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1.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4957, 2019 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31673082

RESUMO

In many species, the offspring of related parents suffer reduced reproductive success, a phenomenon known as inbreeding depression. In humans, the importance of this effect has remained unclear, partly because reproduction between close relatives is both rare and frequently associated with confounding social factors. Here, using genomic inbreeding coefficients (FROH) for >1.4 million individuals, we show that FROH is significantly associated (p < 0.0005) with apparently deleterious changes in 32 out of 100 traits analysed. These changes are associated with runs of homozygosity (ROH), but not with common variant homozygosity, suggesting that genetic variants associated with inbreeding depression are predominantly rare. The effect on fertility is striking: FROH equivalent to the offspring of first cousins is associated with a 55% decrease [95% CI 44-66%] in the odds of having children. Finally, the effects of FROH are confirmed within full-sibling pairs, where the variation in FROH is independent of all environmental confounding.

2.
BMC Genomics ; 20(1): 366, 2019 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31088362

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There has been a steady increase in the number of studies aiming to identify DNA methylation differences associated with complex phenotypes. Many of the challenges of epigenetic epidemiology regarding study design and interpretation have been discussed in detail, however there are analytical concerns that are outstanding and require further exploration. In this study we seek to address three analytical issues. First, we quantify the multiple testing burden and propose a standard statistical significance threshold for identifying DNA methylation sites that are associated with an outcome. Second, we establish whether linear regression, the chosen statistical tool for the majority of studies, is appropriate and whether it is biased by the underlying distribution of DNA methylation data. Finally, we assess the sample size required for adequately powered DNA methylation association studies. RESULTS: We quantified DNA methylation in the Understanding Society cohort (n = 1175), a large population based study, using the Illumina EPIC array to assess the statistical properties of DNA methylation association analyses. By simulating null DNA methylation studies, we generated the distribution of p-values expected by chance and calculated the 5% family-wise error for EPIC array studies to be 9 × 10- 8. Next, we tested whether the assumptions of linear regression are violated by DNA methylation data and found that the majority of sites do not satisfy the assumption of normal residuals. Nevertheless, we found no evidence that this bias influences analyses by increasing the likelihood of affected sites to be false positives. Finally, we performed power calculations for EPIC based DNA methylation studies, demonstrating that existing studies with data on ~ 1000 samples are adequately powered to detect small differences at the majority of sites. CONCLUSION: We propose that a significance threshold of P < 9 × 10- 8 adequately controls the false positive rate for EPIC array DNA methylation studies. Moreover, our results indicate that linear regression is a valid statistical methodology for DNA methylation studies, despite the fact that the data do not always satisfy the assumptions of this test. These findings have implications for epidemiological-based studies of DNA methylation and provide a framework for the interpretation of findings from current and future studies.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Epigenômica/métodos , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos/métodos , Ilhas de CpG , Epigênese Genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Modelos Lineares
3.
Nat Genet ; 51(2): 245-257, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30643258

RESUMO

Humans vary substantially in their willingness to take risks. In a combined sample of over 1 million individuals, we conducted genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of general risk tolerance, adventurousness, and risky behaviors in the driving, drinking, smoking, and sexual domains. Across all GWAS, we identified hundreds of associated loci, including 99 loci associated with general risk tolerance. We report evidence of substantial shared genetic influences across risk tolerance and the risky behaviors: 46 of the 99 general risk tolerance loci contain a lead SNP for at least one of our other GWAS, and general risk tolerance is genetically correlated ([Formula: see text] ~ 0.25 to 0.50) with a range of risky behaviors. Bioinformatics analyses imply that genes near SNPs associated with general risk tolerance are highly expressed in brain tissues and point to a role for glutamatergic and GABAergic neurotransmission. We found no evidence of enrichment for genes previously hypothesized to relate to risk tolerance.


