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1.
Environ Pollut ; 292(Pt A): 118021, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34654571

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Accelerating evidence of endocrine-related morbidity has raised alarm about the ubiquitous use of phthalates in the human environment, but studies have not directly evaluated mortality in relation to these exposures. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate associations of phthalate exposure with mortality, and quantify attributable mortality and lost economic productivity in 2013-4 among 55-64 year olds. DESIGN: This nationally representative cohort study included 5303 adults aged 20 years or older who participated in the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001-2010 and provided urine samples for phthalate metabolite measurements. Participants were linked to mortality data from survey date through December 31, 2015. Data analyses were conducted in July 2020. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Mortality from all causes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. RESULTS: Multivariable models identified increased mortality in relation to high-molecular weight (HMW) phthalate metabolites, especially those of di-2-ethylhexylphthalate (DEHP). Hazard ratios (HR) for continuous HMW and DEHP metabolites were 1.14 (95% CI 1.06-1.23) and 1.10 (95% CI 1.03-1.19), respectively, with consistently higher mortality in the third tertile (1.48, 95% CI 1.19-1.86; and 1.42, 95% CI 1.13-1.78). Cardiovascular mortality was significantly increased in relation to a prominent DEHP metabolite, mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl)phthalate. Extrapolating to the population of 55-64 year old Americans, we identified 90,761-107,283 attributable deaths and $39.9-47.1 billion in lost economic productivity. CONCLUSIONS: In a nationally representative sample, phthalate exposures were associated with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality, with societal costs approximating $39 billion/year or more. While further studies are needed to corroborate observations and identify mechanisms, regulatory action is urgently needed.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Ácidos Ftálicos , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Custos e Análise de Custo , Exposição Ambiental , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais
2.
Environ Pollut ; 292(Pt B): 118419, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34751155

RESUMO

Toxicological and epidemiological studies implicate exposure to dithiocarbamate (DTC) fungicides in adverse health outcomes. However, there is limited information about human exposure to these chemicals. This systematic review determined to which extent human populations worldwide, including children, pregnant women, and adults, are exposed environmentally or occupationally to DTC pesticides and how these exposures compare to the NHANES 2003-2008 population, using urinary ETU data as an outcome measure. PubMed, Embase, and SciFinder were searched using the keywords "ethylenethiourea" or CAS No.: 96-45-7, and urine or urinary. Duplicates and irrelevant studies were removed from the search results based on predetermined exclusion criteria. This screening process identified 17 relevant papers. One additional paper was found independent of this search. Data from studies were extracted using a pre-established data collection form. Ten, two, and five manuscripts reported urinary levels in environmentally exposed adults, children, and pregnant women, respectively. Median ETU levels ranged from 0.15 to 4.7 µg/g creatinine in adults (1994-2017), 0.24-0.83 µg/g creatinine in children (2011), and 2.6-5.24 ng/ml in pregnant women (2011). Eight studies reported urinary ETU levels in mostly agriculturally exposed populations, with median ETU levels ranging from 0.42 to 49.6 µg/g creatinine (1999-2011). With one exception, all studies were conducted between 1994 and 2011. ETU levels in the NHANES 2003-2008 population appeared to be generally lower than most studies identified in this review. This finding suggests that, historically, DTC fungicide exposures in the general population of high-income countries, such as the US, were low, whereas agricultural populations may have experienced higher exposure. Unfortunately, more recent exposure data are missing, especially in countries where DTC pesticides are not being phased out.


