite outcome of myocardial infarction, stroke, and death by levels of eGFR/ACR, using adjusted Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS: A total of 15,074 incident syncopal events occurred during the study period. The adjusted risk for syncope was higher with a lower eGFR and higher ACR in a stepwise manner (eGFR 60 to < 90: HR 1.17 [1.09-1.26] vs eGFR < 30: HR 1.67 (1.50-1.87) with eGFR ≥ 90 referent; ACR > 30: HR 1.15 [1.07-1.24] with ACR < 3 referent). Among the 12,710 patients with a first syncope event and 1 year of follow-up, the adjusted risk for the composite outcome was higher with a lower eGFR and higher ACR in a stepwise manner (eGFR 60 to < 90: HR 1.05 [0.90-1.22] vs eGFR < 30: HR 1.62 [1.34-1.96] with eGFR ≥ 90 referent; ACR > 30: HR 1.77 [1.60-1.96], ACR < 3 referent). CONCLUSIONS: A lower eGFR and higher ACR are associated with a higher risk of a hospital encounter for syncope and of related complications among persons of advanced age.


Assuntos
Albuminúria/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Síncope/epidemiologia , Idoso , Arritmias Cardíacas/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Creatinina/análise , Feminino , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Ontário/epidemiologia , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia
19.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 29(12): 2859-2869, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30377231

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation (AF), the most common sustained arrhythmia in CKD, is associated with poor clinical outcomes in both patients without CKD and patients with dialysis-treated ESRD. However, less is known about AF-associated outcomes in patients with CKD who do not require dialysis. METHODS: To prospectively examine the association of new-onset AF with subsequent risks of cardiovascular disease events and death among adults with CKD, we studied participants enrolled in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort Study who did not have AF at baseline. Outcomes included heart failure, myocardial infarction, stroke, and death occurring after diagnosis of AF. We used Cox regression models and marginal structural models to examine the association of incident AF with subsequent risk of cardiovascular disease events and death, adjusting for patient characteristics, laboratory values, and medication use. RESULTS: Among 3080 participants, 323 (10.5%) developed incident AF during a mean 6.1 years of follow-up. Compared with participants who did not develop AF, those who did had higher adjusted rates of heart failure (hazard ratio [HR], 5.17; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 3.89 to 6.87), myocardial infarction (HR, 3.64; 95% CI, 2.50 to 5.31), stroke (HR, 2.66; 95% CI, 1.50 to 4.74), and death (HR, 3.30; 95% CI, 2.65 to 4.12). These associations remained robust with additional adjustment for biomarkers of inflammation, cardiac stress, and mineral metabolism; left ventricular mass; ejection fraction; and left atrial diameter. CONCLUSIONS: Incident AF is independently associated with two- to five-fold increased rates of developing subsequent heart failure, myocardial infarction, stroke, or death in adults with CKD. These findings have important implications for cardiovascular risk reduction.

20.
Hypertension ; 72(3): 602-609, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30354757

RESUMO

We sought to estimate the prevalence of hypertension and characteristics of hypertensive adults in the United States according to blood pressure (BP) thresholds used for diagnosis and estimate their associated cardiovascular disease risk. Analyses included adults 20 years of age or older in the 2013 to 2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (N=5389) and enrolled participants in SPRINT (Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial; N=9361) and the ACCORD-BP trial (Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes-Blood Pressure; N=4733). In the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, prevalence estimates incorporated the probability of observing elevated BP on 2 separate occasions. Using the new BP thresholds of ≥130/80 mm Hg, ≈24 million new American adults would be diagnosed as having hypertension and 4.3 million would be recommended to start antihypertensive medications. These individuals would have a lower mean atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk (17%) than participants in SPRINT and ACCORD-BP (22% and 27%) and would be less likely to have prevalent cardiovascular disease (9% versus 17% and 34%). In SPRINT and ACCORD-BP, only a minority (9% and 13%) of participants were not on antihypertensive medications at baseline, and rates of incident cardiovascular disease in these participants were substantially lower compared with those on baseline BP medications. We conclude that adopting the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guidelines would lead to a substantial increase in the prevalence of hypertension and in the number of American adults recommended to start antihypertensive medications. These individuals would have a substantially lower cardiovascular risk than most participants previously studied in 2 large BP trials.

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