Assuntos
Comportamento/fisiologia , Loci Gênicos/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Genética Comportamental/métodos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética
4.
Nat Genet ; 51(3): 445-451, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30643256

RESUMO

We introduce two novel methods for multivariate genome-wide-association meta-analysis (GWAMA) of related traits that correct for sample overlap. A broad range of simulation scenarios supports the added value of our multivariate methods relative to univariate GWAMA. We applied the novel methods to life satisfaction, positive affect, neuroticism, and depressive symptoms, collectively referred to as the well-being spectrum (Nobs = 2,370,390), and found 304 significant independent signals. Our multivariate approaches resulted in a 26% increase in the number of independent signals relative to the four univariate GWAMAs and in an ~57% increase in the predictive power of polygenic risk scores. Supporting transcriptome- and methylome-wide analyses (TWAS and MWAS, respectively) uncovered an additional 17 and 75 independent loci, respectively. Bioinformatic analyses, based on gene expression in brain tissues and cells, showed that genes differentially expressed in the subiculum and GABAergic interneurons are enriched in their effect on the well-being spectrum.


Assuntos
Genoma Humano/genética , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Expressão Gênica/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Interneurônios/fisiologia , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Análise Multivariada , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Transcriptoma/genética
5.
Stat Med ; 38(9): 1529-1542, 2019 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30565280

RESUMO

The "some invalid, some valid instrumental variable estimator" (sisVIVE) is a lasso-based method for instrumental variables (IVs) regression of outcome on an exposure. In principle, sisVIVE is robust to some of the IVs in the analysis being invalid, in the sense of being related to the outcome variable through pathways not mediated by the exposure. In this paper, we consider the application of sisVIVE to a Mendelian randomization study in which multiple genetic variants are used as IVs to estimate the causal effect of body mass index on personal income in the presence of unobserved confounding. In addition to analyzing data from the large-scale longitudinal household survey Understanding Society, we conduct a simulation study to (a) assess the performance of sisVIVE in relation to that of competing robust methods like "MR-Egger" and "MR-Median" and (b) identify scenarios under which its absolute performance is poor. We find that sisVIVE outperforms alternative robust methods, in terms of mean-square error, across a wide range of scenarios, but that its performance is poor in absolute terms when the presence of indirect pleiotropy leads to failure of the "InSIDE" condition, which is not explicitly required for identification. We argue that this is because the consistency criterion for sisVIVE does not identify the true causal effect when InSIDE fails.

6.
Am J Hum Genet ; 103(5): 654-665, 2018 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30401456

RESUMO

Characterizing the complex relationship between genetic, epigenetic, and transcriptomic variation has the potential to increase understanding about the mechanisms underpinning health and disease phenotypes. We undertook a comprehensive analysis of common genetic variation on DNA methylation (DNAm) by using the Illumina EPIC array to profile samples from the UK Household Longitudinal study. We identified 12,689,548 significant DNA methylation quantitative trait loci (mQTL) associations (p < 6.52 × 10-14) occurring between 2,907,234 genetic variants and 93,268 DNAm sites, including a large number not identified by previous DNAm-profiling methods. We demonstrate the utility of these data for interpreting the functional consequences of common genetic variation associated with > 60 human traits by using summary-data-based Mendelian randomization (SMR) to identify 1,662 pleiotropic associations between 36 complex traits and 1,246 DNAm sites. We also use SMR to characterize the relationship between DNAm and gene expression and thereby identify 6,798 pleiotropic associations between 5,420 DNAm sites and the transcription of 1,702 genes. Our mQTL database and SMR results are available via a searchable online database as a resource to the research community.

7.
Genet Epidemiol ; 2018 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30478852

RESUMO

Observational studies find an association between increased body mass index (BMI) and short self-reported sleep duration in adults. However, the underlying biological mechanisms that underpin these associations are unclear. Recent findings from the UK Biobank suggest a weak genetic correlation between BMI and self-reported sleep duration. However, the potential shared genetic aetiology between these traits has not been examined using a comprehensive approach. To investigate this, we created a polygenic risk score (PRS) of BMI and examined its association with self-reported sleep duration in a combination of individual participant data and summary-level data, with a total sample size of 142,209 individuals. Although we observed a nonsignificant genetic correlation between BMI and sleep duration, using LD score regression (rg = -0.067 [SE = 0.039], P = 0.092) we found that a PRS of BMI is associated with a decrease in sleep duration (unstandardized coefficient = -1.75 min [SE = 0.67], P = 6.13 × 10-7 ), but explained only 0.02% of the variance in sleep duration. Our findings suggest that BMI and self-reported sleep duration possess a small amount of shared genetic aetiology and other mechanisms must underpin these associations.