Assuntos
Etilenotioureia , Fungicidas Industriais , Adulto , Monitoramento Biológico , Biomarcadores , Criança , Etilenotioureia/análise , Feminino , Fungicidas Industriais/análise , Fungicidas Industriais/toxicidade , Humanos , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Gravidez
3.
Conscious Cogn ; 97: 103260, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34920252

RESUMO

Dual process theory proposes that there are two different types of human thinking: an intuitive process and an analytical process. However, if these two types of thinking could maintain their characteristics in the subliminal environment, further exploration of their relationship is required. This study used the Embedded Chinese Character Task (ECCT) with event-related potentials to investigate the behavioral and neural patterns of the intuitive and analytical processes in the subliminal environment. In this task, one Chinese character (target character) was extracted from another character (test character) with problem solving that required either an intuitive process (in which the two characters were spatially separated or adjacent) or analytical process (in which the target characters were embedded in the test characters). Participants were asked to judge whether the target character was included or excluded from the test character in the subliminal environment. Results showed that a difference in reaction time occurred between inclusion and exclusion only in the analytical materials, but there was a difference in N2 between the inclusion and exclusion conditions in both intuitive and analytical materials, indicating that participants preferred to choose intuitive processing to solve intuitive and analytical problems in an unconscious environment. These findings support the traditional dual process theory, which states that the intuitive process is unconscious and effortless, while the analytical process may perform like an intuitive process in a subliminal environment.

4.
Front Surg ; 8: 771587, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34881287

RESUMO

Background: Studies investigating prognostic factors of solid pseudopapillary neoplasm (SPN) have been published with conflicting findings. Methods: Retrospective analysis of 63 consecutive cases of SPN in our institution from January 2010 to December 2019 was carried out. The clinicopathological features, treatment practices along with survival associations were collected and analyzed. Results: Fifteen patients (23.8%) were male, and 48 (76.2%) were female, with a median age of 34.0 ± 14.5 years. The larger tumor size was correlated with the more mixed components (p = 0.000) and the higher Ki-67 index (p = 0.042). No recurrence was found in the nine patients whose tumors fulfilled the WHO criteria for malignancy due to the presence of at least perineural invasion (6.4%), angiovascular invasion (2.3%), and/or adjacent organ invasion (6.4%). Microscopic infiltrative growth was detected in 9 (14.3%) tumors, which was correlated significantly with the WHO criteria (p = 0.002), capsule invasion (p = 0.005), and pancreatic parenchyma invasion (p = 0.001), but not with disease-free survival (p = 0.13). CD99 was found to be positively expressed in 88.9% (40/45) of tumors and more likely to have depressed Ki-67 index (p = 0.016). After a median follow-up of 58 months, only two patients (3.2%) had a recurrence after their first operation outside of our hospital. No patient died due to tumor progression. Conclusions: Although survival is favorable with aggressive surgery, it is actually difficult to assess the prognostic factors of resected SPNs. Future investigations into the role of clinicopathological evaluation will unveil the prognostic enigma of pancreatic SPN after resection.

5.
Small ; : e2105716, 2021 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34889048

RESUMO

Probiotic Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 (EcN) are employed as a bioreactor for intracellularly synthesizing tellurium nanorods (TeNRs) providing a biohybrid therapeutic platform (Te@EcN) for the elimination of advanced malignant tumor by photothermal immunotherapy. Te@EcN is found to possess superior photothermal property upon near-infrared irradiation, and can efficiently accumulate and retain in tumors, although EcN loses proliferation ability after the synthesis of TeNRs, thus inducing considerable immunogenic tumor cell death. Under co-stimulation by EcN acting as immunoadjuvants, maturation of dendritic cells and priming of cytotoxic T cells are largely promoted. In addition, Te@EcN can reprogram tumor-associated macrophages to ameliorate the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment. Thus, tumor metastasis and recurrence can be efficiently suppressed. Most importantly, owing to the non-pathogenicity of probiotic EcN and their non-proliferative characteristics after TeNRs synthesis, Te@EcN is found to be rapidly metabolized and cleared from the normal tissues, showing very slight acute side effects in healthy mice even at a relatively high administration dose. Therefore, the proposed combined therapeutic strategy based on bacteria-synthesized TeNRs may find great potential in improving bacteria-mediated tumor therapy with increased antitumor efficacy and reduced toxicity.

