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Horm Metab Res ; 53(9): 575-587, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34496408


Global warming and the rising prevalence of obesity are well described challenges of current mankind. Most recently, the COVID-19 pandemic arose as a new challenge. We here attempt to delineate their relationship with each other from our perspective. Global greenhouse gas emissions from the burning of fossil fuels have exponentially increased since 1950. The main contributors to such greenhouse gas emissions are manufacturing and construction, transport, residential, commercial, agriculture, and land use change and forestry, combined with an increasing global population growth from 1 billion in 1800 to 7.8 billion in 2020 along with rising obesity rates since the 1980s. The current Covid-19 pandemic has caused some decline in greenhouse gas emissions by limiting mobility globally via repetitive lockdowns. Following multiple lockdowns, there was further increase in obesity in wealthier populations, malnutrition from hunger in poor populations and death from severe infection with Covid-19 and its virus variants. There is a bidirectional relationship between adiposity and global warming. With rising atmospheric air temperatures, people typically will have less adaptive thermogenesis and become less physically active, while they are producing a higher carbon footprint. To reduce obesity rates, one should be willing to learn more about the environmental impact, how to minimize consumption of energy generating carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gas emissions, and to reduce food waste. Diets lower in meat such as a Mediterranean diet, have been estimated to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 72%, land use by 58%, and energy consumption by 52%.

Mudança Climática , Obesidade/etiologia , Agricultura/economia , Agricultura/tendências , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/patologia , Mudança Climática/história , Comorbidade , Disruptores Endócrinos/toxicidade , Meio Ambiente , Exposição Ambiental/história , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Gases de Efeito Estufa/toxicidade , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/metabolismo , Pandemias , Fatores de Risco
Blood Rev ; 46: 100743, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32829962


A novel coronavirus termed as COVID-19 by WHO has been the causative agent of an unprecedented pandemic in the history of humanity. The global burden of mortality and morbidity associated with this pandemic continues to increase with each passing day as it is progressively leading to multiorgan dysfunction. In most cases, the cause of death has been attributed to respiratory failure, sepsis, cardiac failure, kidney injury, or coagulopathy. As more knowledge is being unfolded, an in-depth understanding of various systemic manifestations and complications of SARS-CoV2 is vital for optimum management of these patients. This novel virus is known to spread faster than its two ancestors, the SARS-CoV and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), demonstrating a case fatality ranging from 5 to 8% [1]. Hematological abnormalities such as lymphopenia, thrombocytopenia, elevated D-Dimer, elevated fibrinogen, elevated fibrinogen degradation products as well as cytokines such as IL-6 are emerging as important prognostic marker for worse outcome of COVID-19. Among various systemic manifestations, hematological complications such as venous thrombosis causing pulmonary embolism or deep vein thrombosis, and arterial thrombosis causing myocardial infarction, strokes or limb ischemia are being noted to be directly linked to high mortality from COVID-19. An attempt to understand the pathophysiology of various hematological abnormalities including cytokine storm, hypercoagulable state and some rare presentations of this disease hence becomes imperative. Through this review, we aim to provide an up-to-date summary of current evidence-based literature of hematological manifestations, their consequences and management including role of anticoagulation and drugs targeting cytokine storm in patients with SARS-CoV-2.

Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea/virologia , COVID-19/sangue , Citocinas/sangue , Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea/sangue , Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea/imunologia , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/virologia , Citocinas/imunologia , Humanos , Prognóstico , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 106(2): e460-e468, 2021 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756962


BACKGROUND: Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) is a rare inherited disorder predisposing the development of multiple functional and nonfunctional neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). Only uncommon MEN1-associated functional NETs such as glucagonomas (<1%) and adenocorticotropic hormone-producing tumors (<5%) are known to be associated with hypercoagulability. It is unknown if patients with MEN1 generally have an increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). METHODS: We queried a prospective natural history study of germline mutation-positive MEN1 patients (n = 286) between 1991 and 2019 for all lifetime events of VTE. The search terms were: DVT, thromb, embol, PE, pulmonary embolism, clot, hematology consult, anticoagulant, coumadin, lovenox, xarelto, warfarin, aspirin, rivaroxaban, and apixaban. Incidence rates were calculated, accounting for age and sex. Comparisons were made to published incidence rates in healthy populations, different types of cancer, and Cushing's syndrome. RESULTS: Thirty-six subjects (median age 45 years, range 16-75) experienced a VTE event, yielding a prevalence rate of 12.9%. The age-sex adjusted incidence rate of VTE is 9.11 per 1000 patient-years, with a sex-adjusted lifetime incidence rate of 2.81 per 1000 patient-years. MEN1-associated lifetime incidence rates are ~2-fold higher than the estimated annual incidence rate in the general population and are comparable to the known risk in the setting of various types of cancer. Approximately 80% of patients who had a VTE were diagnosed with pancreatic NETs, of which 24% were insulinomas. Fourteen patients (42%) experienced perioperative VTE events. CONCLUSIONS: MEN1 patients have an increased risk of VTE. Further mechanistic investigation and validation from other MEN1 cohorts are needed to confirm the increased prevalence of VTE in MEN1.