8.
Am J Epidemiol ; 187(11): 2346-2354, 2018 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30060108

RESUMO

Accelerated DNA methylation age is linked to all-cause mortality and environmental factors, but studies of associations with socioeconomic position are limited. Researchers generally use small selected samples, and it is unclear how findings obtained with 2 commonly used methods for calculating methylation age (the Horvath method and the Hannum method) translate to general population samples including younger and older adults. Among 1,099 United Kingdom adults aged 28-98 years in 2011-2012, we assessed the relationship of Horvath and Hannum DNA methylation age acceleration with a range of social position measures: current income and employment, education, income and unemployment across a 12-year period, and childhood social class. Accounting for confounders, participants who had been less advantaged in childhood were epigenetically "older" as adults: In comparison with participants who had professional/managerial parents, Hannum age was 1.07 years higher (95% confidence interval: 0.20, 1.94) for participants with parents in semiskilled/unskilled occupations and 1.85 years higher (95% confidence interval: 0.67, 3.02) for those without a working parent at age 14 years. No other robust associations were seen. Results accord with research implicating early life circumstances as critical for DNA methylation age in adulthood. Since methylation age acceleration as measured by the Horvath and Hannum estimators appears strongly linked to chronological age, researchers examining associations with the social environment must take steps to avoid age-related confounding.

9.
Nat Genet ; 50(8): 1112-1121, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30038396

RESUMO

Here we conducted a large-scale genetic association analysis of educational attainment in a sample of approximately 1.1 million individuals and identify 1,271 independent genome-wide-significant SNPs. For the SNPs taken together, we found evidence of heterogeneous effects across environments. The SNPs implicate genes involved in brain-development processes and neuron-to-neuron communication. In a separate analysis of the X chromosome, we identify 10 independent genome-wide-significant SNPs and estimate a SNP heritability of around 0.3% in both men and women, consistent with partial dosage compensation. A joint (multi-phenotype) analysis of educational attainment and three related cognitive phenotypes generates polygenic scores that explain 11-13% of the variance in educational attainment and 7-10% of the variance in cognitive performance. This prediction accuracy substantially increases the utility of polygenic scores as tools in research.

10.
Soc Sci Med ; 195: 12-16, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29102742

RESUMO

More education is associated with a lower body mass index (BMI) and likelihood of being overweight. However, since a large proportion of the variation in body mass is due to genetic makeup, it has been hypothesized that education may moderate the genetic risk. We estimate main associations between (i) education, (ii) genetic risk, and (iii) interactions between education and genetic risk on BMI and the probability of being overweight in the UK and Finland. The estimates show that education is negatively associated with BMI and overweightness, and genetic risk is positively associated. However, the interactions between education and genetic risk are small and statistically insignificant.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Escolaridade , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Sobrepeso/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Finlândia , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reino Unido
11.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 13230, 2017 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29038561

RESUMO

The causal nature of the association between hypovitaminosis D and poor cognitive function in mid- to later-life is uncertain. Using a Mendelian randomisation(MR) approach, we examined the causal relationship between 25(OH)D and cognitive function. Data came from 172,349 participants from 17 cohorts. DHCR7(rs12785878), CYP2R1 rs12794714) and their combined synthesis score were chosen to proxy 25(OH)D. Cognitive tests were standardised into global and memory scores. Analyses were stratified by 25(OH)D tertiles, sex and age. Random effects meta-analyses assessed associations between 25(OH)D and cognitive function. Associations of serum 25(OH)D with global and memory-related cognitive function were non-linear (lower cognitive scores for both low and high 25(OH)D, p curvature ≤ 0.006), with much of the curvature attributed to a single study. DHCR7, CYP2R1, and the synthesis score were associated with small reductions in 25(OH)D per vitamin D-decreasing allele. However, coefficients for associations with global or memory-related cognitive function were non-significant and in opposing directions for DHCR7 and CYP2R1, with no overall association observed for the synthesis score. Coefficients for the synthesis score and global and memory cognition were similar when stratified by 25(OH)D tertiles, sex and age. We found no evidence for serum 25(OH)D concentration as a causal factor for cognitive performance in mid- to later life.