6.
World J Clin Cases ; 9(33): 10257-10264, 2021 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34904097

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Kabuki syndrome (KS) is a rare syndrome characterized by multisystem congenital anomalies and developmental disorder. KMT2D and KDM6A mutations were identified as the main causative genes in KS patients. There are few case reports and genetic analyses, especially of KDM6A gene mutation, in China. CASE SUMMARY: This study reports a de novo KDM6A mutation in a Chinese infant with KS. A 2-month-old Chinese baby was diagnosed with KS, which manifested as hypoglycemia, congenital anal atresia at birth, feeding difficulties, hypotonia, and serious postnatal growth retardation. He died of recurrent respiratory infections at age 13 mo. DNA sequencing of his blood DNA revealed a novel KDM6A frameshift mutation (c.704_705delAG, p. N236Sfs*26) (GRCh37/hg19). CONCLUSION: We present a Chinese KS patient with a novel KDM6A frameshift mutation (c.704_705delAG, p. N236Sfs*26) (GRCh37/hg19), broadening the mutation spectrum.

7.
Front Cell Dev Biol ; 9: 761350, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34901006

RESUMO

Uveal melanoma is the most common primary intraocular tumor with a poor prognosis. Currently, treatment for UVM is limited, and the development of drug resistance and tumor recurrence are common. Therefore, it is important to identify new prognostic biomarkers of UVM and explore their role in the tumor microenvironment. Pyroptosis is a way of cell programmed death, and related research is in full throttle. However, the role of pyroptosis in UVM is unclear. In this study, we constructed the prognosis model of pyroptosis-related genes of UVM. This model can accurately guide the prognosis of UVM, and different groups differ in immune infiltration. We further verified our results in cell experiments. To some extent, our study can provide new ideas for the diagnosis and treatment of UVM.

8.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(11): e2136367, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34842923

RESUMO

Importance: Although seafood is known to contain heart-healthy omega-3 fatty acids, many people choose to limit their seafood consumption because of fear of mercury exposure from seafood. It is imperative to clarify the potential health effects of current mercury exposure in contemporary populations. Objective: To examine the association of seafood consumption and mercury exposure with all-cause and cardiovascular disease (CVD)-related mortality in the US general population. Design, Setting, and Participants: This prospective cohort study included adults 20 years or older who participated in the 2003 to 2012 cycles of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey; data were linked to mortality records through December 31, 2015. Data analysis was performed from January to March 10, 2021. Exposures: Seafood consumption was assessed through two 24-hour dietary recalls, and mercury exposure was assessed by blood mercury levels. Main Outcomes and Measures: All-cause and CVD-related mortality. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs of mortality associated with usual seafood consumption and blood mercury concentration quartiles. Results: This study included 17 294 participants (mean [SD] age, 45.9 [17.1] years; 9217 [53.3%] female) with a mean (SD) blood mercury concentration of 1.62 (2.46) µg/L. During 131 276 person-years of follow-up, 1076 deaths occurred, including 181 deaths from CVD. The multivariable-adjusted HR for an increase in seafood consumption of 1 oz equivalent per day and all-cause mortality was 0.84 (95% CI, 0.66-1.07) and for CVD-related mortality was 0.89 (95% CI, 0.54-1.47). Blood mercury level was not associated with all-cause or CVD-related mortality. Comparing the highest with the lowest quartile of blood mercury concentration, the multivariable-adjusted HRs were 0.82 (95% CI, 0.66-1.05) for all-cause mortality and 0.90 (95% CI, 0.53-1.52) for CVD-related mortality. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study of US adults, seafood consumption and mercury exposure with the current seafood consumption level were not significantly associated with the risk of all-cause or CVD-related mortality. These findings may inform future public health guidelines regarding mercury exposure, seafood consumption, and cardiovascular health promotion.