Endocrinology ; 161(10)2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32603424


The ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is caused by the novel coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Individuals with metabolic syndrome are at increased risk for poor disease outcomes and mortality from COVID-19. The pathophysiologic mechanisms for these observations have not been fully elucidated. A critical interaction between SARS-CoV-2 and the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) facilitates viral entry into the host cell. ACE2 is expressed in pancreatic islets, vascular endothelium, and adipose tissue, and the SARS-CoV-2 -ACE2 interaction in these tissues, along with other factors, governs the spectrum and the severity of clinical manifestations among COVID-19 patients with metabolic syndrome. Moreover, the pro-inflammatory milieu observed in patients with metabolic syndrome may contribute toward COVID-19-mediated host immune dysregulation, including suboptimal immune responses, hyperinflammation, microvascular dysfunction, and thrombosis. This review describes the spectrum of clinical features, the likely pathophysiologic mechanisms, and potential implications for the management of metabolic syndrome in COVID-19 patients.

Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Síndrome Metabólica/fisiopatologia , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2 , Animais , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , COVID-19 , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/metabolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Sistema Endócrino/metabolismo , Sistema Endócrino/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Sistema Imunitário/imunologia , Sistema Imunitário/fisiopatologia , Síndrome Metabólica/imunologia , Síndrome Metabólica/metabolismo , Microvasos/fisiopatologia , Pandemias , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/genética , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , SARS-CoV-2
AACE Clin Case Rep ; 6(2): e65-e69, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32524013


Objective: Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) can involve multiple organ systems but endocrine manifestations are rare. In most cases adrenal insufficiency (AI) is the first endocrine manifestation of APS. The prompt diagnosis of AI is critical as this disorder is a life-threatening disease that may lead to fatal outcomes if left untreated. We present a case of AI associated with APS the patient was diagnosed promptly and managed successfully. Methods: The diagnosis of APS was based on a combination of clinical features (deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism) and laboratory findings (lupus anticoagulant, anticardiolipin antibody, anti-beta-2 glycoprotein-I antibody), without alternative diagnosis to explain the clinical findings. AI was diagnosed by low morning serum cortisol with elevated adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) level as well as an ACTH stimulation test. Results: A 50-year-old male presented with deep venous thrombosis of the left extremity diagnosed by compressive ultrasound, and was subsequently diagnosed with a pulmonary embolism by computed tomography angiography and treated with heparin. Two days later, he developed hypotension and bilateral flank pain, and an abdominal computed tomography scan revealed bilateral adrenal hemorrhage. Laboratory results showed a serum cortisol of 3.3 mcg/dL (stress normal, 25 to 35 mcg/dL) and ACTH of 319 pg/mL (stress normal, 128 to 218 pg/mL), consistent with primary AI. Symptoms improved quickly with hydrocortisone therapy. The patient still required glucocorticoid therapy for at least 4 years thereafter. Conclusion: In all cases of adrenal hemorrhage and infarction with unknown etiology, screening with lupus anticoagulant and anticardiolipin antibodies is imperative. Recognition of this high-mortality condition allows for appropriate screening and confirmatory tests leading to a prompt diagnosis and timely management.

Indian Heart J ; 69(2): 244-251, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28460774


Nanomedicine is one of the most promising therapeutic modalities researchers are working on. It involves development of drugs and devices that work at the nanoscale (10-9m). Coronary artery disease (CAD) is responsible for more than a third of all deaths in age group >35 years. With such a huge burden of mortality, CAD is one of the diseases where nanomedicine is being employed for preventive and therapeutic interventions. Nanomedicine can effectively deliver focused drug payload at sites of local plaque formation. Non-invasive strategies include thwarting angiogenesis, intra-arterial thrombosis and local inflammation. Invasive strategies following percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) include anti-restenosis and healing enhancement. However, before practical application becomes widespread, many challenges need to be dealt with. These include manufacturing at the nanoscale, direct nanomaterial cellular toxicity and visualization.

Doença da Artéria Coronariana/terapia , Nanomedicina/métodos , Humanos , Resultado do Tratamento