12.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 11008, 2017 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28887542

RESUMO

Serum biomarker levels are associated with the risk of complex diseases. Here, we aimed to gain insights into the genetic architecture of biomarker traits which can reflect health status. We performed genome-wide association analyses for twenty serum biomarkers involved in organ function and reproductive health. 9,961 individuals from the UK Household Longitudinal Study were genotyped using the Illumina HumanCoreExome array and variants imputed to the 1000 Genomes Project and UK10K haplotypes. We establish a polygenic heritability for all biomarkers, confirm associations of fifty-four established loci, and identify five novel, replicating associations at genome-wide significance. A low-frequency variant, rs28929474, (beta = 0.04, P = 2 × 10-10) was associated with levels of alanine transaminase, an indicator of liver damage. The variant is located in the gene encoding serine protease inhibitor, low levels of which are associated with alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency which leads to liver disease. We identified novel associations (rs78900934, beta = 0.05, P = 6 × 10-12; rs2911280, beta = 0.09, P = 6 × 10-10) for dihydroepiandrosterone sulphate, a precursor to major sex-hormones, and for glycated haemoglobin (rs12819124, beta = -0.03, P = 4 × 10-9; rs761772, beta = 0.05, P = 5 × 10-9). rs12819124 is nominally associated with risk of type 2 diabetes. Our study offers insights into the genetic architecture of well-known and less well-studied biomarkers.

13.
PLoS One ; 10(10): e0139780, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26430771

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To report the methodology and findings of a large scale investigation of burden and distribution of refractive error, from a contemporary and ethnically diverse study of health and disease in adults, in the UK. METHODS: U K Biobank, a unique contemporary resource for the study of health and disease, recruited more than half a million people aged 40-69 years. A subsample of 107,452 subjects undertook an enhanced ophthalmic examination which provided autorefraction data (a measure of refractive error). Refractive error status was categorised using the mean spherical equivalent refraction measure. Information on socio-demographic factors (age, gender, ethnicity, educational qualifications and accommodation tenure) was reported at the time of recruitment by questionnaire and face-to-face interview. RESULTS: Fifty four percent of participants aged 40-69 years had refractive error. Specifically 27% had myopia (4% high myopia), which was more common amongst younger people, those of higher socio-economic status, higher educational attainment, or of White or Chinese ethnicity. The frequency of hypermetropia increased with age (7% at 40-44 years increasing to 46% at 65-69 years), was higher in women and its severity was associated with ethnicity (moderate or high hypermetropia at least 30% less likely in non-White ethnic groups compared to White). CONCLUSIONS: Refractive error is a significant public health issue for the UK and this study provides contemporary data on adults for planning services, health economic modelling and monitoring of secular trends. Further investigation of risk factors is necessary to inform strategies for prevention. There is scope to do this through the planned longitudinal extension of the UK Biobank study.


Assuntos
Erros de Refração/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
14.
Stat Med ; 33(18): 3229-40, 2014 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24753021

RESUMO

In tumour xenograft experiments, treatment regimens are administered, and the tumour volume of each individual is measured repeatedly over time. Survival data are recorded because of the death of some individuals during the observation period. Also, cure data are observed because of a portion of individuals who are completely cured in the experiments. When modelling these data, certain constraints have to be imposed on the parameters in the models to account for the intrinsic growth of the tumour in the absence of treatment. Also, the likely inherent association of longitudinal and survival-cure data has to be taken into account in order to obtain unbiased estimators of parameters. In this paper, we propose such models for the joint modelling of longitudinal and survival-cure data arising in xenograft experiments. Estimators of parameters in the joint models are obtained using a Markov chain Monte Carlo approach. Real data analysis of a xenograft experiment is carried out, and simulation studies are also conducted, showing that the proposed joint modelling approach outperforms the separate modelling methods in the sense of mean squared errors.