9.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(11): e2133413, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34842927

RESUMO

Importance: Maternal infection has been implicated in the pathogenesis of preterm birth through intrauterine inflammatory response. Chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis are among the most common sexually transmitted infections worldwide, but studies on their association with preterm birth are sparse. Objective: To examine the association between maternal chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis infections in pregnancy and the risk of preterm birth in a large population-based study in the US. Design, Setting, and Participants: This population-based retrospective cohort study examined nationwide birth certificate data from the US National Vital Statistics System between 2016 and 2019. All mothers who had a singleton live birth and available data on chlamydia, gonorrhea, or syphilis infection before or during pregnancy and gestational age at birth were included in analysis. Exposures: Sexually transmitted infection (chlamydia, gonorrhea, or syphilis) occurring before or during pregnancy. Main Outcomes and Measures: Preterm birth, defined as gestational age less than 37 weeks. Results: This study included 14 373 023 mothers (mean [SD] age 29 [5.8] years; Hispanic, 3 435 333 [23.9%]; non-Hispanic Asian, 912 425 [6.3%]; non-Hispanic Black, 2 058 006 [14.3%]; and non-Hispanic White, 7 386 568 [51.4%]). Among the mothers, 267 260 (1.9%) had chlamydia, 43 147 (0.3%) had gonorrhea, and 16 321 (0.1%) had syphilis. Among the newborns, 1 146 800 (8.0%) were preterm births. The rate of preterm birth was 9.9%, 12.2%, and 13.3% among women with chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis infection, respectively. After adjustment for sociodemographic and medical and/or health factors, the adjusted odds ratio of preterm birth was 1.03 (95% CI, 1.02-1.04) for chlamydia, 1.11 (95% CI, 1.08-1.15) for gonorrhea, 1.17 (95% CI, 1.11-1.22) for syphilis, and 1.06 (95% CI, 1.05-1.07) for any of these sexually transmitted infections comparing mothers with these conditions and those without. Conclusions and Relevance: Maternal sexually transmitted infections (gonorrhea, syphilis, or chlamydia) were associated with an increased risk of preterm birth. Pregnant women with sexually transmitted infections before or during pregnancy might benefit from targeted prevention for preterm birth.

10.
J Sleep Res ; : e13515, 2021 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34766410

RESUMO

Sleep behaviour is an important contributing factor in healthy human ageing and cognitive function. Previous studies have linked sleep deficiency with cognitive decline in older adults. However, there is need for more prospective investigations that focus on specific domains of cognitive function. The present study analysed cross-sectional and prospective associations between self-reported sleep and cognitive function in the Midlife in the United States (MIDUS) study. Weekday and weekend sleep duration and habitual sleep quality were obtained via questionnaire data. Brief Test of Adult Cognition by Telephone was conducted to assess overall cognitive function, as well as episodic memory and executive function. We found significant trend for both long weekday and weekend sleep (>8 hr) and lower episodic memory scores in the overall sample. Sex-specific cross-sectional analysis demonstrated men with longer weekend sleep duration have lower overall cognitive function scores, and a negative association between weekend sleep and episodic memory scores. Women demonstrated a positive association between weekend sleep duration and executive function scores. There was no prospective significance for overall or sex-specific analysis. Our present results suggest that sleep duration may contribute to cognitive function, and future studies should include objective sleep measurements and focus on the potential cognitive benefits of improving sleep to further elucidate this association.

