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1.
BMJ Open Respir Res ; 8(1)2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34728475

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: WHO defines hypoxaemia, a low peripheral arterial oxyhaemoglobin saturation (SpO2), as <90%. Although hypoxaemia is an important risk factor for mortality of children with respiratory infections, the optimal SpO2 threshold for defining hypoxaemia is uncertain in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs). We derived a SpO2 threshold for hypoxaemia from well children in Bangladesh residing at low altitude. METHODS: We prospectively enrolled well, children aged 3-35 months participating in a pneumococcal vaccine evaluation in Sylhet district, Bangladesh between June and August 2017. Trained health workers conducting community surveillance measured the SpO2 of children using a Masimo Rad-5 pulse oximeter with a wrap sensor. We used standard summary statistics to evaluate the SpO2 distribution, including whether the distribution differed by age or sex. We considered the 2.5th, 5th and 10th percentiles of SpO2 as possible lower thresholds for hypoxaemia. RESULTS: Our primary analytical sample included 1470 children (mean age 18.6±9.5 months). Median SpO2 was 98% (IQR 96%-99%), and the 2.5th, 5th and 10th percentile SpO2 was 91%, 92% and 94%. No child had a SpO2 <90%. Children 3-11 months had a lower median SpO2 (97%) than 12-23 months (98%) and 24-35 months (98%) (p=0.039). The SpO2 distribution did not differ by sex (p=0.959). CONCLUSION: A SpO2 threshold for hypoxaemia derived from the 2.5th, 5th or 10th percentile of well children is higher than <90%. If a higher threshold than <90% is adopted into LMIC care algorithms then decision-making using SpO2 must also consider the child's clinical status to minimise misclassification of well children as hypoxaemic. Younger children in lower altitude LMICs may require a different threshold for hypoxaemia than older children. Evaluating the mortality risk of sick children using higher SpO2 thresholds for hypoxaemia is a key next step.

8.
Nutrients ; 13(11)2021 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34836049

RESUMO

Inflammation may adversely affect early human brain development. We aimed to assess the role of maternal nutrition and infections on cord blood inflammation. In a pregnancy cohort in Sylhet, Bangladesh, we enrolled 251 consecutive pregnancies resulting in a term livebirth from July 2016-March 2017. Stillbirths, preterm births, and cases of neonatal encephalopathy were excluded. We prospectively collected data on maternal diet (food frequency questionnaire) and morbidity, and analyzed umbilical cord blood for interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-8 and C-reactive protein. We determined associations between nutrition and infection exposures and cord cytokine elevation (≥75% vs. <75%) using logistic regression, adjusting for confounders. One-third of mothers were underweight (BMI < 18.5 kg/m2) at enrollment. Antenatal and intrapartum infections were observed among 4.8% and 15.9% of the sample, respectively. Low pregnancy intakes of B vitamins (B1, B2, B3, B6, B9 (folate)), fat-soluble vitamins (D, E), iron, zinc, and linoleic acid (lowest vs. middle tertile) were associated with higher risk of inflammation, particularly IL-8. There was a non-significant trend of increased risk of IL-8 and IL-6 elevation with history of ante-and intrapartum infections, respectively. In Bangladesh, improving micronutrient intake and preventing pregnancy infections are targets to reduce fetal systemic inflammation and associated adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes.

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