Assuntos
Modelos Estatísticos , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto/estatística & dados numéricos , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Bioestatística , Simulação por Computador , Humanos , Funções Verossimilhança , Estudos Longitudinais , Cadeias de Markov , Camundongos , Método de Monte Carlo , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais
15.
Biostatistics ; 15(2): 296-310, 2014 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24178187

RESUMO

Chromatin ImmunoPrecipitation-sequencing (ChIP-seq) experiments have now become routine in biology for the detection of protein-binding sites. In this paper, we present a Markov random field model for the joint analysis of multiple ChIP-seq experiments. The proposed model naturally accounts for spatial dependencies in the data, by assuming first-order Markov dependence and, for the large proportion of zero counts, by using zero-inflated mixture distributions. In contrast to all other available implementations, the model allows for the joint modeling of multiple experiments, by incorporating key aspects of the experimental design. In particular, the model uses the information about replicates and about the different antibodies used in the experiments. An extensive simulation study shows a lower false non-discovery rate for the proposed method, compared with existing methods, at the same false discovery rate. Finally, we present an analysis on real data for the detection of histone modifications of two chromatin modifiers from eight ChIP-seq experiments, including technical replicates with different IP efficiencies.


Assuntos
Imunoprecipitação da Cromatina/normas , Cadeias de Markov , Modelos Estatísticos , Análise de Sequência de DNA/normas , Ligação Proteica , Distribuições Estatísticas
16.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 14: 169, 2013 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23721376

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: ImmunoPrecipitation (IP) efficiencies may vary largely between different antibodies and between repeated experiments with the same antibody. These differences have a large impact on the quality of ChIP-seq data: a more efficient experiment will necessarily lead to a higher signal to background ratio, and therefore to an apparent larger number of enriched regions, compared to a less efficient experiment. In this paper, we show how IP efficiencies can be explicitly accounted for in the joint statistical modelling of ChIP-seq data. RESULTS: We fit a latent mixture model to eight experiments on two proteins, from two laboratories where different antibodies are used for the two proteins. We use the model parameters to estimate the efficiencies of individual experiments, and find that these are clearly different for the different laboratories, and amongst technical replicates from the same lab. When we account for ChIP efficiency, we find more regions bound in the more efficient experiments than in the less efficient ones, at the same false discovery rate. A priori knowledge of the same number of binding sites across experiments can also be included in the model for a more robust detection of differentially bound regions among two different proteins. CONCLUSIONS: We propose a statistical model for the detection of enriched and differentially bound regions from multiple ChIP-seq data sets. The framework that we present accounts explicitly for IP efficiencies in ChIP-seq data, and allows to model jointly, rather than individually, replicates and experiments from different proteins, leading to more robust biological conclusions.


Assuntos
Imunoprecipitação da Cromatina/métodos , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/análise , Modelos Estatísticos , Sítios de Ligação , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Fatores de Transcrição/análise , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
17.
J Hypertens ; 30(9): 1725-33, 2012 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22871888

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess the impact of the blood pressure (BP) profile on cardiovascular risk in the Medical Research Council (UK) elderly trial; investigate whether the effects of hypertensive drugs in reducing event rates are solely a product of systolic pressure reduction. METHODS: Using longitudinal BP data from 4396 hypertensive patients, the general trend over time was estimated using a first-stage multilevel model. We then investigated how BP acted alongside other BP-related covariates in a second-stage 'time-to-event' statistical model, assessing risk for stroke events and coronary heart disease (CHD). Differences in outcome prediction between diuretic, ß-blocker and placebo treatment arms were investigated. RESULTS: The ß-blocker arm experienced comparatively poor control of current SBP, episodic peaks and variability in BP levels. After adjusting for the mean level, variability in SBP over time was significant: risk ratio was 1.15 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.01-1.31] across all patients for stroke events. The risk ratio for current SBP was 1.36 (95% CI: 1.16-1.58). Current DBP and variability in DBP also predicted stroke independently: risk ratios was 1.43 and 1.18, respectively. The risk factors exhibited weaker associations with CHD risk; only the highest measured value and variability in SBP showed a statistically significant association: risk ratios were 1.26 and 1.16, respectively. CONCLUSION: Individual risk characterization could be augmented with additional prognostic information, besides current SBP, including current diastolic pressure, temporal variability over and above general trends and historical measurements.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Pressão Sanguínea , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Idoso , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
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