11.
Diabetes Care ; 2021 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34732526

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the relationship between body fat distribution and incident lower-extremity arterial disease (LEAD). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We included 155,925 postmenopausal women with anthropometric measures from the Women's Health Initiative who had no known LEAD at recruitment. A subset of 10,894 participants had body composition data quantified by DXA. Incident cases of symptomatic LEAD were ascertained and adjudicated through medical record review. RESULTS: We identified 1,152 incident cases of LEAD during a median 18.8 years follow-up. After multivariable adjustment and mutual adjustment, waist and hip circumferences were positively and inversely associated with risk of LEAD, respectively (both P-trend < 0.0001). In a subset (n = 22,561) where various cardiometabolic biomarkers were quantified, a similar positive association of waist circumference with risk of LEAD was eliminated after adjustment for diabetes and HOMA of insulin resistance (P-trend = 0.89), whereas hip circumference remained inversely associated with the risk after adjustment for major cardiometabolic traits (P-trend = 0.0031). In the DXA subset, higher trunk fat (P-trend = 0.0081) and higher leg fat (P-trend < 0.0001) were associated with higher and lower risk of LEAD, respectively. Further adjustment for diabetes, dyslipidemia, and blood pressure diminished the association for trunk fat (P-trend = 0.49), yet the inverse association for leg fat persisted (P-trend = 0.0082). CONCLUSIONS: Among U.S. postmenopausal women, a positive association of upper-body fat with risk of LEAD appeared to be attributable to traditional risk factors, especially insulin resistance. Lower-body fat was inversely associated with risk of LEAD beyond known risk factors.

12.
Front Oncol ; 11: 729151, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34733780

RESUMO

Background: Solid pseudopapillary neoplasm (SPN) of the pancreas shows an indolent clinical behavior in cases undergoing surgical resection. The efficacy of combination therapy in the metastatic extrapancreatic SPN treatment remains largely unknown and a clinical challenge. Case Presentation: We report a case of a metastatic pancreatic SPN in a 45-year-old woman who presented with an aggressive peritoneal dissemination and hepatic metastases and still showed an indolent clinical course with combination therapy with repeated surgery and targeted therapy. Although the follow-up effect remains to be seen, this is the first report of practical experience of the targeted agents sunitinib and everolimus in metastatic SPN tumors based on the mutation status of PTEN (c.379G>A; p.G127R) and CTNNB1 (c.98C>G; p.S33C). To our knowledge, the PTEN variant identified in this case has not been previously reported in SPN. Conclusion: Evidence on variant genetics indicates that future molecular studies may not only help to explain the mechanism of SPN occurrence and development but are also more likely to direct to future precision treatments.

13.
J Inflamm Res ; 14: 5201-5213, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34675598

RESUMO

Backgroud: The potential for dietary inflammation has been shown to be associated with a variety of chronic diseases. The relationship between the potential for dietary inflammation and depression in the elderly is unclear. Objective: This study aimed to exam the relationship between different nutrients and the risk of depression symptoms in the elderly. Methods: In total, 1865 elderly in northern China were investigated at baseline from 2018 to 2019 and followed up in 2020. We measured the baseline intake of 22 nutrients and used Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator(LASSO) regression analysis and Bayesian Kernel Machine Regression (BKMR) to explore the association between exposure to a variety of nutrients with different inflammatory potentials and the risk of depressive symptoms. Results: A total of 447 individuals (24.0%) were diagnosed with depressive symptoms. Through the lasso regression model, it was found that 11 nutrients are significantly related to the risk of depressive symptoms, of which 6 nutrients are pro-inflammatory nutrients (inflammation effect score>0), and 5 are anti-inflammatory nutrients (inflammation effect score<0). We incorporated the inflammatory effect scores of 11 nutrients into the BKMR model at the same time, and found that the overall inflammatory effect of 11 nutrients increased with the increase of total inflammatory scores, suggesting that the overall effect was pro-inflammatory. BKMR subgroup analysis shows that whether in the pro-inflammatory nutrient group or the anti-inflammatory nutrient group, multiple nutrients have a significant combined effect on depressive symptoms. By comparing the overall and group effects, we found that the inflammatory effects of the pro-inflammatory diet and the anti-inflammatory diet in the study's diet are offset by each other (P<0.005). Conclusion: We determined the combined effect of multiple nutrients of different inflammatory potential classifications on depressive symptoms in the elderly.

14.
Neurology ; 97(20): e1986-e1993, 2021 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34706971

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The mortality from Parkinson disease (PD) and its long-term trends in the United States in recent decades remains unknown. This study aimed to describe the trends in PD mortality in the United States from 1999 to 2019. METHODS: We used data from the National Vital Statistics System, a nationwide, population-based death registry, to determine national trends in PD mortality, overall and by age, sex, race/ethnicity, urban-rural classification, and geographic location. Analyses focused on the data from 479,059 deaths due to PD from 1999 to 2019. Joinpoint regression was performed to examine temporal trends in age-adjusted death rates. RESULTS: The age-adjusted mortality from PD increased from 5.4 (95% confidence interval [CI] 5.3-5.5) per 100,000 population in 1999 to 8.8 (95% CI, 8.7-8.9) per 100,000 population in 2019, with an average annual percent change of 2.4% (95% CI, 1.8%-3.0%). From 1999 to 2019, PD mortality increased significantly across all age groups, both sexes, various racial/ethnic groups, and different urban-rural classifications. The US states and District of Columbia with reported death rates all experienced an increase in PD mortality. Significant differences by sex and race/ethnicity were noted. Age-adjusted PD mortality rates were twice as high in men as in women and were greater in White individuals than those from other racial/ethnic groups. DISCUSSION: From 1999 to 2019, the mortality from PD in the United States has increased significantly. The increase was regardless of age, sex, race/ethnicity, urban-rural classification, and geographic location. A comprehensive evaluation of long-term trends in PD mortality is important for health care priority setting.

15.
J Diabetes ; 2021 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34617682

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We aimed to report pregnancy outcomes of women with type 1 diabetes (T1D) in China, on which data were sparse. METHODS: This is a nationwide retrospective study conducted in 11 general medical centers in 8 cities across China. We investigated the clinical data of all women who attended these centers with a singleton pregnancy and whose pregnancy ended between 1 January 2004 and 31 December 2014. Pregnancies of women with pregestational T1D were ascertained and compared with those of women without T1D. RESULTS: From over 300 000 pregnancies over the 11-year study period, we identified 265 singleton pregnancies of women with T1D. One maternal death was documented among 265 (0.37%) women with T1D and 83 among 318 486 (0.03%) women without T1D. Women with T1D suffered from higher rates of pregnancy loss (13.21% vs 2.92%, crude risk ratio [cRR] 5.08 [95% CI, 3.56-7.26]) and preeclampsia (17.74% vs 4.20%, cRR 4.94 [95% CI, 3.60-6.77]) compared with those without T1D. Infants of these women with T1D had elevated rates of neonatal death (5.65% vs 0.16%, cRR 37.36 [95% CI, 21.21-65.82]) and congenital malformation(s) (8.26% vs 3.53%, cRR 2.46 [95% CI, 1.54-3.93]) compared with those of women without T1D. No significant improvement in pregnancy outcomes in women with T1D was observed over the period 2004 to 2014. CONCLUSIONS: Pregnancy outcomes were persistently poor in women with T1D during 2004 to 2014 in China. Pregnancy care needs to be improved to reduce adverse pregnancy outcomes among Chinese women with T1D.

16.
Food Funct ; 12(21): 10764-10772, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34609398

RESUMO

Low-carbohydrate diets (LCD) have been considered a popular dietary strategy for weight loss. However, the association of the low-carbohydrate dietary pattern with postpartum weight retention (PPWR) in women remains unknown. The present study involved 426 women from a prospective mother-infant cohort study. Overall, animal or plant LCD scores, which represent adherence to different low-carbohydrate dietary patterns, were calculated using diet intake information assessed by three consecutive 24 h dietary surveys. PPWR was assessed by the difference of weight at 1 year postpartum minus the pre-pregnancy weight. After adjusting for potential confounding variables, women in higher quartiles of total and animal-based LCD scores had a significantly lower body weight and weight retention at 1 year postpartum (P < 0.05). The multivariable-adjusted ORs of substantial PPWR (≥5 kg), comparing the highest with the lowest quartile, were 0.47 (95% confidence interval 0.23-0.96) for the total LCD score (P = 0.021 for trend) and 0.38 (95% confidence interval 0.19-0.77) for the animal-based LCD score (P = 0.019 for trend), while this association was significantly attenuated by rice, glycemic load, fish, poultry, animal fat and animal protein (P for trend <0.05). A high score for plant-based LCD was not significantly associated with the risk of PPWR (P > 0.05). The findings suggested that a low-carbohydrate dietary pattern, particularly with high protein and fat intake from animal-source foods, is associated with a decreased risk of weight retention at 1 year postpartum. This association was mainly due to low intake of glycemic load and high intake of fish and poultry.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34695003

RESUMO

One simple strategy to deal with ambiguity in partial label learning (PLL) is to regard all candidate labels equally as the ground-truth label, and then solve the PLL problem using existing multiclass classification algorithms. However, due to the noisy false-positive labels in the candidate set, these approaches are readily mislead and do not generalize well in testing. Consequently, the method of identifying the ground-truth label straight from the candidate label set has grown popular and effective. When the labeling information in PLL is ambiguous, we ought to take advantage of the data's underlying structure, such as label and feature interdependencies, to conduct disambiguation. Furthermore, while metric learning is an excellent method for supervised learning classification that takes feature and label interdependencies into account, it cannot be used to solve the weekly supervised learning PLL problem directly due to the ambiguity of labeling information in the candidate label set. In this article, we propose an effective PLL paradigm called discriminative metric learning for partial label learning (DML-PLL), which aims to learn a Mahanalobis distance metric discriminatively while identifying the ground-truth label iteratively for PLL. We also design an efficient algorithm to alternatively optimize the metric parameter and the latent ground-truth label in an iterative way. Besides, we prove the convergence of the designed algorithms by two proposed lemmas. We additionally study the computational complexity of the proposed DML-PLL in terms of training and testing time for each iteration. Extensive experiments on both controlled UCI datasets and real-world PLL datasets from diverse domains demonstrate that the proposed DML-PLL regularly outperforms the compared approaches in terms of prediction accuracy.

18.
Br J Nutr ; : 1-8, 2021 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34658314

RESUMO

We assessed the association between the dietary inflammatory index (DII) and the development of metabolic syndrome in the elderly over 55 years in Northern China. The data of 1936 Chinese adults aged 55 years and over from a community-based neurological disease cohort study from 2018 to 2019 were analysed. Multiple logistic regression and restricted cubic splines regression were used for analysis, and social demographics, lifestyle and health-related factors were adjusted. In the fully adjusted model, the risk of metabolic syndrome increased by 1·28-fold in people with a pro-inflammatory diet. When we divide the metabolic syndrome by its components, high pro-inflammatory diet and hyperglycaemia, TAG, hypertension and abdominal obesity, we failed to observe a significant association between a high pro-inflammatory diet and HDL-cholesterol. However, these associations are moving in the expected direction. At the same time, the results of BMI subgroup analysis showed that with the increase of DII, obese people are at increased risk of metabolic syndrome, hyperglycaemia, high TAG, hypertension and abdominal obesity. Also in overweight people, the increase in DII is accompanied by an increased risk of hyperglycaemia and abdominal obesity. Higher inflammatory diet is related to metabolic syndrome, hypertension, hyperglycaemia, abdominal obesity and hypertriglyceridaemia. Further research is needed to confirm the role of inflammation and diet in the development of metabolic syndrome; however, it is desirable to reduce the dietary components associated with inflammation.

19.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(9): e2124669, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34499132

RESUMO

Importance: Women with gestational diabetes are at high risk for type 2 diabetes. Identifying modifiable dietary and lifestyle factors, such as alcohol intake, that can be useful in delaying or preventing progression to overt type 2 diabetes is of particular interest. Objective: To evaluate the association between alcohol consumption and risk for type 2 diabetes among women with a history of gestational diabetes. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study included women from the Nurses' Health Study II cohort who reported a history of gestational diabetes and were followed up from January 1, 1991, to December 31, 2017, as part of the Diabetes & Women's Health Study. Data analysis was performed from 2020 to 2021. Exposures: Dietary intakes, including alcohol, were assessed every 4 years using validated food-frequency questionnaires. Main Outcomes and Measures: Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs for the association of alcohol intake with risk for incident type 2 diabetes after a pregnancy during which gestational diabetes was diagnosed. Results: A total of 4740 women were included in the study; the mean (SD) age at baseline was 38.2 (5.0) years, and the median follow-up time was 24 years (interquartile range, 18-28 years), resulting in 78 328 person-years of follow-up. During this period, 897 incident cases of type 2 diabetes were reported. After adjustment for major dietary and lifestyle factors, compared with women who did not consume any alcohol, only alcohol consumption of 5.0 to 14.9 g/d was associated with decreased risk for incident type 2 diabetes (HR, 0.45; 95% CI, 0.33-0.61); there was no association of alcohol consumption of 0.1 to 4.9 g/d or 15.0 g/d or more (maximum, 74.2 g/d) with risk of type 2 diabetes (0.1 to 4.9 g/d: HR, 0.87 [95% CI, 0.73-1.03]; ≥15.0 g/d: HR, 0.62 [95% CI, 0.37-1.04]). After additional adjustment for body mass index, women who reported alcohol consumption of 5.0 to 14.9 g/d had a 41% lower risk for developing incident type 2 diabetes (HR, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.42-0.81); consumption of 0.1 to 4.9 g/d and consumption of 15.0 g/d or more were still not associated with risk of type 2 diabetes, but the results were attenuated (0.1-4.9 g/d: HR, 1.02 [95% CI, 0.85-1.23]; ≥15.0 g/d: HR, 0.75 [95% CI, 0.42-1.33]). Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study, among women with a history of gestational diabetes, usual alcohol intake of 5.0 to 14.9 g/d (approximately 0.5-1 drinks per day) was associated with a lower risk for type 2 diabetes. These findings should be interpreted in the context of other known risks and benefits of alcohol consumption when considering clinical recommendations for individual women with a history of gestational diabetes.

20.
Can J Physiol Pharmacol ; 99(10): 1057-1068, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34492212

RESUMO

G (1-5)-NH2, G (1-7)-NH2, and G (1-9) are the active fragments of ghrelin. The aim of this study was to investigate the antinociceptive effects, their ability to cross the blood-brain barrier, and the receptor mechanism(s) of these fragments using the tail withdrawal test in male Kunming mice. The antinociceptive effects of these fragments (2, 6, 20, and 60 nmol/mouse) were tested at 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 min after intravenous (i.v.) injection. These fragments induced dose- and time-related antinociceptive effects relative to saline. Using the near infrared fluorescence imaging experiments, our results showed that these fragments could cross the brain-blood barrier and enter the brain. The antinociceptive effects of these fragments were completely antagonized by naloxone (intracerebroventricular, i.c.v.); however, naloxone methiodide (intraperitoneal, i.p.), which is the peripheral restricted opioid receptor antagonist, did not antagonize these antinociceptive effects. Furthermore, the GHS-R1α antagonist [D-Lys3]-GHRP-6 (i.c.v.) completely antagonized these antinociceptive effects, too. These results suggested that these fragments induced antinociceptive effects through central opioid receptors and GHS-R1α. In conclusion, our studies indicated that these active fragments of ghrelin could cross the brain-blood barrier and enter the brain and induce antinociceptive effects through central opioid receptors and GHS-R1α after intravenous injection.

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